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隱變量理論

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隱變量理論(hidden variable theory)又稱隱變數理論,是由物理學家質疑量子力學完備性而提出的替代理論。歷史上隨著量子力學的發展,而提出了海森堡不確定原理等限制,一別於古典物理,諸如位置動量等無法同時精準測出其值;此外關於粒子位置等特性由機率密度描述所取代。一些物理學家例如愛因斯坦,認為量子力學並未完整地描述物理系統的狀態,亦即質疑量子力學是不完備的。因此量子力學的背後應該隱藏了一個尚未發現的理論,可以完整解釋物理系統所有可觀測量的演化行為,而避免掉任何不確定性或隨機性。

歷史上愛因斯坦是隱變量理論的主要倡導者,出於對標準量子力學詮釋的機率性解釋的不滿。[1]他曾說:「我相信上帝不擲骰子。」[2]

1935年,愛因斯坦(Einstein)與波多爾斯基(Poldosky)、羅森(Rosen)共同提出的EPR悖論(以姓氏字首為縮寫)試圖對哥本哈根詮釋做出挑戰,論文中指出「實在性元素」(即隱變量)應該加入量子力學中,俾使在量子纏結現象中不會出現鬼魅般的超距作用。在提出後,這樣的爭辯仍停留在物理哲學的範疇,直到約翰·貝爾提出貝爾定理方得區分兩者差異。透過實驗證實:一定類型的局域隱變量理論與實驗結果不相符,包括EPR佯謬中提出的詮釋版本。非局域(廣域)的隱變量理論最知名者為德布羅意-玻姆理論

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ The Born-Einstein letters: correspondence between Albert Einstein and Max and Hedwig Born from 1916-1955, with commentaries by Max Born. Macmillan. 1971: 158. 
  2. ^ 愛因斯坦與馬克斯·玻恩的私人通信(1926年12月4日):Albert Einstein Archives reel 8, item 180

參考文獻[编辑]

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