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對伊斯蘭國的軍事打擊

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對伊斯蘭國的軍事打擊
敘利亞內戰伊拉克內戰利比亞內戰博科聖地叛亂英语Boko Haram insurgency北高加索叛亂摩洛衝突英语Moro conflict西奈半島動亂反恐戰爭的一部分
2014 military intervention against ISIS collage.png
日期 2014年6月13日-至今
(3年11月1周又5天)
地点 敘利亞伊拉克利比亞奈及利亞阿富汗巴基斯坦北高加索東南亞
状态
  • 伊斯蘭國和蓋達組織在伊拉克、敘利亞、利比亞、阿富汗等地的據點遭到空襲
  • 多國人道救援行動
  • 支援當地的地面部隊
  • 數以百萬計的伊拉克和敘利亞平民逃離家園
  • 2015年1月和11月在巴黎發生恐怖襲擊,其後在歐洲有更多恐襲發生
  • 數以千計的平民在伊拉克和敘利亞被伊斯蘭國處死
  • 伊斯蘭國在敘利亞的控制區大幅縮減,2017年底甚至完全失去在伊拉克領土的控制
  • 敘利亞庫德族在敘北部建立自治政府
  • 伊斯蘭國失去在利比亞的所有根據地[60][61]
  • 博科聖地失去部分控制區[62]
参战方

在敘利亞和伊拉克:
Seal of Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve.svg CJTF–OIR
美國 美国 (也在利比亞和喀麥隆打擊伊斯蘭國)[1]
 澳大利亚[2][3]
 加拿大(2014–17)[4]
 比利時(2014–17)[5]
 丹麥(2014–16)[6][7]
 瑞典[8]
 法国[9][10]
 德國[11][12][13]
 義大利[14][15]
 土耳其(2014–17)[16][17]
 荷蘭[18][19]
 约旦[20]
 摩洛哥(2014–16)[21][22][23][24]
 英國[25][26][27]


 伊朗[28]


只限於敘利亞:


支援:


俄敘兩伊聯盟
俄羅斯 俄罗斯(空襲)[47]
 叙利亚
 伊朗[48]
 伊拉克

真主党[49][50]


當地部隊:


埃及領導的干預:
(在利比亞)
 埃及
 利比亞


尼日利亞領導的干預:
博科圣地於2015年加入ISIL)
 奈及利亞
 喀麦隆
 乍得
 尼日尔
 布隆迪
 美國


 阿尔及利亚[53]


伊斯兰国


基地组织

敘利亞突厥斯坦伊斯蘭黨[58]


指挥官和领导者

唐納·川普(2017年1月-)
阿什顿·卡特(國防部長,至2017年1月)
詹姆斯·马蒂斯(國防部長,2017年1月-)
劳埃德·奥斯汀三世(中央司令部司令;至2016年)
约瑟夫·邓福德(參謀長聯席會議主席)

文翠珊
房應麟(國防大臣,至2017年11月)
Nick Houghton(國防參謀長;至2016年)
斯圖爾特·彼奇(國防參謀長;2016年-)
Andrew Pulford(空軍參謀長;至2016年)
Stephen Hillier(空軍參謀長;2016年-)
托尼·阿博特(總理;至2015年)
麦肯·腾博(總理;2015年-)
戴維·約翰斯頓(聯合作戰司令部司令)

