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2008年夏季奥林匹克运动会奖牌榜

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显示世界各国代表团在2008年夏季奥林匹克运动会上所获成绩的地图
金色表示这些国家至少获得了一枚金牌
银色表示这些国家没有获得金牌但至少获得了一枚银牌
棕色表示这些国家没有获得金牌或银牌,但至少获得了一枚铜牌
绿色表示这些国家没有获得奖牌
黑色表示这些国家没有参加本届奥运会
A 黄色方块显示了主办城市北京的位置
蓝色星号表示这些国家于史上首次获得奥运会奖牌
2008年夏季奥运会奖牌金镶玉:银牌(左)、金牌(中)、铜牌(右)

2008年夏季奥林匹克运动会奖牌榜根据國家奧林匹克委員會的排名排列[1]2008年夏季奥林匹克运动会于2008年8月8日至8月24日在中华人民共和国首都北京市举行,共有来自204个国家和地区的11028名运动员参加了28个大项,共302项赛事的比赛[2]

一共有来自86个代表团的运动员赢得了奖牌,另外118个代表团没有获得奖牌,54个代表团赢得了至少1枚金牌。无论是在获得金牌的代表团数量还是获得奖牌的代表团数量都创下了夏季奥运会的新纪录。东道主中国队一共赢得了48枚金牌,名列第一,这也是中国参加夏季奥运会历史上首次位居榜首。美国队获得的奖牌总数最多,有110枚。来自阿富汗[3]毛里求斯[4]苏丹[5]塔吉克斯坦[6]多哥[7]代表团的运动员获得了该国参加夏季奥运会历史上的第一枚奖牌。来自蒙古(過去幾屆奧運獎牌都沒有金牌)[8]巴拿马[9]代表团的运动员赢得了该国参加夏季奥运会历史上的第一枚金牌。塞尔维亚游泳运动员米洛拉德·查维奇为该国赢得一枚银牌,成为该国以独立国家名义获得的首枚奥运会奖牌。塞尔维亚在历史上曾作为南斯拉夫塞尔维亚和黑山的一部分参加奥运会并赢得过奖牌[10]萨摩亚在2016年重新藥檢後的獎牌重分配中獲得歷史首面獎牌。

奖牌榜[编辑]

Olympic rings with white rims.svg 2008年奥运会
国际奥委会 · 中国奥委会 · 香港奧委會 · 奥组委
射击男子定向飛靶比赛奖牌得主,从左到右依次为:获得银牌的挪威运动员托尔·布罗沃德,获得金牌的美国运动员文森特·汉考克及获得铜牌的法国运动员安东尼·特拉斯
来自荷兰的运动员马腾·凡·德·韦登获得了男子10公里公开水域游泳比赛的金牌
体操男子蹦床比赛奖牌得主,从左到右依次为:获得金牌的陆春龙和获得铜牌的董栋,两人都是来自中国,获得银牌的加拿大运动员杰森·伯纳特
男子400米混合泳比赛奖牌得主,从左到右依次为:获得铜牌的瑞安·洛赫特和获得金牌的迈克尔·菲尔普斯,两人都来自美国,获得银牌的匈牙利运动员切赫·拉斯洛
来自巴西的凯特琳·夸德罗斯赢得了女子57公斤级柔道比赛冠军
来自澳大利亚的爱玛·斯诺斯尔和爱玛·莫发特分别获得了女子铁人三项比赛的金牌和铜牌

本奖牌榜排名信息由国际奥林匹克委员会提供,与国际奥林匹克委员会全体委员大会公布的奖牌榜一致。默认情况下,奖牌榜的排名首先会根据该国代表团运动员所获得的金牌总数进行排列,如果金牌数出现相同的情况,则会根据银牌总数进行排列,如果银牌总数仍然相同,则将按铜牌数量予以排名,如果这时仍然不能分出高下,则会并列排在同一个名次,按照国际奥委会国家代码的字母顺序依次排出。

拳击柔道跆拳道摔跤的各个重量级比赛中都不会再在两个半决赛的负方之间举行铜牌争夺战,而是各授予一枚铜牌[11]。因此,铜牌的总数将明显超过金牌和银牌,不过其中也有例外。在男子84公斤级古典式摔跤的颁奖典礼上,阿拉·阿布拉哈米安因其不当举动而被剥夺了奖牌。此外在女子100米短跑比赛中由于有两位运动员同时冲线,因此这场比赛发出了两枚银牌,没有授予铜牌[12]男子100米背泳男子100米自由泳中也各有两名运动员同时到达终点,因此两场比赛都授予了两枚铜牌[13]

