^ 2.02.12.2A Spirit of Belonging, Inside and Out. The New York Times. 8 Oct 2006 [28 July 2016]. （原始内容存档于2018-09-03）. 'The elders will tell you the difference between a gay Indian and a Two-Spirit,' [Criddle] said, underscoring the idea that simply being gay and Indian does not make someone a Two-Spirit.
^ 5.05.1"Two Spirit 101互联网档案馆的存檔，存档日期2014-12-10." at NativeOut: "The Two Spirit term was adopted in 1990 at an Indigenous lesbian and gay international gathering to encourage the replacement of the term berdache, which means, 'passive partner in sodomy, boy prostitute.'" Accessed 23 Sep 2015
^Pember, Mary Annette. 'Two Spirit' Tradition Far From Ubiquitous Among Tribes. Rewire. Oct 13, 2016 [Oct 17, 2016]. （原始内容存档于2016-10-19）. Non-Native anthropologist Will Roscoe gets much of the public credit for coining the term two spirit. However, according to Kristopher Kohl Miner of the Ho-Chunk Nation, Native people such as anthropologist Dr. Wesley Thomas of the Dine or Navajo tribe also contributed to its creation. (Thomas is a professor in the School of Dine and Law Studies.)
^Medicine, Beatrice. Directions in Gender Research in American Indian Societies: Two Spirits and Other Categories. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology). August 2002, 3 (1): 7 [2016-06-25]. ISSN 2307-0919. doi:10.9707/2307-0919.1024. （原始内容存档于2012-12-08）. At the Wenner Gren conference on gender held in Chicago, May, 1994... the gay American Indian and Alaska Native males agreed to use the term "Two Spirit" to replace the controversial "berdache" term. The stated objective was to purge the older term from anthropological literature as it was seen as demeaning and not reflective of Native categories. Unfortunately, the term "berdache" has also been incorporated in the psychology and women studies domains, so the task for the affected group to purge the term looms large and may be formidable.
^Vowel, Chelsea. All My Queer Relations - Language, Culture, and Two-Spirit Identity. Indigenous Writes: A Guide to First Nations, Métis & Inuit Issues in Canada. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: Highwater Press. 2016. ISBN 978-1553796800.