食物盲從現象

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食物盲從現象(fad diets)指某些與食物有關的健康(包括節食減肥)資訊,在未受科學證實之下,藉由似是而非的科學論點在社會中快速傳播,有時夾雜玄學宗教論點,導致大量民眾盲目跟從的現象。

這些現象的創始者往往會因此潮流獲得廣大的經濟收益,名人見證則常常是這些盲從現象的推手。

商業促銷[编辑]

某些商業廣告或推銷策劃會通過製造“潮流”的手段引發食物盲從現象,以提高產品銷量。例如某些減肥食品或保健品通過小範圍傳播製造神秘氛圍,不斷擴散後讓大眾突然對減肥食品或產品有很大的興趣,從而大量購買引致缺貨。又或者利用嚴肅學術機構研究發現(或偽造學術機構認證)製造氛圍,形成大量購買現象。譬如中國有炒作普洱茶養生功效導致普洱價格飆升的事件。

謠言傳播[编辑]

由於二十一世紀網絡發達,資訊傳播快速,渠道多樣化,媒體門檻放低,令許多謠言得以快速傳播,造成大規模影響。尤其食物關乎人身健康安全,而相關科學知識普及率不高,造成大量民眾因為看到經由媒體擴散的食物謠言而產生購買或拒買某類食物的風潮。例如日本TBS電視台2006年報道服食白豆可以減肥,結果導致多人食用未煮熟白豆腹瀉入院。2007年1月,日本關西電視台製作的「發掘真有其事大事典」節目作假,聲稱每日吃兩餐納豆,可在兩周內減肥,引發全國搶購潮,超市納豆搶購一空,納豆製造商更要為供不應求向顧客道歉。節目被揭欺騙觀眾後最終停播。

2008年,有歌手聲稱使用「早餐香蕉減肥法」成功減肥7公斤後,一度令香蕉銷量增七成。2009年傳出女藝人吃昆布絲減肥後,超市的昆布絲亦突然大賣。[1]

除此以外,媒體從業人士專業度不夠,誤讀專業研究結果,誇大某類食品功效,亦會導致食物盲從現象。日本曾有媒體報導,有專門研究指番茄汁能防治代謝症候群,而令番茄汁賣斷市的情況。然而研究僅僅指出番茄裏含有的物質可以降低血液中的中性脂肪數值,並未有人體引用番茄汁的實驗數據。[2]

除了正規媒體擴散謠言以外,社交媒體亦會導致食物盲從現象。2011年日本311大地震後,中國多地傳出鹽可以防輻射,或海產食鹽可能受輻射污染的謠言後,引起大規模搶購食鹽現象,令鹽價被炒高數十倍。美國西岸亦傳出碘化鉀可抗核輻射,導致住民大規模搶購之事件,導致碘片價格急升,甚至有14片一包的碘片在網上拍賣價格高達500美元,沒有買到碘片的居民甚至痛哭。[3]

國際流行案例[编辑]