夏尔·米歇尔(首相)
Steven Vandeput(國防大臣)
巴林 哈迈德·本·伊萨·本·萨勒曼·阿勒哈利法
史蒂芬·哈珀(總理;至2015年)
賈斯汀·杜魯多(總理;2015年以後)
Thomas J. Lawson(國防參謀長;至2015年)
Jonathan Vance(國防參謀長;2015年以後)
赫勒·托寧-施密特(首相;至2015年)
拉爾斯·勒克·拉斯穆森(首相;2015年-)
法国 弗朗索瓦·奥朗德(至2017年)[63]
法国 让—伊夫·勒·德里安(國防部長;至2017年)
法国 皮埃爾·德·維利耶(總參謀長,至2017年)
安格拉·默克爾
乌尔苏拉·冯德莱恩(國防部長)
马泰奥·伦齐
保羅·真蒂洛尼
阿卜杜拉二世
Abdullah Ensour(首相;至2016年)
摩洛哥 穆罕默德六世
摩洛哥 阿卜杜勒-伊拉·本·基兰(首相;至2017年)
挪威 埃尔娜·索尔伯格
荷蘭 馬克·呂特
馬塞洛·雷貝洛·德索薩
安東尼奧·科斯塔
卡達 塔米姆·本·哈邁德·阿勒薩尼
沙烏地阿拉伯 阿卜杜拉國王(2015年病逝)
沙烏地阿拉伯 薩勒曼國王(2015年-)
西班牙 马里亚诺·拉霍伊
雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安
比纳利·耶伊尔德勒姆(總理;2016年-)
Hulusi Akar(總參謀長;2015年-)
阿拉伯聯合大公國 哈利法·本·扎耶德·阿勒纳哈扬


叙利亚 巴沙尔·阿萨德


伊拉克 努里·马利基(總理;至2014年9月)
伊拉克 海德尔·阿巴迪(總理;2014年9月以後)


马苏德·巴尔扎尼(至2017年)


伊朗 阿里·哈梅內伊
伊朗 哈桑·鲁哈尼
伊朗 卡西姆·蘇萊曼尼(聖城軍司令)
哈桑·纳斯鲁拉


俄羅斯 弗拉基米尔·普京
俄羅斯 德米特里·梅德韦杰夫
俄羅斯 谢尔盖·绍伊古
俄羅斯 维克多·邦达列夫
俄羅斯 Andrei Kartapolov


黎巴嫩 米切尔·奥恩(總統)
黎巴嫩 塔馬姆·薩拉姆(總理)


巴基斯坦 納瓦茲·謝里夫
巴基斯坦 Raheel Sharif(陸軍參謀長)
阿富汗 阿什拉夫·加尼·艾哈迈德扎伊(總統)
阿富汗 阿卜杜拉·阿卜杜拉


Qais al-Khazali
Hadi al-Amiri


埃及 阿卜杜勒-法塔赫·塞西
利比亚 阿基拉·萨拉赫·伊萨
利比亚 哈利法·贝加斯姆·哈夫塔尔
利比亚 Saqer al-Joroushi


奈及利亞 穆罕默杜·布哈里
乍得 伊德里斯·代比
喀麦隆 保罗·比亚
尼日尔 马哈马杜·伊素福
蒲隆地 皮埃尔·恩库伦齐扎


阿尔及利亚 阿卜杜勒-阿齐兹·布特弗利卡
阿尔及利亚 阿卜杜勒-马利克·塞拉勒
阿尔及利亚 Ahmed Gaid Salah(武裝部隊參謀長)

阿布·贝克尔·巴格达迪(首領)[64]
伊拉克和沙姆伊斯兰国 阿布·阿里·安巴里 (副首領)[65][66]
伊拉克和沙姆伊斯兰国 阿布·穆罕默德·阿德纳尼 (發言人)
阿布·阿伊曼·伊拉吉 (Military Shura頭目)[67][68]
阿布·穆斯利姆·图尔克马尼 (伊拉克副首領)[69]
阿布·奥马尔·舒斯哈尼 (敘利亞指揮官)[70][71][72][73]
Abu Muhammad al-Kadari (北高加索指揮官)
阿布巴卡爾·謝考(伊斯蘭國西非埃米爾)[54]
等人


Abu Khayr al-Masri (基地副首領)[74][75][76]
Abu Jaber(沙姆解放組織首領)
Abu Mohammad al-Julani(努斯拉陣線首領)
Mohammed Islambouli(呼羅珊首領)[77]
等人


兵力




ISIL:


伤亡与损失

罗贾瓦 敘利亞庫爾德斯坦:

  • 1,636–1,805名戰士喪生[160]

伊拉克库尔德斯坦 伊拉克庫爾德斯坦:

  • 超過1,500名戰士喪生[161]
  • 超過6,000名戰士負傷[162]
  • 52名戰士失蹤[163]

