龍蝨科

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龍蝨科
"Cybister lateralimarginalis"
Cybister lateralimarginalis英语Cybister lateralimarginalis
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 节肢动物门 Arthropoda
纲: 昆虫纲 Insecta
目: 鞘翅目 Coleoptera
亚目: 肉食亞目 Adephaga
总科: 龍蝨總科 Dytiscoidea
科: 龍蝨科 Dytiscidae
Leach英语William Elford Leach, 1815
模式属
龙蝨属 Dytiscus
Linnaeus,1758
亞科

見内文

多样性
至少160個屬,約4000物種

龍蝨科Dytiscidae),亦作龍虱科,為水甲蟲英语water beetle的一種,隸屬於鞘翅目之下的肉食亞目。生活在田野、水溝、小溪等水體中,是一種掠食性水生昆蟲。其學名源於希臘文δυτικόςdytikos),意思就是「肉食性的潛水甲蟲」。本科物種幾乎見於全世界所有淡水棲境,但亦有部分於落葉堆中棲息[1]。成蟲體長一般在1和2.5 cm(0.4~1.0英寸)之間,儘管物種間的差異會比較大。當中見於歐洲的Dytiscus latissimus英语Dytiscus latissimus及巴西的Megadytes ducalis英语Megadytes ducalis有最大的體型,可分別長至4.5 cm(1.8英寸)到4.75 cm(1.9英寸)[1][2]。與之相反,擁有最小體型的物種應當為棲息於澳大利亞地下水中的Limbodessus英语Limbodessus atypicali,只有約0.9 mm(0.035英寸)長[1]。 大多數物種的顏色都在深棕色、黑色或深橄榄绿,某些亚科的物種會在其邊沿帶有金黃色的條狀斑紋[3]。 They have short, but sharp mandible (insect)英语mandible (insect)s. Immediately upon biting, they deliver digestive enzymes. The 幼体e are commonly known as water tigers.[4] The family includes more than 4,000 described 物种 in numerous .[5]

幼蟲及其發育[编辑]

A predaceous diving beetle larva ("water tiger")

When still in larval form, the beetles vary in size from about 1 to 5 cm (0.5 to 2.0 in). The larval bodies are shaped like crescents, with the tail long and covered with thin hairs. Six legs protrude from along the , which also sports the same thin hairs. The head is flat and square, with a pair of long, large pincers. When hunting, they cling to grasses or pieces of wood along the bottom, and hold perfectly still until prey passes by, then they lunge, trapping their prey between their front legs and biting down with their pincers. Their usual prey includes 蝌蚪s and glassworm英语glassworms, among other smaller water-dwelling creatures.

As the larvae mature, they crawl from the water on the sturdy legs, and bury themselves in the mud for . After about a week, or longer in some species, they emerge from the mud as adults.

食用[编辑]

本科物種的成蟲,特别是Cybister屬的物種,均為可食用昆蟲。在美國内华达州洪堡乾湖英语Humboldt Sink的一個山洞内,還在當地史前人類遺下的粪化石内發現有Cybister explanatus英语Cybister explanatus被食用的殘骸[6]。在墨西哥,他們在吃C. explanatus時會以墨西哥夹饼夾着來吃。在日本多個地區(例如:長野縣)有以日本龍蝨Cybister japonicus)為食的習慣;在中华人民共和国广东省,除了日本龍蝨以外,亦會食用C. bengalensisC. gueriniC. limbatusC. sugillatusC. tripunctatus等物種。D. marginalis英语Great diving beetle很可能也包括在內,但這個物種的肉很少。也有報告指在台灣泰国新幾內亞亦有食用本科物種的習慣[7]

一隻詳細分類未明的本科物種

Large but slow on land and not particularly fierce as adults, they are also eaten with relish by many midsized s, 哺乳动物s, and other larger 捕食s. The larvae are usually safer, due to their 保護色 and ability to escape by water jet; they can be quite hard to catch and may become 顶级掠食者s in small 池塘s.

Cultural significance[编辑]

The diving beetle plays a role in a 切羅基人 creation story. According to the narrative, upon finding nowhere to rest in the "liquid chaos" the beetle brought up soft mud from the bottom. This mud then spread out to form all of the land on Earth.[6]

Ethnobiology[编辑]

Adult Dytiscidae, as well as 豉甲科, are collected by young girls in 东非. It is believed that inducing the beetles to bite the nipples will stimulate breast growth.[6]

寄生蟲[编辑]

of the genus Dytiscacarus were found to be are highly specialised 寄生 of 鞘翅目 in the family Dytiscidae, undergoing their entire life cycle while inhabiting the space beneath the 翅鞘 of their hosts.[8]

系統分類[编辑]

本科包括下列各屬[9][10]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 G.N. Foster; D.T. Bilton. The Conservation of Predaceous Diving Beetles: Knowns, Unknowns and Anecdotes. (编) D.A. Yee. Ecology, Systematics, and the Natural History of Predaceous Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). 2014: 437–462. ISBN 978-94-017-9109-0. 
  2. ^ Archived copy. [2015-05-19]. (原始内容存档于2015-05-21). 
  3. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为guokr的参考文献提供内容
  4. ^ G.C. McGavin. Insects. 2010: 86–87. ISBN 978-1-4053-4997-0. 
  5. ^ Nilsson, A.N. A World Catalogue of the Family Dytiscidae, or the Diving Beetles (Coleoptera, Adephaga) (PDF). University of Umeå. 2013 [10 April 2018]. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Miller, Kelly; Bergsten, Johannes. Diving Beetles of the World: Systematics and Biology of the Dytiscidae. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 3 October 2016: 20. 
  7. ^ De Foliart (2002), Jäch (2003), CSIRO (2004)
  8. ^ Mortazavi et al. (2018) A new family of mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Raphignathina), highly specialized subelytral parasites of dytiscid water beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Dytiscinae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 184 (3): 695–749. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx113
  9. ^ Dytiscidae Species List. Joel Hallan's Biology Catalog. Texas A&M University. [2012-05-07] (英语). 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Dytiscidae 龍蝨科. TaiBIF. [2019-03-13] (中文(繁體)‎). 
  • 联邦科学与工业研究组织 (CSIRO) (2004): Water for a Healthy Country - Family Dytiscidae. Version of 2004-JUL-02. Retrieved 2008-AUG-04
  • De Foliart, Gene R. (2002): Chapter 26 - Eastern Asia: China, Japan, and other countries. In: The Human Use of Insects as a Food Resource: A Bibliographic Account in Progress.
  • Jäch, Manfred A. (2003): Fried water beetles Cantonese style. American Entomologist 49(1): 34-37. PDF fulltext
  • Larson, D.J., Alarie, Y., and Roughley, R.E. (2000): Predaceous Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) of the Nearctic Region, with emphasis on the fauna of Canada and Alaska. NRC Research Press, Ottawa. ISBN 978-0-660-17967-4.

外部連結[编辑]