草稿:娛樂

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印度看路边电视机而娱乐的人

娱乐是一种吸引观众的兴趣与注意力的活动,或是让观众感到高兴、愉悦。它可以是一个想法,但娱乐的形式更多的是一项活动或是事件,而这两种形式已经成功地捕获住观众的兴趣和注意力持续了几千年。[1] 尽管人们所喜欢的娱乐形式不尽相同,并且人们的注意力被不同的事情所吸引,但是娱乐活动的形式很容易辨别且很相似 讲故事音乐戏剧舞蹈,和不同文化中不同形式的表演,原本是只有皇室才能享受到的待遇,现在这些娱乐形式演化得逐渐成熟,受众人群也逐渐从皇室到了大众。现在,这个过程被娱乐工业加速了。娱乐工业可以复制并销售产品,而产品所使用的范围也极大地扩大了。小到适合小派对宴会,大到适用于几千人甚至全球观众的表演。

娱乐总是紧紧地和消遣挂钩,所以对娱乐最浅显的理解就是“有趣”“欢笑”,尽管有些娱乐活动可能是十分严肃的。仪式庆典宗教节日讽刺所使用的娱乐活动大多是很严肃的。因此,娱乐活动也可能是为了获得顿悟,或是智力上的成长。

娱乐中很重要的一个方面就是观众。正是观众将休闲活动变成了娱乐。观众可能处于类似于观看歌剧电视节目,或是电影这样的被动位置上,又或是一个游戏中参与者的主动位置上。主动和被动的位置可以反转,像是在社交舞会中,人可以只是观看别人跳舞,也可以自己参与跳舞。像是电影和电子游戏,大多数娱乐的形式流传许多世纪依旧盛行,尽管他们使用了更新的媒介。像是音乐节电影节这样的节日,参与者经常会享受其中很多天。

有些活动曾经被认为是有娱乐性质的(特别是一些向公众展示的惩罚活动),但现在不再被认为具有娱乐性质。其他的活动,像是击剑射箭这样需要特定技艺的活动,变成了严肃的体育活动,并且要求参与者是专业人士。这样的活动越来越受到公众的欢迎。而其他的一些像是烹饪这样的具体技能,也演变出了国际竞赛或是电视节目这样具有娱乐性质的事物。由此可以看出,一个人认为是有意思的娱乐活动的事情,另一个人可能认为是枯燥的工作。

娱乐形式经常可以借助不同的、多样的媒体来传播(这也说明娱乐是很多创意的重混),以保证娱乐的主题、内容、结构可以经久不衰。

Audience applauding a performance of Cavalleria Rusticana by Pietro Mascagni (2011)

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Banqueters playing kottabos and girl playing the aulos. Greece ( 420 B.C.E.)
Banqueting and music have continued to be two important entertainments since ancient times.
Mesoamerican ballgame (Maya Central lowlands, 650–800 C.E.). Games and ritual events have been regarded as entertainment since ancient times.

心理学和哲学[编辑]

尽管教育营销等许多活动深喑使用众多手段来娱乐大众可以更好地达成目标,但娱乐活动仍旧可以很容易地从上述活动中被辨认出来。学者们已经清楚地认识到娱乐地重要性和影响[2][3],而愈发成熟的娱乐影响到了其他的领域,比如博物馆学。[4][5]

心理学家称媒体类娱乐的功能为“满足感的获取“[6] 。并且不期望从此类活动中获得到什么可量化的回报或是结果(或许体育类娱乐中,最后的比分很重要)。这和教育(教育的目的是让人们建立对某一个事物的理解,或是帮助人们去学习)与营销(营销的目的是为了让人们购买某一特定物品)的目的是背道而驰的。但这三者之间的分界线越来越模糊,因为教育极力想要变得娱乐化,而娱乐和营销却想要变得有教育意义。这类混合体被新词学家称为“教育娱乐”(edutainment)或是“资讯娱乐”。娱乐和学习的心理特征在这两类领域均能被找到[7] 。一些教育娱乐非常严肃地想要把两者中最好的特征融合在一起。[8][9] 有些人因别人的痛苦和悲伤而感到愉悦(辛灾乐祸

