非二元性別

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非二元性別(英語:Non-binary gender)、性別酷兒(英語:genderqueer)和X性別(日语:Xジェンダー)是指一系列不完全是男性或女性的性別認同,這些身份在男性或女性的分類以外。[1]非二元性別可以歸類在跨性別傘式術語之下,因為許多非二元性別人士的性別認同與其指定性別不同,[2]可稱為「MtX」或「FtX」。然而,並不是所有的雙性人性別認同為X性別,或認定自己是跨性別X性別人士。[3]

非二元性別可能介於傳統定義上男性女性表現之間(中性),認同兩者兼具或兩者以上的性別(雙性別、三性別、泛性別),[4][5]認為自己沒有性別(無性別、去性別),在兩者或以上的性別認同之間流動(流體性別),[6]其他跨性別相關情況、其他無法定義、或自己不去定義...等等。[7]

基本上性別認同與性取向浪漫取向是分開的,[8]非二元性別就和順性別一樣,有各種性取向。[9]非二元性別與特定的性別表現(例如,雙性性格)沒有關連。非二元性別作為一個整體具有各種各樣的性別表現,而一些人會拒絕所有的性別身份。

術語[编辑]

定義[编辑]

術語性別酷兒一词起源于1980年代的酷儿杂志,是非二元性別一詞的前身。[10]除了作為傘式術語之外,在西方國家中酷兒是指奇怪、變態的意思,作為違反性別規範界限的人。[11]挑戰性別的二元社會結構的人經常使用性別酷兒作為自我認同。[12]

該術語也應用到了雙性性格的性別。[13]這是因為雙性性格對應上了社會定義的男性表現女性表現的混合。[14]但是,並不是所有的性別酷兒都認為自己是雙性性格。一些性別酷兒認同自己是一個陽剛的女人或陰柔的男人或是X性別與其他的性別結合在一起。[15]

許多參考文獻中都使用跨性別來包括非二元性別、性別酷兒和X性別。[16][17][18]人權戰線基金會使用非二元性別術語去傳達“比普遍與二元性別體系相關的性別認同和性別表現方式更廣泛,更靈活的範圍”。[19]

認同[编辑]

X性別中存在一些不同性別認同的類別。代表的有四種:混合性別、雙性別、流體性別、無性別。[20]其中,双性别或流體性別的性別認同往往是根據時間和場合而變化,流動性較高。當然,沒有人有必要接受這四種類別的約束。

混合性別Demigender)是一個人的性別認同,部分或大部分是一種性別,同時又有另一種性別混合在一起。在這個性別中有數個子類別。例如不討論出生時的指定性別,一個半男性,至少部分認同自己是個半男性,其餘的部分可能會認同自己是其他的性別(流體性別或無性別)。[21][22]混合性別人士可能認同自己是“泛性别”(Pangender),认为自己有任何性别,是所有或多种性别特质的混合体。这其中并不一定是传统的二元性别。[23][24][25][26]

无性别Agender)没有发育性别或认为自身不属于任何一种性别,对任何性别认同都没有归属。无性别者认为自身不存在性别这一属性,或认为性别不是自身的核心特质。无性别者有时也使用“沒有性别”(genderless)或“去性別”(ungendered)等类似词语表达自己的性别认同,不认同传统二元性别观念的无性别者也会使用“中性”(Neutrois)一词。[27][28][29][30]無性別沒有特定的人稱代名詞,通常還是使用單數的形式,但不是默認的。[31]

双性别Bigender)是包含兩種性別身份或性別表現的性別認同。雙性別通常认为自己既是男性又是女性,是男女两种性别的结合体,可以同時具有兩個不同的性別認同或在两者之间切换。双性别并不一定是男女各占一半的均匀混合。[32][33][34][35]這與認同為流體性別不同,因為那些認同為流體性別的人可能不會在任何固定的性別認同之間來回切換,並且隨著時間的流逝會經歷整個認同範圍或光譜。[36][37]

流體性別Genderfluid)认为自己的性别认同是动态变化的,并非局限于特定的一种,而是在兩者或以上的状态之間流動。这一流动是在连续的性别认同光谱上变化的,不一定是传统性别。性别流性人认为自己在连续的性别光谱上没有确定的位置。[38][39][40][41]流體性別人士可能認同自己是“雙性別”,在男性和女性之間轉換,以及或者是“三性别”(Trigender)认为自己同时是男性女性和X性別,是这三种性别的混合体,可以在三者之间切换。[42][43]

性傾向[编辑]

X性別認同的人可自認为是泛性戀無性戀性單戀等非傳統性傾向。因為為社會上普遍沒有對雙性人建立性別角色,所以沒有雙性人同性戀,也不一定會將一位男性或女性與一位X性別的戀愛當作異性戀。儘管他們的性別認同是X性別,但他們常常面臨根據指定性別的異性戀、男同性戀、女同性戀的性傾向指定。換句話說,對於性別認同不是男或女的X性別來說,性取向意味著理論上不太會認同自己是異性戀同性戀

符號 [编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

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