阿聯酋宗教

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阿拉伯聯合酋長國的宗教 (2005)[1]

  伊斯蘭教 (76%)
  基督宗教 (13%)
  其他 (11%)

伊斯蘭教阿拉伯聯合酋長國所有酋長國的官方宗教,穆斯林佔阿聯酋76%的人口,主要的教派為遜尼派。[2]其他宗教包括基督宗教佛教印度教猶太教錫克教,信徒主要是阿聯酋的外籍人士。[3]

伊斯蘭教[编辑]

阿聯酋遜尼派穆斯林比什葉派穆斯林多,伊斯瑪儀派(Ismaili Shias)和阿赫邁底亞穆斯林(Ahmadi Muslims)的人數較少。[2] 阿聯酋的司法制度源於大陸法系伊斯蘭教法。法院系統由民事法庭和伊斯蘭教法庭組成。據“人權觀察組織”報導,阿聯酋的刑事和民事法院將伊斯蘭教法納入其刑法典和家庭法中,被視為是歧視婦女的法律。[4]阿聯酋的伊斯蘭教法擁有相當的權力。如果犯了刑事罪行,如通姦,婚前性行為和飲酒,會受到鞭刑懲罰。[5][6][7][8][9]2007至2013年間,阿聯酋許多人被判處100下鞭刑。[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]阿布扎比,有案例公開接吻而被判處80下鞭刑。[18]在阿布扎比和阿吉曼有幾個穆斯林因購買酒精飲料而被判80下鞭刑。[19][20] 2006年,一名愛沙尼亞人因醉酒而被判40下鞭刑。[21]有案例因非法性行為被判處60鞭刑。[22][23][24] [25]根據阿聯酋的伊斯蘭法,婚前性行為會被判100下鞭刑。[26]在阿聯酋,石刑是一種法律上的懲罰。2006年,一名外籍人士因通姦罪被判死刑。[27]2009年至2013年間,有數人被判處石刑。[13][28][29]伊斯蘭教法規定了婚姻和子女監護等事項的家庭法。伊斯蘭教法的家庭法適用於穆斯林,有時也適用於非穆斯林。[30]非穆斯林僑民可以決定是否要伊斯蘭法對婚姻和子女監護權的裁決。[30] 伊斯蘭教法庭對家庭法案件擁有專屬管轄權,並對通姦,婚前性行為,搶劫和有關罪行等一些刑事案件具有管轄權。阿聯酋穆斯林公民叛教會被判處死刑。[31][32] 阿拉伯聯合酋長國在其“刑法典”中納入了伊斯蘭教法有組織的犯罪,而叛教是其中之一。[33]在公共場合接吻是觸犯法律的,並可能導致被驅逐出境[34]同性戀在阿聯酋是非法的,會被判死罪。[35][36] 阿布扎比“刑法典”第80條規定,雞姦罪最高可判處14年監禁,“迪拜刑法”第177條對自願雞姦者判處10年監禁。[37]齋戒月期間,在太陽下山前公開進食,飲酒或吸煙是非法的行為[38],但孕婦和兒童不再此限。此法律適用於穆斯林和非穆斯林,[38]不遵守可能會遭到逮捕。[39] 在公共空間跳舞在阿聯酋屬於非法行為。[40][41][42]

基督宗教[编辑]

阿聯酋的基督徒大都屬於新教羅馬天主教,該國至少有33個基督教堂。[3]公立學校沒有基督宗教的宗教教育。[43]許多阿拉伯聯合酋長國的基督徒都是亞裔[44]

猶太教[编辑]

印度教、錫克教和耆那教[编辑]

阿聯酋的印度教耆那教為在阿聯酋居住的印度裔(信德人)所信仰。為了感謝印度商人對迪拜貿易港口的早期發展所作的貢獻,阿拉伯聯合大公國前副總統兼總理拉希德·本·賽義德·阿勒馬克圖姆(Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum)批准在杜拜 Bur Dubai區建造一座印度教寺廟,此外,迪拜也有錫克教寺廟。

佛教[编辑]

無宗教[编辑]

參見[编辑]

参考注釋[编辑]