參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 日人「食物盲從」常見 納豆曾被搶購一空. 明報. 2012年2月16日. 
  2. ^ 日研究令番茄汁狂銷. 星洲日報. 2012年2月15日. 
  3. ^ 歐美搶購碘片 炒上500美元. 法新社. 
  4. ^ Hiatt, Kurtis. 1 March 2011, U.S. News & World Report, "'The 4-Hour Body'—Does It Deliver Results?".
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/loseweight/Pages/how-to-diet.aspx
  6. ^ Collins, Sonya. Alkaline Diets. WebMD. [13 May 2016]. 
  7. ^ Wait, Mariane. The Baby Food Diet Review. WebMD. [13 May 2016]. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Nutrition for Weight Loss: What You Need to Know About Fad Diets. familydoctor.org. August 2016 [December 21, 2016]. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Crosariol, Beppi. 9 January 2014,The Globe and Mail, "Feeling frugal after the holidays? Try these 11 affordable wines". Accessed 3 February 2014.
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 webmd.com, 22 April 2011, "Are Fad Diets Worth the Risk?". Accessed 3 February 2014.
  11. ^ Forbes, Gilber, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1980. "[Food Fads: Safe Feeding of Children http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/1/7/207]" Pediatrics in Review. 1980;1:207-210. doi:10.1542/10.1542/pir.1-7-207.
  12. ^ Lebwohl B, Ludvigsson JF, Green PH. Celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. BMJ (Review). Oct 2015, 351: h4347. PMC 4596973. PMID 26438584. doi:10.1136/bmj.h4347. Some population groups seem to be especially wed to the gluten-free diet, with nearly 50% of 910 athletes (including world class and Olympic medalists) adhering to a gluten-free diet, mainly because of the perceived health and energy benefits. 
  13. ^ Gluten-Free, Whether You Need It or Not. New York Times.
  14. ^ Gluten-free diet fad: Are celiac disease rates actually rising?. CBS News. 2012-07-31. People buy gluten-free food "because they think it will help them lose weight, because they seem to feel better or because they mistakenly believe they are sensitive to gluten." 
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Sandra Bastin for University of Kentucky Extension Service. August 1998; revised March 2004. University of Kentucky Extension Service: Fad Diets
  16. ^ Jonathan. How to Spot Fad Diets. ahm Health Insurance. [2012-07-25]. 
  17. ^ Valiant M. Do Juice Cleanses Work? 10 Truths About The Fad. Huffington Post. 27 May 2015. 
  18. ^ news.com.au. 8 January 2014, "The worst diets of 2013 - and the best for 2014". Accessed 3 February 2014.
  19. ^ Newman, Judith. The Juice Cleanse: A Strange and Green Journey (PDF). New York Times. New York Times. [6 May 2016]. 
  20. ^ Toyama, Michiko. Time, 17 October 2008, "Japan Goes Bananas for a New Diet" Accessed 1 July 2011.
  21. ^ Caveman fad diet. 
  22. ^ Frassetto, L.; Schloetter, M.; Mietus-Synder, M.; Morris, Jr., R.; Sebastian, A. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet (PDF). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009, 63: 947–955 [13 May 2016]. PMID 19209185. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2009.4. 
  23. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为fad的参考文献提供内容
  24. ^ Tina Gianoulis, "Dieting" in the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture Ed. Thomas Riggs. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. Detroit: St. James Press, 2013. p106-108. ISBN 978-1-55862-847-2
  25. ^ Fad Diets Sandra Bastin, Ph.D., R.D., L.D. Cooperative Extension Service. University of Kentucky - College of Agriculture. March 2004. Retrieved August 28, 2015
  26. ^ Dr. Paul Martiquet, Medical Health Officer, Vancouver Coastal Health. Muscles for brains: How fad diets can hurt you.
  27. ^ Jane E Brody for the New York Times. June 3, 1981 Personal Health: Another Entry in the Annals of Fad Diets
  28. ^ Southern Nevada Health District. 2015 Back to the 80s: Fad Diets
  29. ^ DeBruyne L, Pinna K, Whitney E. Chapter 7: Nutrition in practice — fad diets. Nutrition and Diet Therapy 8th (Cengage Learning). 2011: 209. ISBN 1-133-71550-8. 'a fad diet by any other name would still be a fad diet.' And the names are legion: the Atkins Diet, the Cheater's Diet, the South Beach Diet, the Zone Diet. Year after year, 'new and improved' diets appear ... 
  30. ^ People to watch. Nature Medicine. 2006, 12 (1): 29–29. ISSN 1078-8956. doi:10.1038/nm0106-29. James Hill wants Americans to shed pounds. But instead of promoting any one fad diet, he embraces most--Atkins, South Beach, grapefruit-only--as relatively effective ways to lose weight. 
  31. ^ Fad diets: Low Carbohydrate Diet Summaries (PDF). 
  32. ^ Cohen, Larry et al. Prevention Institute, San Jose State University. "The O Word: Why the Focus on Obesity is Harmful to Community Health". Accessed 3 February 2014.
  33. ^ 33.0 33.1 Daniels, June RN, MSN. Nursing: December 2004 - Volume 34 - Issue 12 - p 22–23, "Fad diets: Slim on good nutrition". Accessed 3 February 2014.
  34. ^ Fad Diets: The Whole30, International Food Information Council Foundation, 25 July 2017