有时候,娱乐不只关乎满足感,还能为观众提供思想观点。娱乐活动可能会巧妙地探索一些共性的哲学问题,比如“生活的意义是什么?”“为人意味着什么?”“什么是正确的事情?”“我如何知道我所知道的?”这些问题催生了很多记述和剧情,以故事、电影、戏剧、诗歌、书籍、舞蹈、漫画、游戏等形式呈现。戏剧类的作品,诸如威廉·莎士比亚鼎鼎有名的《哈姆雷特》中,主人公用诗歌表达了这类思考;风靡世界的电影《黑客帝国[10] 探讨了知识的本质[11]長篇小說为这些主题的探讨提供了充分的空间,同时也愉悦了读者[12]。《银河系漫游指南系列》甚至因为创造性地以生动有趣的形式探索哲学问题而被改编成各种形式。这个系列原本是一个喜剧类电台节目,后来因为太受欢迎而被以小说、电影、电视剧、舞台剧、漫画、有聲書密紋唱片冒险游戏网络游戏等各种形式呈现。其中的不少内容都成了广为人知的梗(参见《银河系漫游指南》短语)。它还被译成多种语言[13]。它的主体囊括了生命的意義、娱乐的伦理学人工智能、多重世界、上帝、哲学方法论(Philosophical methodology)等[14]

历史[编辑]

Telling stories around a campfire is a universal entertainment
Albert Bierstadt The Campfire
Mosaic showing Roman entertainments that would have been offered at the gladiatorial games, from the 1st century

讲故事中所使用的大多仍是如用言语,图像,声音和手势来传达事物和经历的古老手法。[15]并且,讲故事不仅是人们将文化价值观、传统和历史从一代传递给另一代人的手段,而且一直是娱乐形式的重要组成部分。尽管岁月变迁,但是讲故事的形式仍然没有发生太大变化, 例如露营时围坐一起听故事,旅游中游人倾听另外一种文化的故事。我们现在拥有的最早的故事系列,毫无疑问是最初口耳相传的说法。他们的娱乐源自于这些元素,我们今天欣赏的电影和小说同样也是如此。[16] 讲故事渐渐演变和发展成为一种多样性的活动。[16] 许多包括讲故事在内的娱乐活动,尤其是音乐和戏剧,虽然有着熟悉的面孔,但已经发展成各种各样的形式来适应广泛的个人喜好和文化表现。很多类型则需要其他类型的融合和支持。例如,戏剧、故事和宴会通常需要音乐来加强氛围;运动和游戏可以纳入其他活动来增加吸引力。有些已经演变成为严肃和必要的竞争活动(例如跑步)。据说,撑杆跳高可能来源于荷兰,荷兰人使用长杆跨过宽阔的河流,这样就不用磨损木底鞋走几英里到达最近的桥梁。另一些人认为撑竿被用于战争中撑杆跳过堡垒墙壁。[17] 这种运动设备变得越来越复杂。例如,最初的撑竿是由梣树山核桃属或者榛属的木头制成的,19世纪使用竹子,21世纪则使用碳纤维制成。[17] 其他活动,例如踩高跷,在21世纪的马戏团表演中仍然可以看到。角斗士站斗,流行于罗马时代,也被称为“角斗士游戏”,提供了将体育,惩罚和娱乐相结合的的活动的一个很好的例子。[18][19]

娱乐会在文化或历史的转变中发生变化。例如,狩猎野生动物从迦太基引入到罗马帝国,并成为受欢迎的公共娱乐活动,也带动了野生动物的国际贸易。[20]

娱乐也会由于战争和革命等社会动荡而演变成不同的类型和表现形式。例如,样板戏文化大革命受到共产党的制裁。娱乐活动在第一次世界大战大萧条1917年俄国革命时期都受到影响。[21][22][23][24][25]

