黑殭菌屬

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索
黑殭菌屬
Metarhizium anisopliae infected cockroach (PLoS).jpg
黑殭菌殺死的蟑螂
科学分类 编辑
界: 真菌界 Fungi
门: 子囊菌门 Ascomycota
亚门: 盘菌亚门 Pezizomycotina
纲: 糞殼菌綱 Sordariomycetes
目: 肉座菌目 Hypocreales
科: 麥角菌科 Clavicipitaceae
属: 黑殭菌屬 Metarhizium
Sorokīn, 1879
模式种
黑殭菌
M. anisopliae
(Metchnikoff) Sorokīn
詳見內文

黑殭菌屬學名Metarhizium),又稱绿僵菌属,是麥角菌科的一個,其下物種為可感染昆蟲蟲生真菌英语entomopathogenic fungi。本屬物種過去多以外形區分,現代則以分子序列鑑定。許多本屬物種可感染影響農作物的害蟲,因此可用作生物農藥以抑制害蟲的生長。

分類[编辑]

1879年,俄羅斯微生物學家埃黎耶·埃黎赫·梅契尼可夫首次於奧國賽麗金龜英语Anisoplia austriaca體內分離了黑殭菌,將其歸入蟲霉屬英语Entomophthora中,命名為Entomophthora anisopliae,1883年,另一位俄羅斯生物學家N. Sorokin將其歸入新屬黑殭菌屬(Metarhizium),後來許多文獻將本屬的屬名誤植為Metarrhizium[1]。在分子生物學技術於二十世紀末問世以前,黑殭菌屬的物種多是以外形區分,其中分生孢子形態為重要的區分依據之一,較早被分出的物種包括黑殭菌、棕色绿僵菌英语Metarhizium brunneum黄绿绿僵菌英语Metarhizium flavoviride柱孢绿僵菌瑞典语Metarhizium cylindrosporumM. cicadinumM. truncatum等。1976年瑪格利特·塔洛克(Margaret Tulloch)整理本屬的物種,只承認黑殭菌(M. anisopliae)與黄绿绿僵菌(M. flavoviride)兩物種,將其他物種都視為異名變種[2] 。1991年,有研究指出許多本屬物種為蟲草屬英语Cordyceps物種的無性型英语Teleomorph, anamorph and holomorph[3],2007年,本屬的有性型與部分蟲草屬的物種一起被歸入新屬异虫草属英语Metacordyceps[4]

DNA測序普及後,本屬許多隱存種漸被發表。2000年,一篇分子種系發生學的研究發現黑殭菌與黄绿绿僵菌兩物種皆分別由許多演化支組成[5],2009年,另一篇分子種系發生學研究顯示黑殭菌M. anisopliae)為一複合種英语species complex,其下可分為九個演化支,其中許多過去為黑殭菌的變種,皆被提升至獨立物種[3],隨後亦有許多新種陸續被發表描述[6]

黑殭菌M. anisopliae)的複合種

M. globosum

蝗綠殭菌英语Metarhizium acridum M. acridum

鳞翅目绿僵菌 M. lepidiotae

棕色绿僵菌英语Metarhizium brunneum M. brunneum

罗伯茨绿僵菌 M. robertsii

黑殭菌 M. anisopliae

平沙綠僵菌英语Metarhizium pinghaense M. pinghaense

大孢绿僵菌英语Metarhizium majus M. majus

貴州绿僵菌 M. guizhouense

感染[编辑]

黑殭菌的菌絲

本屬真菌以分生孢子感染昆蟲,分生孢子接觸昆蟲體表後,可萌發長出附著器,施加機械壓力並分泌多種水解酶以穿透體表而進入血淋巴中。在血淋巴中,菌絲會出芽產生孢子(blastospores),又稱芽孢體(hyphal bodies)[7][8],可脫離菌絲而在血淋巴中游離生長、大量增殖,且其表面蛋白可抑制昆蟲的吞噬細胞對其進行攻擊[9],菌絲亦可分泌多種黑殭菌素(destruxin)等多種毒素以幫助殺死宿主[1],隨後菌絲會長出體表並將分生孢子散播至環境中。感染本屬真菌的昆蟲死後數天身上即會呈現分生孢子的顏色,依物種而異可為白色、黃色、棕色或綠色[10]