图例

  *  东道主(中国)   ‡  賽後發生變動(見下文)

2008年奥林匹克运动会奖牌榜
排名 国家 金牌 银牌 铜牌 總數
1 中國*‡ 48 21 29 98
2 美国 36 39 36 111
3 俄罗斯 22 15 23 60
4 英国 19 13 15 47
5 德国 16 10 15 41
6 澳大利亚 14 15 17 46
7 韩国 13 11 8 32
8 日本 9 7 9 25
9 義大利 8 9 10 27
10 法国 7 16 19 42
11 荷兰 7 5 4 16
12 乌克兰 7 4 13 24
13 肯尼亚 6 4 4 14
14 西班牙 5 10 4 19
15 牙买加 5 3 2 10
16 波兰 4 5 2 11
17 罗马尼亚 4 1 4 9
18 埃塞俄比亚 4 1 2 7
19 加拿大 3 9 8 20
20 匈牙利 3 5 2 10
21 挪威 3 5 1 9
22 巴西 3 4 10 17
23 白俄羅斯 3 4 6 13
24 捷克 3 3 1 7
25 新西兰 3 2 4 9
26 格鲁吉亚 3 2 2 7
27 斯洛伐克 3 2 1 6
28 古巴 2 10 15 27
29 丹麥 2 2 3 7
30 朝鲜 2 2 2 6
31 泰国 2 2 1 5
32 蒙古 2 2 0 4
33 瑞士 2 1 4 7
34 阿根廷 2 0 4 6
35 墨西哥 2 0 1 3
36 比利時 2 0 0 2
37 哈薩克 1 3 4 8
38 土耳其 1 3 3 7
39 津巴布韦 1 3 0 4
40 斯洛文尼亚 1 2 2 5
41 亞塞拜然 1 1 4 6
印尼 1 1 4 6
43 保加利亞 1 1 3 5
烏茲別克 1 1 3 5
45 芬兰 1 1 2 4
中華台北 1 1 2 4
47 拉脱维亚 1 1 1 3
48 多明尼加 1 1 0 2
爱沙尼亚 1 1 0 2
葡萄牙 1 1 0 2
特立尼达和多巴哥 1 1 0 2
52 印度 1 0 2 3
53 伊朗 1 0 1 2
54 喀麥隆 1 0 0 1
巴拿马 1 0 0 1
突尼西亞 1 0 0 1
57 瑞典 0 4 1 5
58 立陶宛 0 3 2 5
59 克羅埃西亞 0 2 3 5
尼日利亚 0 2 3 5
61 希腊 0 2 1 3
62 亞美尼亞 0 1 4 5
63 奥地利 0 1 2 3
哥倫比亞 0 1 2 3
爱尔兰 0 1 2 3
塞尔维亚 0 1 2 3
67 阿爾及利亞 0 1 1 2
巴哈馬 0 1 1 2
吉爾吉斯 0 1 1 2
摩洛哥 0 1 1 2
塔吉克 0 1 1 2
72 智利 0 1 0 1
厄瓜多 0 1 0 1
冰岛 0 1 0 1
马来西亚 0 1 0 1
萨摩亚 0 1 0 1
新加坡 0 1 0 1
南非 0 1 0 1
苏丹 0 1 0 1
越南 0 1 0 1
81 阿富汗 0 0 1 1
埃及 0 0 1 1
以色列 0 0 1 1
毛里求斯 0 0 1 1
摩尔多瓦 0 0 1 1
多哥 0 0 1 1
委內瑞拉 0 0 1 1
合计(86个代表团) 302 303 353 958

奖牌榜上的变化[编辑]

托尼·安德烈·汉森所获得的铜牌因其赛马检验出违禁药物而被取消

白俄罗斯选手瓦季姆·杰维亚托夫斯基和伊万·齐汉分别在男子链球比赛中获得银牌和铜牌,但均被检出睾酮水平异常。两人于9月份出席纪律听证会,后在2008年12月11日被剥夺奖牌。匈牙利代表团的克里斯蒂安·帕尔斯因此获银牌,日本代表团室伏广治则获得铜牌。[14]不过,之后由于发现药检工作程序上存在失当,两名白俄罗斯运动员向国际体育仲裁院成功上诉,奖牌于2010年6月10日恢复[15]