随着时代、时尚、文化、科技和经济等因素的影响,休闲娱乐的形式和地点都会持续的发生相对较小的变化。例如,一个以戏剧形式讲述的故事可以呈现在露天剧场、音乐厅电影院影城中,或者通过更先进的技术手段,比如平板电脑。大多观众都在专门建造的建筑,比如剧场礼堂或者体育场中欣赏娱乐活动。西方世界最著名的场地之一,罗马斗兽场,在公元80年代提供了一场百日游戏,5万观众在这里“享受”了这场血腥的舞台竞技。[26]盛大的场景、竞争、竞速和运动一次又一次的在这个专门设计的建筑里作为公共娱乐呈现给观众。为了满足全球观众日益复杂的需求,不断地建造出新的体育场。

宫廷娱乐[编辑]

Tournament before an audience and musicians (14th century)
Ralph Hedley The Tournament (1898) Children adapting a courtly entertainment

帝国皇室和皇家法院为专业艺人提供培训的场地和支持,不同的文化以不同的方式使用宫殿和城堡。例如,在玛雅文明城市,舞台往往就在宫殿前面的大型广场上,人群会聚集在那里或者在远处指定的地点观看。[27]宫廷娱乐也会横跨不同的文化,例如,杜尔巴莫卧儿人引入印度,然后传入大英帝国, 并遵循着印度传统:机构、头衔、风俗习惯、摩诃罗阇納瓦卜的仪式等等。[28] 在韩国,宫廷舞蹈作为一种娱乐最开始在宫廷宴会上演出。[29]

宫廷娱乐常常会发生与宫廷相关的活动形式在平民中被普遍使用的情况。韩国的“蒙面舞蹈”就是这样,起源于乡村萨满教的仪式,最终成为普通人的娱乐形式。[30] 又如莫卧儿帝国的Nautch舞者也会在印度的宫廷或宫殿演出。另一种演变,类似于从宫廷娱乐到普通做法的演变,就是从宗教仪式到世俗娱乐的过渡,例如高丽王朝的Narye节期间的活动。最初是纯粹的宗教或仪式主义,结尾添加了一个世俗的组成部分。[31]以前的宫廷娱乐活动,比如马上长矛比武,也在儿童游戏中幸存下来。

In some courts, such as those during the Byzantine Empire, the genders were segregated among the upper classes, so that "at least before the period of the Komnenoi" (1081–1185) men were separated from women at ceremonies where there was entertainment such as receptions and banquets.[32]

Court ceremonies, palace banquets and the spectacles associated with them, have been used not only to entertain but also to demonstrate wealth and power. Such events reinforce the relationship between ruler and ruled; between those with power and those without, serving to "dramatise the differences between ordinary families and that of the ruler".[33] This is the case as much as for traditional courts as it is for contemporary ceremonials, such as the Hong Kong handover ceremony in 1997, at which an array of entertainments (including a banquet, a parade, fireworks, a festival performance and an art spectacle) were put to the service of highlighting a change in political power. Court entertainments were typically performed for royalty and courtiers as well as "for the pleasure of local and visiting dignitaries".[34] Royal courts, such as the Korean one, also supported traditional dances.[34] In Sudan, musical instruments such as the so-called "slit" or "talking" drums, once "part of the court orchestra of a powerful chief", had multiple purposes: they were used to make music; "speak" at ceremonies; mark community events; send long-distance messages; and call men to hunt or war.[35][36][37]

Courtly entertainments also demonstrate the complex relationship between entertainer and spectator: individuals may be either an entertainer or part of the audience, or they may swap roles even during the course of one entertainment. In the court at the Palace of Versailles, "thousands of courtiers, including men and women who inhabited its apartments, acted as both performers and spectators in daily rituals that reinforced the status hierarchy".[33]