埃及 埃及:

  • 700名安全部隊人員喪生[164]

乍得 乍得:

奈及利亞 尼日利亞:

  • 未知

伊朗 伊朗:

美國 美國;

伊拉克和沙姆伊斯兰国 伊斯蘭國:


基地组织

Jaysh al-Sunna


自由沙姆人伊斯蘭運動

13,568名伊拉克和敘利亞平民被伊斯蘭國殺害[161][184][185]
2,500名平民死於聯軍在伊拉克和敘利亞的空襲[186][187]
7名平民死於在利比亞的空襲[188]
超過650名平民在伊拉克和敘利亞以外被伊斯蘭國殺害

7,600,000名敘利亞平民[189]及3,300,000名伊拉克平民[189]流離失所

對伊斯蘭國的軍事打擊是指自2014年6月以来,以美國俄罗斯和世界上多达70多个的国家的多國軍事部隊為打擊伊斯蘭國而在伊拉克敘利亞境內實施的軍事行動。

在此之前伊斯蘭國勢力快速奪取了伊拉克敘利亞兩地的大片領土,成為2014年上半年迅速崛起的一股武裝勢力。出於國際社會對其侵犯人權行為的廣泛譴責和擔憂,以及自身懷疑其勢力的崛起可能會進一步加劇中東特別是敘利亞地區的混亂態勢,許多國家紛紛出兵介入伊拉克和敘利亞的局勢,對伊斯蘭國進行監控、干預以及剿滅[190]

2014年6月中旬伊朗根據美國和英國的情報,開始派遣無人駕駛飛機前往伊拉克。據路透社報導,伊朗士兵在伊拉克與伊斯蘭國戰鬥。同時美國政府派出了少量的部隊前往伊拉克,並派遣飛機在伊拉克地區監視伊斯蘭國的行踪。

背景[编辑]

2014年6月,極端伊斯蘭聖戰組織伊斯蘭國由敘利亞入侵伊拉克北部,在短時間內攻陷了伊拉克北部大片地區,控制了敘利亞和伊拉克的大片地區。8月,因應情況惡化,英美聯軍開始對伊拉克北部的伊斯蘭國目標實施空襲,以支援伊拉克對抗伊斯蘭國武裝分子。[191]

9月11日,奧巴馬在對全國電視觀眾發表的直播講話中表示,將擴大空襲行動至伊斯蘭國控制的敘利亞地區。奧巴馬表示任何威脅美國的團伙「都不會有安全的藏身之處」。[192]9月12日,來自巴林埃及約旦科威特黎巴嫩阿曼卡塔爾沙特阿拉伯阿聯酋的外長與美國國務卿克里舉行會談後,同意協助美國共同打擊「伊斯蘭國」。[193]

經過[编辑]

2014年[编辑]

9月22日凌晨,美國與盟國展開對敘利亞境內的伊斯蘭國目標的首輪空襲。美軍戰機和軍艦打擊了數十個目標。沙特阿拉伯卡塔爾約旦巴林阿聯酋亦有參與或支持空襲行動。[194][195]據報,F-22猛禽亦有參與空襲行動,是次是其自服役以來第一次參與的戰鬥任務。[196]

9月24日,美國、沙特阿拉伯阿聯酋的戰鬥機進行新一輪空襲。12座伊斯蘭國控制下的煉油廠在空襲中被破壞。「伊斯蘭國」過往一直靠黑市交易石油以獲得資金。美國此次空襲是為了摧毀為「伊斯蘭國」提供資金的相關設施。[197]9月28日和29日,聯軍再破壞多四個臨時煉油廠。[198][199]

同期,由於阿爾及利亞有效忠伊斯蘭國的武裝組織把其法國人質斬首,法國表示考慮將空襲行動擴大至敘利亞。[200]

10月6日,伊斯蘭國攻入被圍攻多日的土耳其、敘利亞邊境要道科巴尼,伊斯蘭國武裝份子與敍利亞庫爾德人爆發巷戰,並佔據了制高點。[201]10月8日,美國在科巴尼進行了8次空襲,摧毀了伊斯蘭國幾輛裝甲運兵車、武裝車輛及一門火砲。[202]支援科巴尼守軍的空襲仍在持續進行中。

