齊特琴

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齊特琴
2012-03-04-Trachselwald (Foto Dietrich Michael Weidmann) 002.JPG
一個典型的齊特琴
弦樂器
分類 絃樂器(一般分類法)
絃鳴樂器薩克斯分類法
H-S
分類
314.122-4
(絃線橫放、附盒形音箱的全板型齊特琴,使用琴鎚)
起源 16至17世紀
相關樂器
桑圖爾德西馬琴英语Dulcimer匈牙利揚琴英语Cimbalom

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齊特琴(德語:Zither)是一種既是指弦樂器中一個類別的樂器,已同時該類別某些特定樂器的名稱。德語的本名zither字源來自拉丁詞語 cithara,跟現代英語吉他(guitar)同源。結構演化自中世紀撥弦樂瑟(psaltery),流行於奧地利蒂羅爾巴伐利亞。琴由一個形狀扁平的木質共鳴箱,再加上4或5根的旋律弦和37根的伴奏弦所組成;旋律弦靠向彈奏者,用左手手指上的撥子彈奏。伴奏弦則可用任何一隻手的手指彈奏。齊特琴常在輕歌劇中表現情節的鄉土氣息。[1][2][3]

調音[编辑]

齊特琴的調音表如下:

ZITHER TUNING CHART
FRETTED UNFRETTED
STRING Melody Accompaniment Basses Countrabasses
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
PITCH Munich A4 A4 D4 G3 C3 Eb4 Bb3 F4 C4 G3 D4 A3 E4 B3 F#3 C#4 G#3 Eb3 Bb2 F3 C3 G2 D3 A2 E3 B2 F#2 C#3 G#2 F2 E2 Eb2 D2 C#2 C2 B1 Bb1 A1 G#1 G1 F#1 F1
Viennese A4 D4 G3 G3 C3 Ab4 Eb4 Bb3 F4 C4 G4 D4 A3 E4 B3 F#4 C#4 G#3 Eb2 Bb2 F2 C3 G2 D2 A2 E2 B2 F#2 C#2 G#2 C2 B1 Bb1 A1 G# G1 F#1 F1
Notes: Basic Concert Alpine

參考來源[编辑]

  1. ^ Strings on a table. Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster. 2013 [2013-10-26]. 
  2. ^ zither. Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 2013 [2013-10-26]. 
  3. ^ zither. Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. 2013 [2013-10-26]. 

文獻[编辑]

  • Dearling, Robert; Stringed Instruments; Chelsea House Publishing (2000). ISBN 0791060926
  • Marcuse, Sibyl; Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary; W. W. Norton & Company (1975). ISBN 0393007588
  • Mühlemann, Lorenz; Die Zither in der Schweiz: Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart ; Turtleback (1995). ISBN 3-729-60584-4 (German)
  • Ralston, Jack L.; A Selective Bibliography for the Zither; University of Missouri (1981). ASIN: B00072D9GI
  • Schuler, Manfred; Zither In Der Volksmusik , vol. 1 & 2; Unbekannt . ISBN 3-853-66837-2, 3-708-40155-7 (German)

外部連結[编辑]

  • "Fretless Zithers" at MinerMusic.com English language site dedicated to the chord zither. The authors present arguments for the instrument to be renamed 'fretless zither'. Contains some dead links.
  • "Zither collection of the University of Leipzig" German language site with pictures of vintage instruments including bowed zithers (here called Streichzithern)
  • "Zither US" English language site based in the U.S.A.. Contains biographies of early performers and personalities associated with the history of concert and Alpine zithers, mainly in the U.S. Also contacts for resources like instrument maintenance, enthusiast clubs and events.
  • 'Zithernhistorie' German language site describing transition from drone zither to 19th century Mittenwald and Salzburg concert zither
  • Zitherseite von Werner Wölfing. German language site with photographs, history and different types of zither, links to further information and resources, zither makers and players
  • Anton Karas page by his Grandson (English version) von Werner Chudik. Contains article by Günter Wittenstein discussing the zither tuning used by Karas
  • Ruth Welcome Discography