草稿:协作制图

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协作制图(英語:Collaborative mapping)主要由电子地图服务用户生成内容组成。[1]随着存储技术和共享地图技术的发展,协作制图已成为商业服务的竞争者,如OpenStreetMap,或成为商业服务的组成部分,如Google Map MakerYandex.Map editor

志愿者们可以被视为地理环境中的传感器,他们采集、整理并传播由个人自愿提供的地理数据。[1][2] 协作制图是众包模式的一个特例。协作制图中的目标具有地域性,例如在城市规划中起到更积极的作用。特别是当数据、信息、知识分布在人群中,而将这些数据进行整合不现实时,协作制图可以作为一个数字规划平台,为当地的居民和活动带来益处。[3] Extensions of critical and participatory approaches to geographic information systems combines software tools with a joint activities to accomplish a community goal.[4] Additionally, the aggregated data can be used for a Location-based service like available public transport options at the geolocation where a mobile device is currently used (GPS-sensor). The relevance for the user at a specific geolocation cannot be represented with logic value in general (relevant=true/false). The relevance can be represented with Fuzzy-Logic or a Fuzzy architectural spatial analysis.[5]

类型[编辑]

Collaborative mapping applications vary depending on which feature the collaborative edition takes place: on the map itself (shared surface), or on overlays to the map. A very simple collaborative mapping application would just plot users' locations (social mapping or geosocial networking) or Wikipedia articles' locations (Placeopedia). Collaborative implies the possibility of edition by several distinct individuals so the term would tend to exclude applications where the maps are not meant for the general user to modify.

In this kind of application, the map itself is created collaboratively by sharing a common surface. For example, both OpenStreetMap and WikiMapia allow for the creation of single 'points of interest', as well as linear features and areas. Collaborative mapping and specifically surface sharing faces the same problems as revision control, namely concurrent access issues and versioning. In addition to these problems, collaborative maps must deal with the difficult issue of cluttering, due to the geometric constraints inherent in the media. One approach to this problem is using overlays, allowing to suitable use in consumer services.[6] Despite these issues, collaborative mapping platforms such as OpenStreetMap can be considered as being as trustworthy as professionally produced maps[7]

Overlays group together items on a map, allowing the user of the map to toggle the overlay's visibility and thus all items contained in the overlay. The application uses map tiles from a third-party (for example one of the mapping APIs) and adds its own collaboratively edited overlays to them, sometimes in a wiki fashion. If each user's revisions are contained in an overlay, the issue of revision control and cluttering can be mitigated. One example of this is the accessibility platform Accessadvisr, which utilises collaborative mapping to inform persons of accessibility issues,[8] which is perceived to be as reliable and trustworthy as professional information.[9]

Other overlays-based collaborative mapping tools follow a different approach and focus on user centered content creation and experience. There users enrich maps with their own points of interest and build kind of travel books for themselves. At the same time users can explore overlays of other users as collaborative extension.

人道主义协作制图[编辑]

Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team,[10][11][12] based on OpenStreetMap,[13] provides collaborative mapping support for humanitarian objectives, e.g. collaborative transportation map,[14] epidemiological mapping for Malaria,[15] earthquake response,[16] or typhoon response.[17]

机器人协作制图[编辑]

In robot navigation, 3-dimensional maps can be reconstructed collaboratively using simultaneous localization and mapping.[18][19]

私人本地协作制图[编辑]

一些测绘公司为用户提供在线制图工具,允许用户在地图上添加查看并敏感数据并进行多人协作,例如:

  • Google Maps[20]
  • Wegovnow: a map based platform to engage the local civic society[21] – local collaboration & publishing with maps[22]
  • Canvis.app - a platform that allows you to easily generate, customize, and share a collaborative mapping campaign. Suitable for large scale crowdsourcing projects.[23]

数据可靠性[编辑]

If citizens or a community collects data, information (like Wikipedia, Wikiversity) then concerns come up about data quality, and specifically about its credibility. The same aspects of quality assurance are relevant for collaborative mapping[24] and the possibility of vandalism.[25]

数据采集工具[编辑]