截至2014年10月20日,以美國為首的多國部隊在敘利亞境內發動了231次空襲。[203]「敘利亞人權觀察」在11月22日稱聯軍空襲已造成785名伊斯蘭國武裝分子、72名努斯拉陣線成員及52名平民喪生。[204]

2015年[编辑]

1月27日,在經過聯軍多個月來的空襲,伊斯蘭國被迫主動撤離科巴尼。庫爾德人徹底奪回科巴尼的控制權,結束三個月來的艱苦戰鬥[205]

伊斯蘭國於2月3日上傳約旦飛行員卡薩斯貝被燒死的影片到YouTube。約旦國王阿卜杜拉二世誓言將傾盡全力打擊伊斯蘭國。2月6日,約旦大幅加強空襲力度,作為針對卡薩斯貝被殺一事的報復行動。[206]在3日內,約旦空軍對伊斯蘭國發動了56次空襲。主要的空襲目標集中在伊斯蘭國在敘利亞的據點拉卡[207]約旦盟友阿聯酋亦派出一支F-16戰機中隊前往約旦,支持約旦轟炸伊斯蘭國的行動。[208]

「敘利亞人權觀察」在2015年4月底報告聯軍在敘利亞的空襲已殺死超過1,922名伊斯蘭國武裝分子,另造成66名平民喪生。[209]

2016年[编辑]

2016年8月31日,俄罗斯国防部宣布俄罗斯军队的一架苏-34战斗轰炸机在叙利亚阿勒颇省的一次空袭中打死了伊斯兰国的二号人物阿德纳尼,但美国国防部亦宣布美国军队的一架无人机对阿德纳尼进行了“定点清除”行动,美国国防部的一名官员对于俄罗斯宣布击毙阿德纳尼表示:“考虑到俄罗斯在叙利亚行动的性质,这很可笑”。[210]

國家參與[编辑]

下表總結了每個國家參與針對伊斯蘭國的整體國際干預措施。有幾個涉及軍事行動的國家也提供人道援助

內容:
  •  軍事行動 
  •  軍事援助 
  •  人道援助 
  •  情報支援 
國家 於伊拉克境內 於敘利亞境內 於利比亞境內 於奈及利亞境內[211] 於阿富汗境內
 阿富汗
 阿尔巴尼亚
 澳大利亚
 奥地利
 巴林
 比利時
 波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那
 保加利亚
 喀麦隆
 加拿大
 乍得
 哥伦比亚 [212][213]
 克罗地亚
 捷克
 丹麥
 埃及
 爱沙尼亚
 法国 [214] [215]
 德國
 希臘
 匈牙利
 印尼
 伊朗
 伊拉克
 愛爾蘭
 以色列
 義大利
 日本
 约旦 [216]
 科威特
 黎巴嫩
 利比亞
 卢森堡
 摩洛哥
 荷蘭
 新西蘭
 尼日尔
 奈及利亞
 挪威 [217]
 波蘭
 卡塔尔
 俄羅斯
 沙烏地阿拉伯
 新加坡
 斯洛伐克
 斯洛維尼亞
 韩国
 西班牙
 苏丹
 瑞典
 叙利亚
 馬其頓
 土耳其
 阿联酋
 英國 [218] [219] [220] [221] [222]
 美國

