高多汀 (诗歌)

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阿内林之书的一页,记载了第一部分文本

《高多汀》威爾斯語Y Gododdin,发音:[ə ɡɔˈdɔðɪn])是一首中世纪的威尔士语诗歌,由一系列献给布立吞王国高多汀的人民及其同盟的挽歌组成。通常解释他们牺牲于卡特瑞斯之战中,对抗德伊勒伯尼西亚盎格鲁人。传统上认为其为吟游诗人阿内林所著,留世的抄本只有一本,称为阿内林之书

大多学者认为记载的这场战役发生于600年左右,但成诗的日期很有争议。一些学者认为,战役后很短时间内,最初的口述版本就成形于“古老北地”(大不列颠北部讲布立吞语的地区)。假定如此,该诗最初的语言就是当时该地区的通行的坎伯兰语[1]它也就成了今苏格兰地区现存最古老的诗歌。[2]但其他人则认为,《高多汀》源于9或10世纪的威尔士。如果是9世纪的作品,就是最初的威尔士诗歌之一。

高多汀覆盖今苏格兰东南部和诺森伯兰郡的领土,是“古老北地”的一部分,在罗马时代叫做沃塔迪尼。这首诗描写了300(或363)名精英勇士会集起来的过程,其中一些人甚至来自于遥远的皮克特兰格温内斯。在Din Eidyn(今爱丁堡)盛宴一年后,他们进攻了卡特瑞斯(通常认为是北约克郡卡特里克)。面对压倒性的优势,几天的战斗后,几乎所有的勇士都牺牲了。该诗内容不是叙事,但其气概有如英雄诗,强调英雄们为了荣誉而战斗。

这首诗现存的手稿以部分中古威尔士语和部分古威尔士语写成,时间追溯至13世纪下半叶。这份手稿里有与高多汀毫无关系的几节诗,一般认为是添写的。 其中一节提到了亚瑟王,如果能证明这一节出自6世纪末7世纪初,就可以作为已知最早的出处而极具重要性。

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ Elliot 2005, p. 583.
  2. ^ As indicated by Jackson, The Earliest Surviving Scottish Poem.

参考资料[编辑]

  • Berggren, J. Lennart and Alexander Jones. "Ptolemy's Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters." Princeton University Press: Princeton and Oxford. ISBN 0-691-01042-0
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  • Clarkson, Tim. 1999. "The Gododdin Revisited" in The Heroic Age 1. Retrieved August 21, 2006.
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