Like court entertainment, royal occasions such as coronations and weddings provided opportunities to entertain both the aristocracy and the people. For example, the splendid 1595 Accession Day celebrations of Queen Elizabeth I offered tournaments and jousting and other events performed "not only before the assembled court, in all their finery, but also before thousands of Londoners eager for a good day's entertainment. Entry for the day's events at the Tiltyard in Whitehall was set at 12d".[38]

Public punishment[编辑]

Ticket for the execution of Jonathan Wild (1725)

Although most forms of entertainment have evolved and continued over time, some once-popular forms are no longer as acceptable. For example, during earlier centuries in Europe, watching or participating in the punishment of criminals or social outcasts was an accepted and popular form of entertainment. Many forms of public humiliation also offered local entertainment in the past. Even capital punishment such as hanging and beheading, offered to the public as a warning, were also regarded partly as entertainment. Capital punishments that lasted longer, such as stoning and drawing and quartering, afforded a greater public spectacle. "A hanging was a carnival that diverted not merely the unemployed but the unemployable. Good bourgeois or curious aristocrats who could afford it watched it from a carriage or rented a room."[39] Public punishment as entertainment lasted until the 19th century by which time "the awesome event of a public hanging aroused the[ir] loathing of writers and philosophers".[39] Both Dickens and Thackeray wrote about a hanging in Newgate Prison in 1840, and "taught an even wider public that executions are obscene entertainments".[39]

Children[编辑]

Children's entertainment is centred on play and is significant for their growth and learning. Entertainment is also provided to children or taught to them by adults and many activities that appeal to them such as puppets, clowns, pantomimes and cartoons are also enjoyed by adults.[40][41]

Children have always played games. It is accepted that as well as being entertaining, playing games helps children's development. One of the most famous visual accounts of children's games is a painting by Pieter Bruegel the Elder called Children's Games, painted in 1560. It depicts children playing a range of games that presumably were typical of the time. Many of these games, such as marbles, hide-and-seek, blowing soap bubbles and piggyback riding continue to be played.

Example of a rating system specifying age appropriateness (Israel)

Most forms of entertainment can be or are modified to suit children's needs and interests. During the 20th century, starting with the often criticised but nonetheless important work of G. Stanley Hall, who "promoted the link between the study of development and the 'new' laboratory psychology",[42] and especially with the work of Jean Piaget, who "saw cognitive development as being analogous to biological development",[43] it became understood that the psychological development of children occurs in stages and that their capacities differ from adults. Hence, stories and activities, whether in books, film, or video games were developed specifically for child audiences. Countries have responded to the special needs of children and the rise of digital entertainment by developing systems such as television content rating systems, to guide the public and the entertainment industry.

In the 21st century, as with adult products, much entertainment is available for children on the internet for private use. This constitutes a significant change from earlier times. The amount of time expended by children indoors on screen-based entertainment and the "remarkable collapse of children's engagement with nature" has drawn criticism for its negative effects on imagination, adult cognition and psychological well-being.[44][45][46]

沿革[编辑]

宴会(还需要一些小修改)[编辑]

从古至今,宴会就一直是娱乐场所。直到21世纪,宴会依然保留着一些传统的作用——给客人留下好的深刻印象。

庆祝重要事件(4、6、9);款待客人(2、3、4、8);进行娱乐活动如音乐或舞蹈,或两者兼而有之(2、3)。在宫廷中宫廷娱乐是不可或缺的一部分(3、4),帮助艺人磨炼自己的技艺(2、3),也成为庆祝活动的重要组成部分。婚礼(7),生日(10)政治事件(5)以及军事活动或胜利(6)宗教义务(1)。在现代,宴会是商用,例如,在餐馆(10)和结合性能晚餐剧院。专业厨师的烹饪也已成为一种娱乐形式,作为全球竞赛的一部分,比如“博德”。

