雨季

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雨季,指在降水量有顯著季節差異的地區,年降水量主要發生的月份,通常持續一個或多個月[1] 。擁有雨季的地區分佈在熱帶亞熱帶[2]

根據柯本氣候分類法,對於熱帶氣候,雨季定義為平均降水量60毫米以上的月份[3]。不同的氣候類型,雨季也不盡相同。以北半球為例:東亞季風區的雨季主要為夏季南亞季風區的雨季大約在6月~11月;熱帶莽原氣候的雨季為夏季;地中海型氣候的雨季為冬季。擁有旱季和雨季也是季風雨林的特色,熱帶雨林的降雨量則是在全年平均分佈[4]。一些有顯著雨季的地區,當熱帶輻合帶季風槽移動到較高緯度時,雨季的降雨會中斷[5]

若雨季在夏季發生,降水主要在下午和傍晚。雨季時,空氣污染改善,淡水水質提高,植被大幅度增長。但同時也會使土壤養分減少,侵蝕增加。特別在熱帶地區,夏季的雨季會使瘧疾發病率增加[6] 。一些動物在雨季會有適應和生存策略。 另外,前一個旱季也通常導致雨季的糧食短缺,因為作物尚未成熟。

受影響的地區[编辑]

世界氣候分布圖。

撒哈拉以南非洲熱帶莽原氣候區,包括加納布基納法索[7][8]南蘇丹[9]厄立特里亞[10]埃塞俄比亞[11]博茨瓦納都有一個明顯的雨季[12]佛羅里達州德克薩斯州南部的熱帶莽原氣候區也有一個雨季[13]季風氣候區包括印度次大陸東南亞(包括印度尼西亞菲律賓[14]澳大利亞北部[15]波利尼西亞[16]中美洲[17]墨西哥西部和南部[18]美國西南部的沙漠[19]圭亞那南部[20]巴西東北部[21]等。

圭亞那北部有兩個雨季:一個在早春,另一個在初冬[20]。 在西非,南部有兩個雨季,但北部只有一個[22]。 在地中海氣候區,包括美國西海岸,意大利希臘地中海海岸線[23]土耳其的雨季都是在冬季[24]。同樣,以色列內蓋夫沙漠的雨季是從十月延續至五月[25] 。 在地中海氣候區和季風氣候區之間的邊界,索諾蘭沙漠共同擁有這兩個氣候類型的兩個雨季[26]

參見[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (2013). Rainy season. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  2. ^ Michael Pidwirny (2008). CHAPTER 9: Introduction to the Biosphere. PhysicalGeography.net. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  3. ^ Updated world Köppen-Geiger climate classification map (PDF). 
  4. ^ Elisabeth M. Benders-Hyde (2003). World Climates. Blue Planet Biomes. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  5. ^ J. S. 0guntoyinbo and F. 0. Akintola (1983). Rainstorm characteristics affecting water availability for agriculture. 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2009-02-05. IAHS Publication Number 140. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  6. ^ Malaria Fact Sheet. The World Health Organization. April 2016 [April 24, 2016]. 
  7. ^ Patrick Laux et al. (2008): Predicting the regional onset of the rainy season in West Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 28 (3), 329–342.
  8. ^ Patrick Laux et al. (2009): Modelling daily precipitation features in the Volta Basin of West Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 29 (7), 937–954.,
  9. ^ David Vandervort (2009). Darfur: getting ready for the rainy season. International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  10. ^ Mehari Tesfazgi Mebrhatu, M. Tsubo, and Sue Walker (2004). A Statistical Model for Seasonal Rainfall Forecasting over the Highlands of Eritrea. New directions for a diverse planet: Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress. Retrieved on 2009-02-08.
  11. ^ Alex Wynter (2009). Ethiopia: March rainy season "critical" for southern pastoralists. Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  12. ^ The Voice (2009). Botswana: Rainy Season Fills Up Dams. allAfrica.com. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  13. ^ Randy Lascody (2008). The Florida Rain Machine. National Weather Service. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  14. ^ OCHA Partnership for Humanity (2008). OCHA Field Situation Report: Indonesia – Rainy Season 1 December 2008. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  15. ^ Burarra Gathering (2006). Burarra Gathering. Burarra Gathering. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  16. ^ Tahiti Sun Travel Network (2007). About Bora Bora Island. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  17. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (2006). 2.4 Analysis & Forecasting "Thumb Rules" for the Rainy Season. United States Navy. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  18. ^ Remote Sensing for Migratory Creatures (2002). Phenology and Creature Migration: Dry season and wet season in West Mexico. Arizona Remote Sensing Center. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  19. ^ J. Horel (2006). Normal Monthly Precipitation, Inches. 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2006-11-13. University of Utah. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 Horace Burton (2006). The climate of Guyana. Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology. The Outfield, August 2006, pp. 3. Retrieved on 2009-02-08.
  21. ^ James Brian Elsner (1988). Analysis of Wet Season Rainfall Over the Nordeste of Brazil, South America. University Of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  22. ^ C. H. Mari, G. Cailley, L. Corre, M. Saunois, J. L. Attie, V. Thouret, and A. Stohl (2007). Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, pp. 17342. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  23. ^ Greek Embassy London (2008). Welcome to Greece. Government of Greece. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  24. ^ D. Bozkurt, O.L. Sen and M. Karaca (2008). Wet season evaluation of RegCM3 performance for Eastern Mediterranean. EGU General Assembly. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  25. ^ Ron Kahana; Baruch Ziv; Yehouda Enzel & Uri Dayan. Synoptic Climatology of Major Floods in the Negev Desert, Israel (PDF). International Journal of Climatology. 2002, 22: 869. Bibcode:2002IJCli..22..867K. doi:10.1002/joc.766. 
  26. ^ Michael J. Plagens (2009). What and Where is the Sonoran Desert? Arizonensis. Retrieved on 2009-02-07.