2009年11月18日,国际奥林匹克委员会宣布剥夺两名运动员所获得的奖牌。第一位是巴林选手拉希德·拉姆兹,他在男子1500米比赛中夺冠,这本是巴林历史上首枚奥运金牌。然而,他的冷冻血液样本经重新检验发现微量连续促红细胞生成素受体激活剂,属刺激类兴奋剂。原本获此项比赛银牌的肯尼亚运动员阿斯贝尔·基普鲁托·基普罗普因此获金牌,原本获铜牌的新西兰选手尼古拉斯·威利斯获银牌,法国运动员迈赫迪·巴拉获铜牌。第二位是意大利自行车运动员达维德·雷贝林,他也因检出连续促红细胞生成素受体激活剂呈阳性而被剥夺男子公路自行车赛的银牌。原本获铜牌的瑞士运动员法比安·坎切拉拉因此得到银牌,俄罗斯选手亚历山大·科洛布涅夫也因此获铜牌。[16][17][18]

另外,因為2015年陸續揭發嚴重的禁藥醜聞,因此於2016年再次複檢,顯示有數名運動員使用禁藥,再變動不少獎牌。[19][20][21]

從2015年至2016年10月為止,俄羅斯在此次重驗被追回7面奧運獎牌[22]

Ruling date Sport/Event NOC 1 2 3 Total Comment
List of official changes in medal standings (during the Games)
15 August 2008 Shooting
Men's 10 metre air pistol
朝鲜 −1 −1 2008年8月15日,国际奥林匹克委员会宣布朝鲜射击运动员金钟秀经测试其体内违禁药物普萘洛尔呈阳性,因此剥夺他的两枚奖牌。他之前在男子10米空气手枪比赛中获铜牌,还在男子50米手枪比赛中获银牌。金钟秀的比赛成绩宣告无效后,男子10米空气手枪的铜牌授予美国运动员杰森·特纳,男子50米手枪的银牌发给中国选手谭宗亮,原本谭宗亮获得的铜牌则由俄罗斯运动员弗拉基米尔·伊萨科夫收入囊中。[23]
美国 +1 +1
Shooting
Men's 50 metre pistol
朝鲜 −1 −1
中國 +1 −1 0
俄罗斯 +1 +1
16 August 2008 Wrestling
Men's Greco-Roman 84 kg
瑞典 −1 −1 瑞典摔跤运动员阿拉·阿布拉哈米安男子古典式84公斤级比赛中赢得铜牌。但就在颁奖仪式上,他走下领奖台把所获奖牌扔在地上,作为对比赛裁决的抗议。8月16日,国际奥林匹克委员会决定剥夺他的奖牌,因为他们认为这位运动员的行为已经属于政治示威,是对其他运动员的不敬。[24]
22 August 2008 Athletics
Women's heptathlon
乌克兰 −1 −1 乌克兰运动员柳德米拉·布隆斯卡本在女子七项全能比赛中获得银牌,但经药检其体内的甲睾酮呈阳性。2008年8月22日,国际奥林匹克委员会正式剥夺了布隆斯卡的奖牌,美国代表团海利亚丝·方丹因此获得银牌,俄罗斯代表团的塔季扬娜·切尔诺娃获铜牌。[25]
美国 +1 −1 0
俄罗斯 +1 +1
List of official changes in medal standings (after the Games)
22 December 2008 Equestrian
Team jumping
挪威 −1 −1 挪威代表团马术运动员托尼·安德烈·汉森所骑赛马经检测发现体内含有违禁止痛药物辣椒素,导致他在团体场地障碍赛中的成绩也被取消。根据比赛规则,每队伍有4名运动员参赛,根据总成绩进行排名。汉森是挪威队成绩最好的一位,取消他的成绩也意味着挪威队失去这枚铜牌,瑞士队因此于2008年12月22日成为铜牌得主。[26]
瑞士 +1 +1
18 November 2009 Athletics
Men's 1500 metres
巴林 −1 −1 On November 18, 2009, the IOC announced that two medalists had been stripped of their medals. First, Rashid Ramzi of Bahrain had been stripped of the gold medal in the men's 1500 m race. Ramzi had been the first athlete from Bahrain to win an Olympic gold medal. His frozen blood sample was re-tested and found to contain traces of Cera, a stamina-building blood-booster. Kenyan Asbel Kipruto Kiprop was upgraded to gold, Nicholas Willis of New Zealand was given the silver and Mehdi Baala of France received the bronze. Also, Italian cyclist Davide Rebellin had tested positive for Cera and had been stripped of the silver medal he earned in the men's road race.[27] The silver medal was later awarded to Fabian Cancellara of Switzerland (the original bronze medal recipient) and the bronze medal was awarded to Alexandr Kolobnev of Russia.[28][29]
肯尼亚 +1 −1 0
新西兰 +1 −1 0
法国 +1 +1
Cycling
Men's road race
義大利 −1 −1
瑞士 +1 −1 0
俄罗斯 +1 +1
20 August 2014 Athletics
Men's shot put
白俄羅斯 −1 −1 In 2012, IAAF announced that retested doping samples from the 2005 World Athletics Championships of shotputter Andrei Mikhnevich was found positive for 3 anabolic steroids: Clenbuterol, Methandienone and Oxandrolone. On 20 August 2014, IOC disqualified his results from the 2008 Summer Olympics and allocated the bronze medal.[30]
加拿大 +1 +1
List of official changes in medal standings (2016 wave of retesting)
22 July 2016 Weightlifting
Women's 48 kg
土耳其 −1 −1 On 22 July 2016, Sibel Özkan (Turkey) was disqualified due to an anti-doping rule violation and stripped of her silver medal.[31]
16 August 2016 Athletics
Women's 4 × 100 metres relay
