鯡魚

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鯡魚 (Herring)
大西洋鯡, Clupea harengus
1950年–2010年全球鯡魚總捕獲量
單位為百萬噸[1]

鯡魚是大部分鯡科魚的通稱。牠們多在暗沙或岸邊聯群游弋。其中,最常見,而且具高商業價值的鯡魚有3種,皆屬於鯡屬,其捕獲量佔了鯡魚總捕獲量約90%。其中,三種鯡屬魚中捕獲量最多的為大西洋鯡,佔比過半。這三種魚一般在北大平洋北大西洋波羅的海南美洲西岸的淺水溫帶區出沒。此外,也有一些被稱作鯡魚的魚類在阿拉伯海印度洋孟加拉灣一帶出沒。

歷史上,鯡魚在歐洲漁業扮演了舉足輕重的角色,[2]對此魚的研究在二十世紀早期為漁業學提供了長足進步的基礎。[3]此外,牠們曾長年為重要的食用魚,常以處理保存。

種類[编辑]

不少物種皆被歸類為鯡魚,其中大部份皆屬於鯡科。鯡魚的英文名稱Herring的詞源並不明確,可能源於古高地德語heri,有衆多、大群體之意。[4]

鯡科的模式屬為鯡屬[5] 鯡屬共有三種,包括在北太平洋出沒的模式種大西洋鯡、在北太平洋出沒的太平洋鯡以及智利沿岸出沒的貝氏智利鯡

鯡屬鯡魚
俗名 學名 最長記錄 一般長度 最重可達 最高壽命 營養級 世界魚類數據庫 聯合國糧食及農業組織 整合分類學資訊系統 保護級別
貝氏智利鯡 Clupea bentincki Norman, 1936 28.4 cm cm kg years 2.69 [6] [7] [8] 未予評估
大西洋鯡 Clupea harengus Linnaeus, 1758 45.0 cm 30.0 cm 1.05 kg 22 years 3.23 [9] [10] [11] LC IUCN 3 1.svg 無危[12]
太平洋鯡 Clupea pallasii Valenciennes, 1847 46.0 cm 25.0 cm 19 years 3.15 [9] [13] [14] 未予評估

除此之外,也有不少魚類被國際自然保護聯盟視爲鯡魚,收錄於世界魚類數據庫,現表列如下:

其餘鯡魚
種類 俗名 學名 最長記錄 一般長度 最重可達 最高壽命 營養級 世界魚類數據庫 聯合國糧食及農業組織 整合分類學資訊系統 保護級別
淡水鯡英语Pellonulinae 窄體似鯡 Clupeoides papuensis (Ramsay & Ogilby, 1886) cm cm kg years [15] [16] DD IUCN 3 1.svg 數據缺乏[17]
圓腹鯡科 印尼少棱圓鯡 Dayella malabarica (Day, 1873) cm cm kg years [18] [19] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[20]
寬帶任氏鯡 Jenkinsia lamprotaenia (Gosse, 1851) cm cm kg years [21] [22] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[23]
南非吉氏鯡 Gilchristella aestuaria (Gilchrist, 1913 cm cm kg years [24] [25] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[26]
小眼任氏鯡 Jenkinsia majua Whitehead, 1963 cm cm kg years [27] [28] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[29]
沙丁脂眼鯡 Etrumeus teres (De Kay, 1842) 33 cm 25 cm kg years [30] [31] [32] 未予評估
雙鰭似黍鯡 Spratellomorpha bianalis (Bertin, 1940) 4.5 cm cm kg years 3.11 [33] [34] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient[35]
懷氏脂眼鯡 Etrumeus whiteheadi (Wongratana, 1983) 20 cm cm kg years 3.4 [36] [37] [38] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[39]
短帶任氏鯡 Jenkinsia parvula Cervigón and Velasquez, 1978 cm cm kg years [40] [41] VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[42]
後絲鯡屬 加拉帕戈斯後絲鯡 Opisthonema berlangai (Günther, 1867) 26 cm 18 cm kg years 3.27 [43] [44] VU IUCN 3 1.svg 易危[45]
少耙後絲鯡 Opisthonema medirastre Berry & Barrett, 1963 cm cm kg years [46] [47] LC IUCN 3 1.svg 無危[48]
太平洋後絲鯡 Opisthonema libertate (Günther, 1867) 30 cm 22 cm kg years [49] [50] [44] LC IUCN 3 1.svg 無危[51]
蒲氏後絲鯡 Opisthonema bulleri (Regan, 1904) cm cm kg years [52] [53] LC IUCN 3 1.svg 無危[54]
其他 黑帶側帶鯡 Lile nigrofasciata Castro-Aguirre Ruiz-Campos and Balart, 2002 cm cm kg years [55] [56] LC IUCN 3 1.svg 無危[57]
齒頭鯡 Denticeps clupeoides Clausen, 1959 cm cm kg years [58] [59] VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[60]
勃氏犬齒鰳 Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey, 1867) cm cm kg years [61] [62] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[63]
細側帶鯡 Lile gracilis Castro-Aguirre and Vivero, 1990 cm cm kg years [64] [65] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[66]
太平洋青鱗魚 Harengula thrissina (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882) cm cm kg years [67] [68] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[69]
小細鯡 Thrattidion noctivagus Roberts, 1972 cm cm kg years [70] [71] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[72]
日本銀帶鯡 Spratelloides gracilis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) 10.5 cm cm kg years 3.0 [73] [74] Not assessed
太平洋側帶鯡 Lile stolifera (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) cm cm kg years [75] [76] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[77]
西拉棱鯡 Sierrathrissa leonensis Thys van den Audenaerde, 1969 cm cm kg years [78] [79] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[80]