Banquets across 10 centuries and cultures
1 画中的描绘的是一个古埃及-底比斯的宴会 
2 拜占庭帝国的宴会会展示音乐家和各种乐器(1204–1453) 
3 查理五世的宴会,Jean Fouquet绘 
4一场宴会,其中有一只1507年Mirzas送给Babur烤鹅,这幅微型画创作于约1590年 
5 庆祝明斯特和约的签订(1648) 由巴斯勒莫斯・范・德・赫斯特绘 
6 阮福映在胜利宴会上庆祝越南独立运动的成功 
7 一个有众多地主参加的俄国农民婚宴,绘制于18世纪晚期 
8 埃塞俄比亚国王萨勒塞拉西的宴会大厅(Johann Martin Bernatz在1852年绘制于伦敦) 
9 乔治四世西敏寺的加冕宴会(1821年7月19日) 
10 人们正在一个宴会厅里面庆祝生日 (中国,2012) 

Music[编辑]

A full house at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, waiting for a musical entertainment to begin (1937)

Music is a supporting component of many kinds of entertainment and most kinds of performance. For example, it is used to enhance storytelling, it is indispensable in dance (1, 4) and opera, and is usually incorporated into dramatic film or theatre productions.[47]

Music is also a universal and popular type of entertainment on its own, constituting an entire performance such as when concerts are given (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ). Depending on the rhythm, instrument, performance and style, music is divided into many genres, such as classical, jazz, folk, (4, 5, 8), rock, pop music (6, 9) or traditional (1, 3). Since the 20th century, performed music, once available only to those who could pay for the performers, has been available cheaply to individuals by the entertainment industry, which broadcasts it or pre-records it for sale.

The wide variety of musical performances, whether or not they are artificially amplified (6, 7, 9, 10), all provide entertainment irrespective of whether the performance is from soloists (6), choral (2) or orchestral groups (5, 8), or ensemble (3). Live performances use specialised venues, which might be small or large; indoors or outdoors; free or expensive. The audiences have different expectations of the performers as well as of their own role in the performance. For example, some audiences expect to listen silently and are entertained by the excellence of the music, its rendition or its interpretation (5, 8). Other audiences of live performances are entertained by the ambience and the chance to participate (7, 9). Even more listeners are entertained by pre-recorded music and listen privately (10).

The instruments used in musical entertainment are either solely the human voice (2, 6) or solely instrumental (1, 3) or some combination of the two (4, 5, 7, 8). Whether the performance is given by vocalists or instrumentalists, the performers may be soloists or part of a small or large group, in turn entertaining an audience that might be individual (10), passing by (3), small (1, 2) or large (6, 7, 8, 9). Singing is generally accompanied by instruments although some forms, notably a cappella and overtone singing, are unaccompanied. Modern concerts often use various special effects and other theatrics to accompany performances of singing and dancing (7).

Musical entertainment – 10 types of audience engagement
1 Traditional instruments used to accompany dance (Tibet, 1949) 
2 Children's choir providing musical entertainment (Russia, 1979) 
3 Ensemble entertains travellers in the Paris Métro (2002) 
4 Drummer playing Boduberu (Maldives, 2010) 
5 Choir and orchestra in ecclesiastical setting (Italy, 2008) 
6 Contemporary audience in ancient outdoor stadium (Greece, 2009) 
7 A concert with a 3D enhanced stage (Singapore, 2010) 
8 Concert hall audience (Netherlands, 2010) 
9 Crowd surfing at a concert (France, 2011) 
10 Woman listening privately to music through headphones (Russia, 2010) 

Games[编辑]

Games are played for entertainment—sometimes purely for entertainment, sometimes for achievement or reward as well. They can be played alone, in teams, or online; by amateurs or by professionals. The players may have an audience of non-players, such as when people are entertained by watching a chess championship. On the other hand, players in a game may constitute their own audience as they take their turn to play. Often, part of the entertainment for children playing a game is deciding who is part of their audience and who is a player.

