驃語

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驃語
Pyu Alphabets.jpg
驃文字母
区域驃國蒲甘王國
語言滅亡13世紀
語系
文字驃文
語言代碼
ISO 639-3pyx
语言学家列表pyx
Glottologburm1262[1]

驃語(驃Pyu pyx.png)是一種已經滅絕漢藏語系語言。該語言是驃國諸城邦之間的鄉土語言,在公元前2世紀至公元後9世紀期間蓬勃發展。9世紀末期,緬族南詔遷移來以後,驃語的使用者人數開始下降。至12世紀末期,驃語仍然被使用,至少驃文在蒲甘王國的碑銘中仍被使用。13世紀的時候,因為使用緬甸語的蒲甘王國在上緬甸崛起,驃語最終滅絕。

驃語有自己的文字,這種文字被稱為驃文,是一種婆羅米文字。根據最近的研究表明,緬文可能是在驃文的基礎上發明的。

系属分类[编辑]

翰林城的骠文碑刻
约8世纪的骠族城邦;蒲甘的疆域仅供参考,并不与骠族城邦同时存在

Blagden (1911: 382)是首先识别出骠语属于汉藏语系的学者。[2]:365‒388三宅英雄 (2021)认为骠语因为其音韵和词汇特色在汉藏语系下自成一支。骠语已经几乎将原始汉藏语的形态尽数丢失。[3][4]

骠语被马提索夫临时地归入缅彝语群大卫·布拉德利则认为它最接近卢伊语支,三宅英雄稍后发现两种假说都似是而非。无我也将骠语暂时划为汉藏语系下独立一支。[5]

音系[编辑]

三宅英雄构拟了骠语的音节结构:[3]

(C.)CV(C)(H)
(声母前音)+音节

有7个元音。[3]

i u
e ə o
æ a

三宅英雄构拟了43-44个声母,具体数字取决于如何分析声门塞音。创新的声母有:[3]

  • 擦音:/h ɣ ç ʝ ð v/
  • 流音:/R̥ R L̥ L/
  • 内爆音:/ɓ/

有10个韵尾:-k、-t、-p、-m、-n、-ŋ、-j、-r、-l、-w。骠语是分析语,没有可能的屈折现象。[3]

骠文碑刻列表[编辑]

位置 序列号
Halin 01[6]
Śrī Kṣetra 04[7]
Pagan 07[8]
Pagan 08[9]
Śrī Kṣetra 10[10]
Pagan 11[11]
Śrī Kṣetra 12[12]
Śrī Kṣetra 22[13]
Śrī Kṣetra 25[14]
Śrī Kṣetra 28[15]
Śrī Kṣetra 29[16]
Myittha 32[17]
Myittha 39[18]
Śrī Kṣetra 42[19]
Śrī Kṣetra 55[20]
Śrī Kṣetra 56[21]
Śrī Kṣetra 57[22]
Halin 60[23]
Halin 61[24]
??? 63[25]
Śrī Kṣetra 105[26]
Śrī Kṣetra 160[27]
??? 163[28]
Śrī Kṣetra 164[29]
Śrī Kṣetra 167[30]

词汇[编辑]

下面是部分骠语基础词,数据来自戈登·卢斯三宅英雄

词义 Luce (1985)[31]:66–69 Miyake (2016)[32] Miyake (2021)[3]
1 ta(k·)ṁ /tæk/
2 hni° kni
3 ho:, hau: hoḥ /n.homH/ < *n.sumH < *məsumH
4 pḷå plaṁ
5 pi°ŋa (piṁ/miṁ) ṅa /pəŋa/
6 tru tru(k·?)
7 kni hni(t·?)ṁ
8 hrå hra(t·)ṁ
9 tko tko /t.ko/
10 sū, sau su
20 tpū
骨、遗迹 ru
tdu̱- /t.du/
tha
一天 phru̱
de [ḷe ?]
sni:
o
ha
生病 hni°:
接近 mtu
mi /r.miŋ/
ga°:
我的 gi
maya:
配偶、妻子 [u] vo̱:
sa: /saH/
孙子 pli, pli°
/pæH/

音变[编辑]

骠语自原始藏缅语的音变如下。[3]

  • 咝音链变:*c > *s > /h/
  • 去鼻化:*m > /ɓ/以及可能的*ŋ > /g/
  • *e低化:*e > /ä/
  • *sC复辅音送气化:*sk, *st, *sp > /kʰ, tʰ, pʰ/