  1. ^ United Arab Emirates International Religious Freedom Report. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. [2011-01-12]. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 The World Factbook. CIA. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 United Arab Emirates. State.gov. [2010-11-24]. 
  4. ^ Human Rights Watch warns expat women about the UAE. 
  5. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2008. Jeffrey T. Bergner: 2203. 
  6. ^ Torture and flogging. Fanack. (原始内容存档于9 August 2014). UAE Sharia courts sentence to flogging persons found guilty of drug use, adultery, and prostitution in all emirates except Dubai. 
  7. ^ U.N. Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice: United Arab Emirates. Human Rights Voices. 
  8. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2007: 2092. 
  9. ^ UAE: Judicial corporal punishment by flogging. World Corporal Punishment Research. 
  10. ^ Pregnant maid to get 100 lashes after being found guilty of illegal affair. 7daysindubai.com. 9 October 2013. (原始内容存档于2014年10月6日). 
  11. ^ Teenager to be lashed for adultery. Gulf Daily News. 
  12. ^ Illicit lovers sentenced to 100 lashes each. Gulf News. 15 November 2010. 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Two women sentenced to death for adultery. Khaleej Times. 25 September 2013. 
  14. ^ Prison for couple who conceived outside of wedlock. KA, 19, Emirati, was sentenced to six months in prison. Her would-be husband, AM, Omani, was sentenced to 100 lashes and one year in prison. 
  15. ^ Adulterer to be lashed, jailed in Sharjah. Gulf News. 9 May 2010. 
  16. ^ UAE – Amnesty International 2007. In June, in the Emirate of Fujairah, a Shari'a (Islamic) court imposed a sentence of death by stoning on Shahin 'Abdul Rahman, a Bangladeshi national, after convicting him of adultery with Asma Bikham Bijam, a migrant domestic worker, who was sentenced to receive a flogging of 100 lashes and to be imprisoned for one year. 
  17. ^ DUBAI: Alleged victim of gang rape sentenced to one year in prison. At that point, she was facing a penalty for extramarital sex, which is 100 lashes and a minimum of three years in prison. 
  18. ^ Couple deny kissing on Abu Dhabi Corniche. A man jailed and sentenced to 80 lashes for drunkenly kissing his girlfriend on the Corniche. 
  19. ^ Man to get 80 lashes for drinking alcohol in Ajman. Gulf News. 19 February 2010. 
  20. ^ Man appeals 80 lashes for drinking alcohol in Abu Dhabi. The National. 9 August 2012. 
  21. ^ Al Jandaly, Bassma. Estonian soldier to be lashed. Gulf News. 16 April 2006. 
  22. ^ Girl to receive 60 lashes for illicit sex. Gulf News. 20 June 2007. 
  23. ^ Two sex workers are sentenced to lashes. Khaleej Times. 3 July 2006. 
  24. ^ Indian lover in UAE sentenced to 60 lashes. 
  25. ^ VI. Charges and Penalties against Domestic Workers. Human Rights Watch. 2014. 
  26. ^ Woman denies affair after hearing she faces stoning. Under the same law, premarital sex is punishable by 100 lashes. 
  27. ^ UAE: Death by stoning/ flogging. Amnesty International. 
  28. ^ Man faces stoning in UAE for incest. 
  29. ^ Woman denies affair after hearing she faces stoning. The National. 29 July 2009. 
  30. ^ 30.0 30.1 Britons 'liable to Sharia divorces' in UAE. BBC. 
  31. ^ Atheists face death in 13 countries, global discrimination: study. 
  32. ^ The International Briefing: Persecution of Atheists and Apostates. (原始内容存档于2015-04-28). 
  33. ^ Butti Sultan Butti Ali Al-Muhairi. The Islamisation of Laws in the UAE: The Case of the Penal Code. Arab Law Quarterly. 1996, 11 (4): 350–371. JSTOR 3381546. 
  34. ^ Public kissing can lead to deportation. The National. 
  35. ^ United Arab Emirates. Facts as drug trafficking, homosexual behaviour, and apostasy are liable to capital punishment. 
  36. ^ Man Accused of 'Gay Handshake' Stands Trial in Dubai. 
  37. ^ Federal criminal statute In UAE. Sodomylaws.Org. (原始内容存档于14 June 2006). 
  38. ^ 38.0 38.1 Sharia law and Westerners in Dubai: should non-Muslims in UAE be made to face Islamic justice?. 
  39. ^ Riazat Butt. Britons warned to respect Ramadan while holidaying in Dubai. The Guardian (London, UK). 31 July 2011. OCLC 60623878. 
  40. ^ Criminal Law of Dubai. lawyersuae.com. 
  41. ^ Dubai bans shisha tobacco smoking, dancing and holding hands. Al-Shorfa. 
  42. ^ No dancing in public: Dubai. Arab News. 
  43. ^ John Pike. United Arab Emirates-Religion. Globalsecurity.org. 2006-04-17 [2010-11-24]. 
  44. ^ Groeiende en vitale kerk in Arabische Golf - Nieuws - Reformatorisch Dagblad. Refdag.nl. [2010-11-24].