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 16 August 2016, the Russian women's 4 × 100 metres relay team was disqualified for doping. Russian teammates were stripped of their gold Olympic medals, as Yuliya Chermoshanskaya had her samples reanalyzed and tested positive for two prohibited substances.[32]
The IOC has requested IAAF to modify the results accordingly and to consider any further action within its own competence.,[33] and medals were redistributed.[34]
比利時 +1 −1 0
尼日利亚 +1 −1 0
巴西 +1 +1
19 August 2016 Athletics
Women's 4 × 400 metres relay
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 19 August 2016, the Russian women's 4 × 400 metres relay team was disqualified for doping.[35] Russian teammates were stripped of their silver Olympic medals, as Anastasiya Kapachinskaya had her samples reanalyzed and tested positive for the same two prohibited substances as Chermoshanskaya.[36] On 31 August 2016, the IOC separately disqualified Tatyana Firova, who finished second with teammates in the 4 × 400 m relay.
31 August 2016 Weightlifting
Men's 69 kg
亞美尼亞 −1 −1 On 31 August 2016, the IOC disqualified six sportspeople for failing doping tests at the 2008 Games. They included Russian weightlifter medalists Nadezhda Evstyukhina (bronze medal in the women's 75 kg event) and Marina Shainova (silver medal in the women's 58 kg event). Bronze medal weightlifter Tigran Martirosyan of Armenia (men's 69 kg event) and fellow weightlifters Alexandru Dudoglo (9th place) of Moldova and Intigam Zairov (9th place) of Azerbaijan were also disqualified.[37]
The IOC has requested IWF to modify the results of the weightlifting events, and IWF has reallocated medals accordingly.[38]
古巴 +1 +1
Weightlifting
Women's 75 kg
俄罗斯 −1 −1
西班牙 +1 +1
Weightlifting
Women's 58 kg
俄罗斯 −1 −1
朝鲜 +1 −1 0
泰国 +1 +1
1 September 2016 Athletics
Women's discus throw
古巴 −1 −1 On 1 September 2016, the IOC disqualified a further two athletes. Cuban discus thrower Yarelys Barrios, who won a silver medal in the women's discus, was disqualified after testing positive for Acetazolamide and ordered to return her medal. Qatari sprinter Samuel Francis, who finished 16th in the 100 meters, was also disqualified after testing positive for Stanozolol.[39]
13 September 2016 Athletics
Women's javelin throw
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 13 September 2016, four more Russian athletes were disqualified for doping offenses. Two of those were medalists from the 2008 Summer Olympics: silver medalist Mariya Abakumova in the women's javelin throw and Denis Alekseyev, who was part of the bronze medal team in the men's 4 × 400 m relay. Inga Abitova, who finished 6th in the 10,000 meters, and cyclist Ekaterina Gnidenko also tested positive for a banned substance and were disqualified.[40]
Athletics
Men's 4 × 400 m relay
俄罗斯 −1 −1
6 October 2016 Athletics
Women's high jump
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 6 October 2016, the IOC disqualified Anna Chicherova of the Russian Federation for testing positive for performance-enhancing drugs. She won a bronze medal in the women's high jump. Russia would likely keep the bronze medal, as the fourth-place athlete in the competition was also from Russia.[41]
26 October 2016 Weightlifting
Men's 85 kg