Collaborative mapping is not restricted to the application of mobile devices but if data is captured with a mobile device the satellite navigation (like GPS is helpful to assign the current geolocation to the collected data at the geolocation. Open Source tools like Open Data Kit are used to collect the mapping data (e.g. about health care facilities or humanitarian operations) with a survey that could automatically insert the geolocation into the survey data that could include visual information (e.g. images, videos) and audio samples collected at the current geolocation. An image can be used e.g. as additional information of damage assessment after an earth quake.[26]

可见性受限的更改[编辑]

网站提供基础的基础地图信息,并允许用户标记各种事件发生的地点或存在某些特征的地点,但这些地点不会显示在基础地图上。得到实践的有加拿大埃德蒙顿市的 311 市政反馈系统[27] 、澳大利亚墨尔本市的城市集约化系统[28]和内置于手机地图的路况上报功能。

开放的更改与质量保证版本[编辑]

所有个人都可以向社区提交更改,社区通过将区域和位置放在观察列表中来验证更改。制图所用数据库中的任何变化都会被版本控制系统归档,这使得回滚和查看历史记录成为可能,特定区域的特定质量保证版本可以被标记为特定区域的参考地图(就像维基百科中的永久链接)。质量保证可以在不同的范围内实施。

  • 已经完成的版本
  • 特定地区的版本
  • 地图上的兴趣点(例如,能正常提供医疗服务的标记为“在建”的医院)

区块链 can be used as integrity check of alterations[29] or 数字签名[30] can be used to mark a certain version as "quality assured" by the institution that signed a map as digital file or digital content.

