陸龜屬

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索
陆龟属
Testudo x4.jpg
从左顺时针:
Testudo graeca ibera
Testudo hermanni boettgeri
Testudo hermanni hermanni
Testudo marginata sarda.
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 脊索动物门 Chordata
纲: 爬行纲 Reptilia
目: 龟鳖目 Testudines
科: 陸龜科 Testudinidae
属: 陆龟属 Testudo
Linnaeus, 1758
模式种
Testudo graeca
Linnaeus, 1758
Testudo tortoises - distribution map.png
異名

Furculachelys Highfield, 1990[1]
Chersus Gmira, 1993

陆龟属Testudo)是陆龟科的一个属,其下生物分布于北非、西亚和欧洲等地中海附近地区。除去缘翘陆龟外,所有现存种都因栖息地丧失而处于易危甚至濒危状态。陆龟属的龟体型都不大。

分类[编辑]

陆龟属的分类一直存在巨大争议,其下的种也改变过很多次,大量命名甚至已经无效,因此通过学名进行文献检索时非常困难。[2]

基因序列研究对陆龟科分类学的帮助很有限。mtDNA研究显示,陆龟属的生物进化非常缓慢[3]。古生物地理学家发现一千多万年来,其线粒体12S rRNA基因的进化速度是每一百万年1.0-1.6% [4],而ntDNA进化速度在很多种(甚至是赫曼陆龟的亚种)之间差异极大[5]

现在该属可能包含以下几个种:

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Rhodin, Anders G.J.; Inverson, John B.; Roger, Bour; Fritz, Uwe; Georges, Arthur; Shaffer, H. Bradley; van Dijk, Peter Paul. Turtles of the world, 2017 update: Annotated checklist and atlas of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution, and conservation status(8th Ed.) (PDF). Chelonian Research Monographs. August 3, 2017, 7 [October 4, 2019]. ISBN 978-1-5323-5026-9. 
  2. ^ Highfield, A.C. & Martin, J. (1989): A revision of the Testudines of North Africa, Asia, and Europe. Genus: Testudo. Journal of Chelonian Herpetology 1(1): 1–12.
  3. ^ Mitochondrial DNA evolution at a turtle's pace: Evidence for low genetic variability and reduced microevolutionary rate in the Testudines. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 1992. PMID 1584014. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040735. 
  4. ^ Van Der Kuyl, Antoinette C.; Ph. Ballasina, Donato L.; Dekker, John T.; Maas, Jolanda; Willemsen, Ronald E.; Goudsmit, Jaap. Phylogenetic Relationships among the Species of the Genus Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Gene Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 2002, 22 (2): 174–183. PMID 11820839. doi:10.1006/mpev.2001.1052. 
  5. ^ Fritz, Uwe; Auer, Markus; Bertolero, Albert; Cheylan, Marc; Fattizzo, Tiziano; Hundsdorfer, Anna K.; Martin Sampayo, Marcos; Pretus, Joan L.; Široky, Pavel; Wink, Michael. A rangewide phylogeography of Hermann's tortoise, Testudo hermanni (Reptilia: Testudines: Testudinidae): Implications for taxonomy. Zoologica Scripta. 2006, 35 (5): 531–543. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00242.x. 
  6. ^ Vlachos, Evangelos; Tsoukala, Evangelia. The diverse fossil chelonians from Milia (Late Pliocene, Grevena, Greece) with a new species of Testudo Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines: Testudinidae). Papers in Palaeontology. 2016, 2: 71–86. doi:10.1002/spp2.1031.