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为usairstrike的参考文献提供内容
  2. ^ Australia says it is deploying warplanes to join Iraq campaign. The Daily Telegraph. Yahoo. 22 September 2014 [22 September 2014]. 
  3. ^ Om, Jason. Federal Cabinet gives go ahead to RAAF air strikes on Islamic State in Syria. ABC News. 9 September 2015 [10 October 2015]. 
  4. ^ Minister Sajjan Announces Extension of Canada’s Contribution to the Global Coalition against Da’esh . National Defence. National Defence / Canadian Armed Forces. [1 May 2017]. 
  5. ^ Battling Dutch, Belgium prepare to send forces. MSN. (原始内容存档于29 September 2014). 
  6. ^ Denmark, Isis. The Huffington Post. 9 September 2014. (原始内容存档于2014年9月27日). 
  7. ^ Sweden rejects calls for military support to Iraq. The Local. SE. 18 August 2014 [18 August 2014]. 
  8. ^ Sweden to increase support in fight against ISIS. Radio Sweden. 21 July 2016. 
  9. ^ Islamic State: France ready to launch Iraq air strikes. BBC. 18 September 2014 [18 September 2014]. 
  10. ^ France bombs Isis depot in Iraq. The Guardian. 21 September 2014 [19 September 2014]. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Syria conflict: German MPs vote for anti-IS military mission. BBC News. 4 December 2015. 
  12. ^ Germany joins anti-Isis military campaign. theguardian. 4 December 2015. 
  13. ^ German parliament approves anti-IS Bundeswehr mission in Syria. Deutsche Welle. 4 December 2015. 
  14. ^ Isis, la guerra segreta dell'Italia: forze speciali in Libia e Iraq. Ma il Parlamento è all'oscuro di tutto - Il Fatto Quotidiano. 
  15. ^ Anche l’Italia fa la guerra all’Isis: missioni segrete dei nostri soldati in Iraq e Libia . 
  16. ^ Turkey trains Kurdish peshmerga forces in fight against ISIL. world bulletin.net. [23 November 2014]. 
  17. ^ Turkey bombs Islamic State targets in Syria. BBC News. 24 July 2015 [24 July 2015]. 
  18. ^ Dutch send fighter jets to strike Iraq. Yahoo. (原始内容存档于2014-09-25). 
  19. ^ Young, Sarah. Britain ready to supply Kurds with arms. Reuters. 15 August 2014 [18 August 2014]. 
  20. ^ Jordan carries out air strikes in Iraq, killing 55 IS militants. i24 News. i24 News. 4 February 2015 [4 February 2015]. (原始内容存档于2015年2月6日). 
  21. ^ 21.0 21.1 Morocco is the latest Arab nation to respond to an American appeal for more firepower, sending several F-16s to the fight [1]
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Morocco is to send F-16s to attack the militants under the US-led operation [2]
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 Officials said the North African kingdom has agreed to join the U.S.-led coalition air strikes against ISIL positions in Iraq and Syria.[3]
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  31. ^ До 2020 година 1.8 млрд. лв. ще бъдат вложени в армията [1.8 bln. lv will be invested in the military by 2020]. BG: Dir. 20 September 2014 [20 September 2014] (保加利亚语). Shalamanov does not consider the conflict in Ukraine to be the only short-term threat for Bulgarian national security, which is why our country is sending armaments to the opponents of Islamic State... According to him, the events in northern Iraq and Syria represent a growing risk that threatens our national interests. 
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  56. ^ Charkatli, Izat. Over 2,000 radical rebels defect to ISIS following intra-rebel deal. 23 February 2017. 
  57. ^ Search for the dead begins in Idlib after Islamic State-linked brigade leaves for Raqqa. 
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  70. ^ Kadyrov Claims Red-Bearded Chechen Militant al-Shishani Dead. ElBalad. 14 November 2014. (原始内容存档于2015年1月28日). 
  71. ^ Kadyrov Says Islamic State's Leader From Georgia Killed. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 14 November 2014. 
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  109. ^ Morocco will send military forces to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to help fight terrorism and preserve regional peace and stability, the Foreign Ministry said on Wednesday. Speaking at a press briefing in Rabat, Moroccan Foreign Minister Salaheddine Mezouar did not reveal further information on this mission, such as the specific number of the dispatched troops. (...)"Morocco will provide military support to these brother countries in case that the Gulf states require intervention,"[6]
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  221. ^ UK to ramp up support to Nigeria in battle against Boko Haram. Financial Times. 16 June 2015 [2 February 2016] ; UK military chief visits British training team in Nigeria. Ministry of Defence. 12 October 2015 [2 February 2016]. 
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