Equipment varies with the game. Board games, such as Go, Monopoly or backgammon need a board and markers. One of the oldest known board games is Senet, a game played in Ancient Egypt, enjoyed by the pharaoh Tutankhamun.[48] Card games, such as whist, poker and Bridge have long been played as evening entertainment among friends. For these games, all that is needed is a deck of playing cards. Other games, such as bingo, played with numerous strangers, have been organised to involve the participation of non-players via gambling. Many are geared for children, and can be played outdoors, including hopscotch, hide and seek, or Blind man's bluff. The list of ball games is quite extensive. It includes, for example, croquet, lawn bowling and paintball as well as many sports using various forms of balls. The options cater to a wide range of skill and fitness levels. Physical games can develop agility and competence in motor skills. Number games such as Sudoku and puzzle games like the Rubik's cube can develop mental prowess.

Video games are played using a controller to create results on a screen. They can also be played online with participants joining in remotely. In the second half of the 20th century and in the 21st century the number of such games increased enormously, providing a wide variety of entertainment to players around the world.[49][50] Video games are popular in East Asian countries such as South Korea.[51]

Games
Sofonisba Anguissola
The Chess Game (1555)
An intellectual game 
Théophile Emmanuel Duverger (before 1901) Hopscotch
A physical game 
Televised match of StarCraft (2006) South Korea
An electronic game 

Reading[编辑]

French poet Louise Labé (1520/1522–1566) wrote "a profound and timeless insight into reading's innate power".

The past gives us pleasure and is of more service than the present; but the delight of what we once felt is dimly lost never to return and its memory is as distressing as the events themselves were then delectable ... But when we happen to put our thoughts in writing, how easily, later on, does our mind race through an infinity of events, incessantly alive, so that a long time afterwards when we take up those written pages we can return to the same place and to the same disposition in which we once found ourselves.
quoted in Fischer (2003)[52]

The young Saint Teresa of Ávila (1515–1582) read chivalrous novels and wrote about the "rapture" that books provided.

I became accustomed to reading [novels] and that small fault made me cool my desire and will to do other tasks. I thought nothing of spending many hours a day and night in this vain exercise, hidden from my father. My rapture in this was so great, that unless I had a new book to read, it seemed to me that I could not be happy.
quoted in Fischer (2003)[53]

Reading has been a source of entertainment for a very long time, especially when other forms, such as performance entertainments, were (or are) either unavailable or too costly. Even when the primary purpose of the writing is to inform or instruct, reading is well known for its capacity to distract from everyday worries. Both stories and information have been passed on through the tradition of orality and oral traditions survive in the form of performance poetry for example. However, they have drastically declined. "Once literacy had arrived in strength, there was no return to the oral prerogative."[54] The advent of printing, the reduction in costs of books and an increasing literacy all served to enhance the mass appeal of reading. Furthermore, as fonts were standardised and texts became clearer, "reading ceased being a painful process of decipherment and became an act of pure pleasure".[55] By the 16th century in Europe, the appeal of reading for entertainment was well established.

Among literature's many genres are some designed, in whole or in part, purely for entertainment. Limericks, for example, use verse in a strict, predictable rhyme and rhythm to create humour and to amuse an audience of listeners or readers. Interactive books such as "choose your own adventure" can make literary entertainment more participatory.

Readers entertained by comic books (1971)

Comics and cartoons are literary genres that use drawings or graphics, usually in combination with text, to convey an entertaining narrative.[56] Many contemporary comics have elements of fantasy and are produced by companies that are part of the entertainment industry. Others have unique authors who offer a more personal, philosophical view of the world and the problems people face. Comics about superheroes such as Superman are of the first type.[57] Examples of the second sort include the individual work over 50 years of Charles M. Schulz[58] who produced a popular comic called Peanuts[59] about the relationships among a cast of child characters;[60] and Michael Leunig who entertains by producing whimsical cartoons that also incorporate social criticism. The Japanese Manga style differs from the western approach in that it encompasses a wide range of genres and themes for a readership of all ages. Caricature uses a kind of graphic entertainment for purposes ranging from merely putting a smile on the viewer's face, to raising social awareness, to highlighting the moral characteristics of a person being caricatured.

