鼻竇

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鼻竇
Paranasal Sinuses ant.jpg
鼻竇的前視圖
Paranasal Sinuses lat.jpg
鼻竇的側視圖
细节
拉丁文 sinus paranasales
识别标示
Gray's p.998
MeSH Paranasal+Sinuses
Dorlands Paranasal sinuses
TA英语Terminologia Anatomica A06.1.03.0054
FMA FMA:76587、59679
解剖學名詞英语Anatomical terminology

鼻竇,又名鼻旁窦,位於人的頭顱,在頭骨之間、鼻腔周圍的顱骨與臉骨之內。這些鼻竇平時充滿了空氣,並由小管與鼻腔相連。 Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces英语skeletal pneumaticity that surround the nasal cavity.[1] The maxillary sinus英语maxillary sinuses are located under the eyes; the frontal sinuses are above the eyes; the ethmoidal sinus英语ethmoidal sinuses are between the eyes and the sphenoidal sinus英语sphenoidal sinuses are behind the eyes. The sinuses英语sinus (anatomy) are named for the facial bones英语facial bones in which they are located.

四對鼻竇[编辑]

每個人都有四對鼻竇,根據所在的頭骨部位而命名。這四對鼻竇的名稱分別是:[2]

  • 上頜竇(Maxillary Sinuses):位於眼睛之下的上頷骨,是四對鼻竇中體積最大的一對。
  • 額竇(frontal Sinuses):位於眼睛之上的額骨
  • 篩竇(ethmoid Sinuses):位於眼睛和鼻之間的篩骨,並向後通往頭顱。
  • 蝶竇(sphenoid Sinuses):位於頭顱骨底部的中心。

這四對鼻竇於頭的左右側各一,共八個。

結構[编辑]

Humans possess four paired paranasal sinuses, divided into subgroups that are named according to the bones within which the sinuses lie:

The paranasal air sinuses are lined with respiratory epithelium英语respiratory epithelium (ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium).

作用[编辑]

醫學界對鼻竇在人體內的作用還未很清楚。不過,下列各項原因都有可能:

  • 減輕頭顱骨前方的重量
  • 幫助令吸入的空氣在到達肺部之前,可以更溫暖和濕潤
  • 幫助增強發聲時的共鳴
  • 當臉部受到襲擊時,可以當作一個力量的緩衝區

功能[编辑]

Lateral projection of the paranasal sinuses as seen in an X-ray image

The biological role of the sinuses is debated, but a number of possible functions have been proposed: [來源請求]

  • Decreasing the relative weight of the front of the skull, and especially the bones of the face.
  • Increasing resonance of the voice.
  • Providing a buffer against facial trauma.
  • Insulating sensitive structures like dental roots and eyes from rapid temperature fluctuations in the nasal cavity.
  • Humidifying and heating of inhaled air because of slow air turnover in this region.
  • Regulation of intranasal and serum gas pressures.
  • Immunological defense.

鼻竇炎[编辑]

鼻竇由很多稱為竇口英语Sinus ostia的小管連往鼻腔。不過當人因為普通感冒而引致鼻炎或鼻膜腫脹,都會使這些小管閉塞。當這些小管閉塞時,就會影響到鼻腔黏液滯流在鼻竇內,影響排放。如果不及早診治,就會演變成為鼻竇炎

Inflammation[编辑]

The paranasal sinuses are joined to the nasal cavity via small orifices called ostia英语sinus ostia. These become blocked easily by allergic inflammation, or by swelling in the nasal lining that occurs with a cold. If this happens, normal drainage of mucus within the sinuses is disrupted, and sinusitis may occur. Because the maxillary posterior teeth are close to the maxillary sinus, this can also cause clinical problems if any disease processes are present, such as an infection in any of these teeth. These clinical problems can include secondary sinusitis, the inflammation of the sinuses from another source such as an infection of the adjacent teeth.[3]

These conditions may be treated with drugs such as decongestant英语decongestants, which cause vasoconstriction in the sinuses; reducing inflammation; by traditional techniques of nasal irrigation; or by corticosteroid.

Development[编辑]

Paranasal sinuses form developmentally through excavation of bone by air-filled sacs (pneumatic diverticula英语skeletal pneumaticity) from the nasal cavity. This process begins prenatally, and it continues through the course of an organism's lifetime.

The results of experimental studies suggest that the natural ventilation-rate of a sinus with a single sinus ostium英语sinus ostium (opening), is extremely slow. Such limited ventilation may be protective for the sinus, as it would help prevent drying of its mucosal surface and maintain a near-sterile environment with high carbon dioxide concentrations and minimal pathogen access. Thus composition of gas content in the maxillary sinus is similar to venous blood, with high carbon dioxide and lower oxygen levels compared to breathing air.[4]

Clinical relevance[编辑]

Cancer[编辑]

Malignancies of the paranasal sinuses comprise approximately 0.2% of all malignancies. About 80% of these malignancies arise in the maxillary sinus. Men are much more often affected than women. They most often occur in the age group between 40 and 70 years. Carcinomas are more frequent than sarcomas. Metastases are rare. Tumours of the sphenoid and frontal sinuses are extremely rare.

歷史[编辑]

詞源[编辑]

Sinus is a Latin word meaning a 'fold', 'curve', or 'bay'.

其他動物[编辑]

Paranasal sinuses occur in many other animals, including most 哺乳动物、non-avian恐龙鳄目。The bones occupied by sinuses are quite variable in these other species.

圖片[编辑]

參見[编辑]

本條目使用了部分解剖術語,概述請參閱這裡英语anatomical terminology


外部連結[编辑]

維基共享資源中有關鼻竇的多媒體資源

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Paranasal sinuses. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Paranasal Sinus Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy. 2016-08-24. 
  3. ^ Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck, Fehrenbach and Herring, Elsevier, 2012, p. 68
  4. ^ http://jap.physiology.org/content/107/4/1195.long##