本屬許多物種可感染影響農作物的害蟲,因此可用作生物農藥以抑制害蟲的生長[11]模式種黑殭菌還可感染孑孓,有助抑制瘧疾的傳播[12]。有些物種感染的宿主種類廣泛,如罗伯茨绿僵菌M. robertsii),有些物種感染宿主的種類則較專一,如蝗綠殭菌英语Metarhizium acridum僅能感染直翅目的昆蟲[11],後者基因組編碼的蛋白質種類較前者少[13]。另外部分物種可被整體病毒科分體病毒科雙股RNA英语Double-stranded RNA viruses真菌病毒感染,可能使其感染昆蟲的能力降低[1]

本屬物種常可在土壤樣本中被分離,但其於土壤中的生長形態仍不明,亦不清楚其可於土壤中生長,或僅處於休眠狀態以等待感染宿主的機會[11][14],有研究顯示部分本屬真菌在根際環境的存活率比在周邊土壤中好[10][15]

物種[编辑]

以下為黑殭菌屬的物種列表[註 1]

  • 黑殭菌 M. anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokīn (1883)
  • 暗绿绿僵菌 M. atrovirens (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • 拟布里班克绿僵菌 M. brittlebankisoides (Zuo Y. Liu, Z.Q. Liang, Whalley, Y.J. Yao & A.Y. Liu) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • 打铁虫绿僵菌 M. campsosterni (W.M. Zhang & T.H. Li) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • M. carneum (Duché & R. Heim) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • M. guniujiangense (C.R. Li, B. Huang, M.Z. Fan & Z.Z. Li) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • M. indigoticum (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • M. kalasinense Tasan., Khons., Thanakitp., Mongkols. & Luangsa-ard (2017)
  • 草剃绿僵菌 M. kusanagiense (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • 鳞翅目绿僵菌 M. lepidiotae (Driver & Milner) J.F. Bisch., S.A. Rehner & Humber (2009)
  • M. marquandii (Massee) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • M. minus (Rombach, Humber & D.W. Roberts) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • 尾张绿僵菌 M. owariense (Kobayasi) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • M. prachinense Tasan., Khons., Thanakitp., Mongkols. & Luangsa-ard (2017)
  • 拟暗绿绿僵菌 M. pseudoatrovirens (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • M. reniforme (Samson & Evans) Luangsa-ard, Boucias & Hywel-Jones (2017)
  • 萊氏綠殭菌 M. rileyi (Farl.) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014) (舊名Nomuraea rileyi
  • M. samlanense Luangsa-ard, Thanakitp., Tasan., Mongkols. & Hywel-Jones (2017)
  • M. takense Tasan., Thanakitp., Mongkols. & Luangsa-ard (2017)
  • M. viride (Segretain, Fromentin, Destombes, Brygoo & Dodin ex Samson) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)
  • M. viridulum (Tzean, L.S. Hsieh, J.L. Chen & W.J. Wu) B. Huang & Z.Z. Li (2004)
  • M. yongmunense (G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung & Spatafora) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014)

已歸入他屬[编辑]

  • M. viridicolumnare (Matsush.) Matsush. (1993):被認為與黏帚黴屬英语Gliocladium物種Gliocladium viridicolumnare的異名[18]
  • M. martiale (Spegazzini) Kepler, S.A. Rehner & Humber (2014):已被歸入新屬Nigelia屬,與黑殭菌屬關係接近[20][21]

註腳[编辑]