用途[编辑]

骠语曾是骠族城邦的本土语言。梵语巴利语在这一地区也曾通行过。中国史书记录了800至802年间从骠国来的35名乐师以梵语奏乐演唱。[33]:35–36

骠巴利 缅巴利 泰巴利 翻译
Pyu script 1.png
(6世纪骠文)
ဣတိပိ သော ဘဂဝါ အရဟံ
သမ္မာသမ္ဗုဒ္ဓော ဝိဇ္ဇာစရဏသမ္ပန္နော သုဂတော လောကဝိဒူ
อิติปิโส ภะคะวา อะระหัง สัมมาสัมพุทโธ อะนุตตะโร ปุริสะทัมมะสารถิ สัตถาเทวะมะนุสสานัง 由于这些原因,即先前获得的美德,佛陀被称为尊者。
Pyu script 2.png အနုတ္တရော ပုရိသဒမ္မ သာရထိ သတ္ထာ ဒေဝမနုသာနံ ဗုဒ္ဓေါ ဘဂဝါတိ อะนุตตะโร ปุริสะทัมมะสารถิ สัตถาเทวะมะนุสสานัง พุทโธ ภะคะวาติ 真实而完美的开悟者,一个被赋予知识和行为的人,一个快乐的人。一个了解宇宙的人,一个卓越的人,一个人类任性的激情的使者,一个众神和人类的主宰,一个受祝福的佛陀。

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (编). Burma Pyu. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 2016. 
  2. ^ Blagden, C. O. 1911. A preliminary study of the fourth text of the Myazedi inscriptions. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 43(2).
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Miyake, Marc. 2021. The prehistory of Pyu. SEALS 2021. (Video)
  4. ^ Miyake, Marc. The Pyu Language of Ancient Burma. Beyond Boundaries 6. De Gruyter. 2021. ISBN 9783110656442. 
  5. ^ van Driem, George. Trans-Himalayan Database. [7 November 2012]. 
  6. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU001) held at the Archaeological Museum at Halin [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.579711
  7. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU004) around a funerary urn held by the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.581381
  8. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of the quadrilingual Pyu inscription (PYU007) kept in an inscription shed on the grounds of the Myazedi pagoda in Pagan [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.579873
  9. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of the quadrilingual Pyu inscription (PYU008) held at the Pagan museum, originally found in the grounds of the Myazedi pagoda [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/10.5281/zenodo.580158
  10. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU010) kept in one of two inscription sheds on the grounds of the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.580597
  11. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a bilingual Pyu inscription (PYU011) held at the Pagan museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.580282
  12. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Sanskrit-Pyu bilingual inscription (PYU012) around the base of a Buddha statue held by the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.581383
  13. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU022) held by the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.581468
  14. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU025) on the base of a funerary urn held at the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.580777
  15. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU028) kept in one of two inscription sheds on the grounds of the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.580791
  16. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU029) kept in one of two inscription sheds on the grounds of the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.581217
  17. ^ Miles, James, & Hill, Nathan W. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscriptions (PYU032) kept in an inscription shed on the grounds of a pagoda in Myittha [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.579848
  18. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU039) kept in an inscription shed on the grounds of a monastery in Myittha [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.579725
  19. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU042) kept in one of two inscription sheds on the grounds of the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. . Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.581251
  20. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU055) held by the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.806133
  21. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU056) held by the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.806148
  22. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU057) held by the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.806163
  23. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscriptions (PYU060) kept in the inscription shed outside the Archaeological Museum at Halin [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.579695
  24. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscriptions (PYU061) held at the Archaeological Museum at Halin [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.579710
  25. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU063) held at the National Museum (Burmese: အမျိုးသား ပြတိုက်) in Rangoon [Data set]. Zenodo. http://doi.org/ doi:10.5281/zenodo.806174
  26. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription on a gold ring (PYU105) held by the Śrī Kṣetra museum [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.806168
  27. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU160) discovered in Śrī Kṣetra [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.823725
  28. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU163) [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.825673
  29. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU164) [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.825685
  30. ^ Miles, James. (2016). Documentation of a Pyu inscription (PYU167) [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.823753
  31. ^ Luce, George. 1985. Phases of Pre-Pagan Burma: languages and history (volume 2). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-713595-1.
  32. ^ Miyake, Marc. 2016. Pyu numerals in comparative perspective. Presentation given at SEALS 26.
  33. ^ Aung-Thwin.

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