白俄羅斯 −1 −1 On 26 October 2016, the IOC disqualified 9 more athletes for failing drugs tests at the 2008 games. Amongst them were 6 medal winners. Andrei Rybakou and Nastassia Novikava both from Belarus, Olha Korobka of Ukraine, Ekaterina Volkova of the Russian Federation, Soslan Tigiev of Uzbekistan and Taimuraz Tigiyev of Kazakhstan.[42]
The IOC has requested UWW to modify the results of the wrestling events, and UWW has reallocated medals accordingly.[43][44]
The IOC has requested IWF to modify the results of the weightlifting events, and IWF has reallocated medals accordingly.[38]
亞美尼亞 +1 −1 0
古巴 +1 +1
Weightlifting
Women's 53 kg
白俄羅斯 −1 −1
印尼 +1 +1
Weightlifting
Women's +75 kg
乌克兰 −1 −1
萨摩亚 +1 +1
Athletics
Women's 3000 metres steeplechase
俄罗斯 −1 −1
Wrestling
Men's freestyle 74 kg
烏茲別克 −1 −1
白俄羅斯 +1 −1 0
罗马尼亚 +1 +1
Wrestling
Men's freestyle 96 kg
哈薩克 −1 −1
格鲁吉亚 +1 −1 0
古巴 +1 +1
17 November 2016 Weightlifting
Men's 94 kg
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 17 November 2016, the IOC disqualified 16 more athletes for failing drugs tests at the 2008 games. Amongst them were 10 medal winners. Khadzhimurat Akkayev, Khasan Baroyev and Dmitry Lapikov from the Russian Federation, Mariya Grabovetskaya, Asset Mambetov and Irina Nekrassova from Kazakhstan, Nataliya Davydova, Denys Yurchenko both from Ukraine, Hrysopiyí Devetzí of Greece and Vitaliy Rahimov of Azerbaijan.[45]
The IOC has requested UWW to modify the results of the wrestling events, and UWW has reallocated medals accordingly.[43][44]
The IOC has requested IWF to modify the results of the weightlifting events, and IWF has reallocated medals accordingly.[38]
古巴 +1 +1
Weightlifting
Women's 69 kg
乌克兰 −1 −1
哥倫比亞 +1 +1
Athletics
Women's triple jump
希腊 −1 −1
Weightlifting
Women's +75 kg
哈薩克 −1 −1
尼日利亚 +1 +1
Weightlifting
Men's 105 kg
俄罗斯 −1 −1
波兰 +1 +1
Weightlifting
Women's 63 kg
哈薩克 −1 −1
中華台北 +1 −1 0
加拿大 +1 +1
Athletics
Men's pole vault
乌克兰 −1 −1
美国 +1 +1
Wrestling
Men's Greco-Roman 60 kg
亞塞拜然 −1 −1
哈薩克 +1 −1 0
中國 +1 +1
Wrestling
Men's Greco-Roman 96 kg
哈薩克 −1 −1
捷克 +1 +1
Wrestling
Men's Greco-Roman 120 kg
俄罗斯 −1 −1
立陶宛 +1 −1 0
法国 +1 +1
25 November 2016 Athletics
Women's hammer throw
白俄羅斯 −1 −1 On 25 November 2016, the IOC disqualified Aksana Miankova and Natallia Mikhnevich both from Belarus and Ilya Ilin from Kazakhstan.[46]
The IOC has requested IWF to modify the results of the weightlifting events, and IWF has reallocated medals accordingly.[38]
Athletics
Women's shot put
白俄羅斯 −1 −1
Weightlifting
Men's 94 kg
哈薩克 −1 −1
波兰 +1 −1 0
格鲁吉亚 +1 +1
12 January 2017 Weightlifting
Women's 48 kg
中國 −1 −1 On 12 January 2017, the IOC disqualified Chen Xiexia, Liu Chunhong and Cao Lei all from China and Nadzeya Ostapchuk from Belarus.[47] Due to doping of original silver medalist Sibel Özkan, Chen Wei-ling was upgraded her position from bronze to gold medal[48], Im Jyoung-hwa to silver medal, and Pensiri Laosirikul to bronze medal on Women's 48 kg Weightlifting[38]
中華台北 +1 -1 0
韩国 +1 +1
泰国 +1 +1
Weightlifting
Women's 69 kg
中國 −1 −1
Weightlifting
Women's 75 kg
中國 −1 −1
Athletics
Women's shot put
白俄羅斯 −1 −1
25 January 2017 Athletics
Men's 4 × 100 metres relay
牙买加 −1 −1 On 25 January 2017, the Jamaican team were stripped of the gold medal place in the men's 4 × 100 m relay due to Nesta Carter testing positive for the prohibited substance methylhexaneamine.[49][50][51]

