雙靈

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雙靈(英語:Two-spirit或two spirit、twospirited等)是一個現代泛北美原住民的概括性詞彙,被一些北美原住民用來描述社區中滿足傳統第三性別(或其他性別變體)的原住民人在他們的文化中的禮儀和社會角色。[1][2][3]

雙靈一詞是在 1990 年在溫尼伯舉行的原住民男女同性戀國際聚會上創造的,“專門用來區分美洲原住民/第一民族與非原住民並使其保持距離。”[4] 創造一個“雙靈”的主要目的是新術語是為了鼓勵替換過時且被認為具有冒犯性的人類學術語 berdache。[5] 這個新術語沒有被普遍接受—它被一些傳統社區批評為抹除傳統的術語,因為他們已經對被分組在這個新術語下的人有自己的術語,也被那些拒絕他們所謂的“西方”的人批評二元含義,例如暗示原住民人相信這些人“既是男性又是女性”[4]—它通常比它所取代的人類學術語得到更多的接受和使用。[6][5][7]

“雙靈”並不打算與“LGBT美洲原住民”或“(男)同性戀印地安人”互相替代[2];相反,它是用英語創作的(然後被翻譯作「Ojibwe」),作為泛北美原住民的統稱詞彙,用於一般受眾,而不是原住民語言中的傳統術語,用於表示多樣化的、特定於文化的儀式和社會角色,這些角色可能會有很大差異(如果它們存在的話)。[1][2][4] 對於這一目標是否成功,眾說紛紜。[4][8] 決定採用這個新術語也是為了與非本土同性戀者保持距離[9],因為雙靈的術語和身份“沒有意義”,除非它被置於本土語境中美國或原住民框架和傳統文化理解。[3][10][11] 然而,傳統上由美國原住民和加拿大原住民所體現的性別不順從、LGBT 或第三和第四性別禮儀角色,旨在成為兩種精神的現代統稱詞彙,可能會有很大差異,即使在接受英語術語。沒有一個美洲原住民/第一民族文化的性別或性取向類別適用於所有,甚至大多數這些文化。[4][8]

臺灣原住民族群類似概念[编辑]

臺灣原住民族也有近似雙靈的概念。泰雅族對於性別氣質不符合生理性別者,會被認為是心裡住著不同的一個人,而這類特別的人會被認為是具有巫靈體質,因此在部落之中受到尊重和敬畏,太魯閣族語稱為「hagay」[12]。南部排灣族部落則泛稱為Adju(原意為好姊妹淘互稱之代稱詞),在部落扮演重要祭典的吟唱者,守護祖先留下的天韻[13]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Estrada, Gabriel. Two Spirits, Nádleeh, and LGBTQ2 Navajo Gaze. American Indian Culture and Research Journal. 2011, 35 (4): 167–190. doi:10.17953/aicr.35.4.x500172017344j30. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 A Spirit of Belonging, Inside and Out. The New York Times. 8 Oct 2006 [28 July 2016]. (原始内容存档于2018-09-03). 'The elders will tell you the difference between a gay Indian and a Two-Spirit,' [Criddle] said, underscoring the idea that simply being gay and Indian does not make someone a Two-Spirit. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Pruden, Harlan; Edmo, Se-ah-dom. Two-Spirit People: Sex, Gender & Sexuality in Historic and Contemporary Native America (PDF). National Congress of American Indians Policy Research Center. 2016 [2022-01-05]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2020-07-17). 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 de Vries, Kylan Mattias. Berdache (Two-Spirit). O'Brien, Jodi (编). Encyclopedia of gender and society. Los Angeles: SAGE. 2009: 64 [6 March 2015]. ISBN 9781412909167. (原始内容存档于2015-05-01). 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 "Two Spirit 101 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2014-12-10." at NativeOut: "The Two Spirit term was adopted in 1990 at an Indigenous lesbian and gay international gathering to encourage the replacement of the term berdache, which means, 'passive partner in sodomy, boy prostitute.'" Accessed 23 Sep 2015
  6. ^ Pember, Mary Annette. 'Two Spirit' Tradition Far From Ubiquitous Among Tribes. Rewire. Oct 13, 2016 [Oct 17, 2016]. (原始内容存档于2016-10-19). Non-Native anthropologist Will Roscoe gets much of the public credit for coining the term two spirit. However, according to Kristopher Kohl Miner of the Ho-Chunk Nation, Native people such as anthropologist Dr. Wesley Thomas of the Dine or Navajo tribe also contributed to its creation. (Thomas is a professor in the School of Dine and Law Studies.) 
  7. ^ Medicine, Beatrice. Directions in Gender Research in American Indian Societies: Two Spirits and Other Categories. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology). August 2002, 3 (1): 7 [2016-06-25]. ISSN 2307-0919. doi:10.9707/2307-0919.1024可免费查阅. (原始内容存档于2012-12-08). At the Wenner Gren conference on gender held in Chicago, May, 1994... the gay American Indian and Alaska Native males agreed to use the term "Two Spirit" to replace the controversial "berdache" term. The stated objective was to purge the older term from anthropological literature as it was seen as demeaning and not reflective of Native categories. Unfortunately, the term "berdache" has also been incorporated in the psychology and women studies domains, so the task for the affected group to purge the term looms large and may be formidable. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Pember, Mary Annette. 'Two Spirit' Tradition Far From Ubiquitous Among Tribes. Rewire. Oct 13, 2016 [October 17, 2016]. (原始内容存档于2016-10-19). 
  9. ^ Jacobs,Thomas & Lang (1997), pp. 2–3, 221
  10. ^ A Spirit of Belonging, Inside and Out. The New York Times. 8 Oct 2006 [28 July 2016]. (原始内容存档于2018-09-03). 
  11. ^ Vowel, Chelsea. All My Queer Relations - Language, Culture, and Two-Spirit Identity. Indigenous Writes: A Guide to First Nations, Métis & Inuit Issues in Canada. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: Highwater Press. 2016. ISBN 978-1553796800. 
  12. ^ 原住民族青年陣線支持多元成家聲明. [2016-06-24]. (原始内容存档于2019-11-30). 
  13. ^ 瑪達拉.達努巴克. 在處境脈絡中的認識原住民性別. [2016-11-17]. (原始内容存档于2016-01-02). 

外部連結[编辑]