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Goodchild, M.F. Citizens as sensors: the world of volunteered geography. GeoJournal. 2007, 69 (4): 211–221. doi:10.1007/s10708-007-9111-y. 
  2. ^ Sangiambut, Suthee; Sieber, Renee. The V in VGI: Citizens or Civic Data Sources (PDF). Urban Planning. 2016-07-12, 1 (2): 141–154. doi:10.17645/up.v1i2.644. 
  3. ^ Steiniger, Stefan; Poorazizi, M. Ebrahim; Hunter, Andrew. Planning with Citizens: Implementation of an e-Planning Platform and Analysis of Research Needs. Urban Planning. 2016-06-20, 1 (2): 46–64. doi:10.17645/up.v1i2.607.  已忽略未知参数|doi-access= (帮助)
  4. ^ Elwood, S. Volunteered Geographic Information: Future Research Directions Motivated by Critical, Participatory, and Feminist GIS. GeoJournal. 2008, 72 (3&4): 173–183. doi:10.1007/s10708-008-9186-0.  已忽略未知参数|citeseerx= (帮助)
  5. ^ Ricker, B., Daniel, S. and Hedley, N. (2014) ‘Fuzzy Boundaries: Hybridizing Location-based Services, Volunteered Geographic Information and Geovisualization Literature’, Geography Compass, 8(7). doi: 10.1111/gec3.12138
  6. ^ Parker, C.J., May, A., Mitchell, V. and Burrows, A. (2013), “Capturing Volunteered Information for Inclusive Service Design: Potential Benefits and Challenges”, The Design Journal, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 197–218.
  7. ^ Parker, C.J., May, A.J. and Mitchell, V. (2014), “User Centred Design of Neogeography: The Impact of Volunteered Geographic Information on Trust of Online Map ‘Mashups’”, Ergonomics, Vol. 57 No. 7, pp. 987–997.
  8. ^ May, A.J., Parker, C.J. and Ross, T. (2014), “Evaluating a concept design of a crowd-sourced ‘mashup’ providing ease-of-access information for people with limited mobility”, Transportation Research. Part C: Emerging Technologies, Vol. 49 No. 1, pp. 103–113.
  9. ^ Parker, C.J., May, A.J. and Mitchell, V. (2012), “Understanding Design with VGI using an Information Relevance Framework”, Transactions in GIS, Transactions in GIS: GISRUK Special Issue, Vol. 16 No. 4, pp. 545–560.
  10. ^ Palen, L., Soden, R., Anderson, T. J., & Barrenechea, M. (2015, April). Success & scale in a data-producing organization: The socio-technical evolution of OpenStreetMap in response to humanitarian events. In Proceedings of the 33rd annual ACM conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 4113–4122). ACM.
  11. ^ Curran, K., Crumlish, J., & Fisher, G. (2013). OpenStreetMap. In Geographic Information Systems: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 540–549). IGI Global.
  12. ^ HOT – Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team – Web portal: https://www.hotosm.org/ (accessed 2017/08/14)
  13. ^ Haklay, M., & Weber, P. (2008). Openstreetmap: User-generated street maps. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 7(4), 12–18.
  14. ^ HOT Metropolitan Map for Managua – accessed (2017/08/14) HOT-project information – Project: http://support.mapanica.net
  15. ^ https://www.hotosm.org/projects/malaria_elimination_campaign
  16. ^ Soden, R., & Palen, L. (2014). From crowdsourced mapping to community mapping: The post-earthquake work of OpenStreetMap Haiti. In COOP 2014-Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems, 27–30 May 2014, Nice (France) (pp. 311–326). Springer, Cham.
  17. ^ Typhoon Haiyan - OpenStreetMap Wiki. wiki.openstreetmap.org. [2019-02-24]. 
  18. ^ Michael, Nathan, et al. "Collaborative mapping of an earthquake‐damaged building via ground and aerial robots." Journal of Field Robotics 29.5 (2012): 832-841.
  19. ^ Mohanarajah, Gajamohan, et al. "Cloud-based collaborative 3D mapping in real-time with low-cost robots." IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering 12.2 (2015): 423-431.
  20. ^ Butler, Patrick. Collaborative mapping | Collaborative mapping. Espatial.com. 2014-04-10 [2016-01-15]. 
  21. ^ Boella, G., Francis, L., Grassi, E., Kistner, A., Nitsche, A., Noskov, A., ... & Tsampoulatidis, I. (2018, April). Wegovnow: a map based platform to engage the local civic society. In Companion of The Web Conference 2018 on The Web Conference 2018 (pp. 1215-1219). International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee.
  22. ^ Private local collaboration via maps | collaborative mapping platform, uebermaps.com, 2017-03-24 [2017-03-24] 
  23. ^ Case Studies - Infrastructure Planning. about.canvis.app. [2019-08-30]. 
  24. ^ Flanagin, A. J.; Metzger, M. J. The credibility of volunteered geographic information. GeoJournal. 2008, 72 (3–4): 137–148. doi:10.1007/s10708-008-9188-y. 
  25. ^ Ballatore, A. Defacing the map: Cartographic vandalism in the digital commons. The Cartographic Journal. 2014, 51 (3): 214–224. arXiv:1404.3341. doi:10.1179/1743277414Y.0000000085. 
  26. ^ Barrington, L., Ghosh, S., Greene, M., Har-Noy, S., Berger, J., Gill, S., Lin, A.Y.M., Huyck, C., 2011. Crowdsourcing earthquake damage assessment using remote sensing imagery. Annals of Geophysics 54, 680-687
  27. ^ Lu, Qing; Johnson, Peter. Characterizing New Channels of Communication: A Case Study of Municipal 311 Requests in Edmonton, Canada. Urban Planning. 2016-06-07, 1 (2): 18–31. doi:10.17645/up.v1i2.621.  已忽略未知参数|doi-access= (帮助)
  28. ^ Sabri, Soheil; Rajabifard, Abbas; Ho, Serene; Amirebrahimi, Sam; Bishop, Ian. Leveraging VGI Integrated with 3D Spatial Technology to Support Urban Intensification in Melbourne, Australia. Urban Planning. 2016-06-15, 1 (2): 32–48. doi:10.17645/up.v1i2.623.  已忽略未知参数|doi-access= (帮助)
  29. ^ Brambilla, G., Amoretti, M., & Zanichelli, F. (2016). Using blockchain for peer-to-peer proof-of-location. arXiv preprint arXiv:1607.00174.
  30. ^ Merkle, R. C. (1989, August). A certified digital signature. In Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology (pp. 218-238). Springer, New York, NY.