  1. 部分中文名稱參考:[16][17]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Roberts, Donald W.; St. Leger, Raymond J. Metarhizium spp., Cosmopolitan Insect-Pathogenic Fungi: Mycological Aspects. Advances in Applied Microbiology. 2004, 54: 1–70. ISSN 0065-2164. doi:10.1016/S0065-2164(04)54001-7. 
  2. Tulloch, M. The genus Metarhizium. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 1976, 66 (3): 407–411. ISSN 0007-1536. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(76)80209-4. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Bischoff J.F.; Rehner S.A. Humber R.A. A multilocus phylogeny of the Metarhizium anisopliae lineage. Mycologia. 2009, 101 (4): 512–530. PMID 19623931. doi:10.3852/07-202. 
  4. Sung, G.-H.; Hywel-Jones, N.L.; Sung, J.-M.; Luangsa-ard, J.J.; Shrestha, B. & Spatafora, J.W. Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous fungi. Studies in Mycology. 2007, 57: 5–59. PMC 2104736. PMID 18490993. doi:10.3114/sim.2007.57.01. 
  5. Driver, Felice; Milner, Richard J.; Trueman, John W.H. A taxonomic revision of Metarhizium based on a phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequence data. Mycological Research. 2000, 104 (2): 134–150. ISSN 0953-7562. doi:10.1017/S0953756299001756. 
  6. Species fungorum搜索Metarhizium
  7. Butt, T.M.; Coates, C.J.; Dubovskiy, I.M.; Ratcliffe, N.A. Entomopathogenic Fungi 94: 307–364. 2016. ISSN 0065-2660. doi:10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.01.006. 
  8. Fernando E. Vega; Harry K. Kaya. Insect Pathology. Academic Press. 16 February 2012: 184. ISBN 978-0-12-384984-7. 
  9. Brian Lovett, Raymond St. Leger. Genetics and Molecular Biology of Entomopathogenic Fungi. Elsevier Science. 27 April 2016: 112–113. ISBN 978-0-444-63723-9. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Todd Ugine. Metarhizium (Order: Hypocreales, Family: Clavicipitaceae). College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Brunner-Mendoza, Carolina; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocío; Moonjely, Soumya; Bidochka, Michael J; Toriello, Conchita. A review on the genus Metarhizium as an entomopathogenic microbial biocontrol agent with emphasis on its use and utility in Mexico. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 2018, 29 (1): 83–102. ISSN 0958-3157. doi:10.1080/09583157.2018.1531111. 
  12. Bukhari T, Takken W, Koenraadt CJ. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae 4 (23). Parasites and Vectors. 2011. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-23. 
  13. Hu, Xiao; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Shang, Yanfang; Su, Yao; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Xingzhong; Zhan, Shuai; St. Leger, Raymond J.; Wang, Chengshu. Trajectory and genomic determinants of fungal-pathogen speciation and host adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2014, 111 (47): 16796–16801. ISSN 0027-8424. doi:10.1073/pnas.1412662111. 
  14. G. Douglas Inglis, Mark S. Goettel, Tariq M. Butt And Hermann Strasser. Use of hyphomycetous fungi for managing insect pests. (编) T.M. Butt, C. Jackson, N. Magan. Fungi as Biocontrol Agent: Progress, Problems and Potential (PDF). CABI Publishing. 2001: 23-70. 
  15. Hu, G.; St. Leger, R. J. Field Studies Using a Recombinant Mycoinsecticide (Metarhizium anisopliae) Reveal that It Is Rhizosphere Competent. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2002, 68 (12): 6383–6387. ISSN 0099-2240. doi:10.1128/AEM.68.12.6383-6387.2002. 
  16. 中国生物多样性红色名录—大型真菌卷 (PDF). 中国科学院 生态环境部: 62. 2018-05. 
  17. 章西. 中国绿僵菌分子分类的研究. 安徽农业大学. 2015. 
  18. Gliocladium viridicolumnare. MycoBank. 
  19. Metarhizium glutinosum. MycoBank. 
  20. Luangsa-ard, J. Jennifer; Mongkolsamrit, Suchada; Thanakitpipattana, Donnaya; Khonsanit, Artit; Tasanathai, Kanoksri; Noisripoom, Wasana; Humber, Richard A. Clavicipitaceous entomopathogens: new species in Metarhizium and a new genus Nigelia. Mycological Progress. 2017, 16 (4): 369–391. ISSN 1617-416X. doi:10.1007/s11557-017-1277-1. 
  21. Nigelia martiale. MycoBank.