Tatyana Lebedeva of Russia lost 2 silver medals in women's triple jump and long jump due to use of turinabol[52]

Athletics
Women's long jump
俄罗斯 −1 −1
Athletics
Women's triple jump
俄罗斯 −1 −1
1 March 2017 Modern pentathlon
Women's modern pentathlon
乌克兰 −1 −1 On 1 March 2017, the IOC disqualified Victoria Tereshchuk due to use of turinabol [53]
29 March 2017 Athletics
Women's 5000 metres
土耳其 −1 −1 On 29 March 2017, Elvan Abeylegesse was stripped of two silver medals due to use of doping [54]
Athletics
Women's 10000 metres
土耳其 −1 −1
5 April 2017 Wrestling
Men's freestyle 120 kg
烏茲別克 −1 −1 On 5 April 2017, the IOC disqualified the Uzbek wrestler Artur Taymazov due to use of turinabol and stanozolol. Ukrainian wrestler Vasyl Fedoryshyn was disqualified due to use of turinabol.[55]
Wrestling
Men's freestyle 60 kg
乌克兰 −1 −1
24 April 2017 Athletics
Women's heptathlon
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 24 April 2017, Tatyana Chernova of Russia was disqualified due to use of turinabol [56]
List of official changes by country
NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total
俄罗斯 −1 −6 −4 −11
白俄羅斯 −1 −1 −4 −6
乌克兰 0 −3 −3 −6
哈薩克 −1 −1 −3 −5
土耳其 0 −3 0 −3
中國 −3 +1 0 −2
烏茲別克 −1 −1 0 −2
朝鲜 0 0 −2 −2
巴林 −1 0 0 −1
牙买加 −1 0 0 −1
亞塞拜然 0 −1 0 −1
義大利 0 −1 0 −1
亞美尼亞 0 +1 −2 −1
希腊 0 0 −1 −1
挪威 0 0 −1 −1
瑞典 0 0 −1 −1
比利時 +1 −1 0 0
肯尼亚 +1 −1 0 0
千里達及托巴哥 +1 −1 0 0
中華台北 +1 +1 −2 0
日本 0 +1 −1 0
立陶宛 0 +1 −1 0
新西兰 0 +1 −1 0
波兰 +1 −1 +1 +1
格鲁吉亚 0 +2 −1 +1
捷克 0 +1 0 +1
尼日利亚 0 +1 0 +1
萨摩亚 0 +1 0 +1
瑞士 0 +1 0 +1
美国 0 +1 +1 +2
巴西 0 0 +2 +2
哥倫比亞 0 0 +1 +1
印尼 0 0 +1 +1
泰国 0 0 +2 +2
罗马尼亚 0 0 +1 +1
韩国 0 +1 0 +1
西班牙 0 0 +1 +1
加拿大 0 0 +2 +2
法国 0 0 +2 +2
古巴 0 −1 +4 +3

参阅[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

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  56. ^ https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-two-athletes-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-beijing-2008-and-london-2012

外部链接[编辑]