參考[编辑]

  1. ^ Based on data sourced from the relevant FAO Species Fact Sheets
  2. ^ Cushing, David H (1975) Marine ecology and fisheries Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09911-0.
  3. ^ Went, AEJ (1972) "The History of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Section B. Biology, 73: 351–360.doi:10.1017/S0080455X0000240X
  4. ^ Herring Online Etymology Dictionary, Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  5. ^ Pauly, Daniel (2004) Darwin's Fishes: An Encyclopedia of Ichthyology, Ecology, and Evolution Page 109, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82777-5.
  6. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Clupea bentincki in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  7. ^ Clupea bentincki (Norman, 1936) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  8. ^ Clupea bentincki. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Clupea harengus in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  10. ^ Clupea harengus (Linnaeus, 1758) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  11. ^ Clupea harengus. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  12. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2011). Clupea harengus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於6 April 2012.
  13. ^ Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes, 1847) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  14. ^ Clupea pallasii. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  15. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Clupeoides papuensis in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  16. ^ Clupeoides papuensis. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  17. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Clupeoides papuensis. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  18. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Dayella malabarica in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  19. ^ Dayella malabarica. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  20. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2011). Dayella malabarica. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  21. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Jenkinsia lamprotaenia in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  22. ^ Jenkinsia lamprotaenia. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  23. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Jenkinsia lamprotaenia. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  24. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Gilchristella aestuaria in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  25. ^ Gilchristella aestuaria. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  26. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2007). Gilchristella aestuaria. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  27. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Jenkinsia majua in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  28. ^ Jenkinsia majua. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  29. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Jenkinsia majua. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  30. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Etrumeus teres in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  31. ^ Etrumeus teres (Norman, 1936) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  32. ^ Etrumeus teres. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  33. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Spratellomorpha bianalis in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  34. ^ Spratellomorpha bianalis. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  35. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2011). Spratellomorpha bianalis. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  36. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Etrumeus whiteheadi in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  37. ^ Etrumeus whiteheadi (Wongratana, 1983) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  38. ^ Etrumeus whiteheadi. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  39. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2011). Etrumeus whiteheadi. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  40. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Jenkinsia parvula in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  41. ^ Jenkinsia parvula. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  42. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Jenkinsia parvula. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  43. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Opisthonema berlangai in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  44. ^ 44.0 44.1 Opisthonema libertate. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  45. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Opisthonema berlangai. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  46. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Opisthonema medirastre in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  47. ^ Opisthonema medirastre. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  48. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Opisthonema medirastre. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  49. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Opisthonema libertate in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  50. ^ Opisthonema libertate (Günther, 1867) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  51. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Opisthonema libertate. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  52. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Opisthonema bulleri in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  53. ^ Opisthonema bulleri. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  54. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Opisthonema bulleri. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  55. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Lile nigrofasciata in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  56. ^ Lile nigrofasciata. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  57. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Lile nigrofasciata. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  58. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Denticeps clupeoides in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  59. ^ Denticeps clupeoides. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  60. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Denticeps clupeoides. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  61. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Chirocentrodon bleekerianus in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  62. ^ Chirocentrodon bleekerianus. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  63. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Chirocentrodon bleekerianus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  64. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Lile gracilis in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  65. ^ Lile gracilis. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  66. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Lile gracilis. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  67. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Harengula thrissina in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
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  69. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Harengula thrissina. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  70. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Thrattidion noctivagus in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
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  73. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Spratelloides gracilis in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
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  75. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Lile stolifera in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  76. ^ Lile stolifera. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  77. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Lile stolifera. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.
  78. ^ Froese, Rainer & Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Sierrathrissa leonensis in FishBase. 2012年April月版本
  79. ^ Sierrathrissa leonensis. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. [April 2012] (英语). 
  80. ^ {{{assessors}}} (2010). Sierrathrissa leonensis. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 撷取於April 2012.