Comedy[编辑]

Comedian Charlie Chaplin impersonating Hitler for comic effect in the satirical film The Great Dictator (1940)

Comedy is both a genre of entertainment and a component of it, providing laughter and amusement, whether the comedy is the sole purpose or used as a form of contrast in an otherwise serious piece. It is a valued contributor to many forms of entertainment, including in literature, theatre, opera, film and games.[61][62] In royal courts, such as in the Byzantine court, and presumably, also in its wealthy households, "mimes were the focus of orchestrated humour, expected or obliged to make fun of all at court, not even excepting the emperor and members of the imperial family. This highly structured role of jester consisted of verbal humour, including teasing, jests, insult, ridicule, and obscenity and non-verbal humour such as slapstick and horseplay in the presence of an audience."[32] In medieval times, all comic types – the buffoon, jester, hunchback, dwarf, jokester, were all "considered to be essentially of one comic type: the fool", who while not necessarily funny, represented "the shortcomings of the individual".[63][64]

Shakespeare wrote seventeen comedies that incorporate many techniques still used by performers and writers of comedy—such as jokes, puns, parody, wit, observational humor, or the unexpected effect of irony.[65][66] One-liner jokes and satire are also used to comedic effect in literature. In farce, the comedy is a primary purpose.

The meaning of the word "comedy" and the audience's expectations of it have changed over time and vary according to culture.[67] Simple physical comedy such as slapstick is entertaining to a broad range of people of all ages. However, as cultures become more sophisticated, national nuances appear in the style and references so that what is amusing in one culture may be unintelligible in another.[68]

Performance[编辑]

Live performances before an audience constitute a major form of entertainment, especially before the invention of audio and video recording. Performance takes a wide range of forms, including theatre, music and drama. In the 16th and 17th centuries, European royal courts presented masques that were complex theatrical entertainments involving dancing, singing and acting. Opera is a similarly demanding performance style that remains popular. It also encompass all three forms, demanding a high level of musical and dramatic skill, collaboration and like the masque, production expertise as well.

Poster for a 1908 production of Verdi's 1871 opera Aida, performed by the Hippodrome Opera Company of Cleveland, Ohio, US

Audiences generally show their appreciation of an entertaining performance with applause. However, all performers run the risk of failing to hold their audience's attention and thus, failing to entertain. Audience dissatisfaction is often brutally honest and direct.

"Of course you all ought to know that while singing a good song or, or giving a good recitation ... helps to arrest the company's attention ... Such at least was the case with me – the publican devised a plan to bring my entertainment to an end abruptly, and the plan was, he told the waiter to throw a wet towel at me, which, of course, the waiter did ... and I received the wet towel, full force, in the face, which staggered me ... and had the desired effect of putting an end to me giving any more entertainments in the house." William McGonagall (Performance artist and poet)[69]

Storytelling[编辑]

Storytelling is an ancient form of entertainment that has influenced almost all other forms. It is "not only entertainment, it is also thinking through human conflicts and contradictions".[16] Hence, although stories may be delivered directly to a small listening audience, they are also presented as entertainment and used as a component of any piece that relies on a narrative, such as film, drama, ballet, and opera. Written stories have been enhanced by illustrations, often to a very high artistic standard, for example, on illuminated manuscripts and on ancient scrolls such as Japanese ones.[70] Stories remain a common way of entertaining a group that is on a journey. Showing how stories are used to pass the time and entertain an audience of travellers, Chaucer used pilgrims in his literary work The Canterbury Tales in the 14th century, as did Wu Cheng'en in the 16th century in Journey to the West. Even though journeys can now be completed much faster, stories are still told to passengers en route in cars and aeroplanes either orally or delivered by some form of technology.

The power of stories to entertain is evident in one of the most famous ones—Scheherazade—a story in the Persian professional storytelling tradition, of a woman who saves her own life by telling stories.[71][72][73] The connections between the different types of entertainment are shown by the way that stories like this inspire a retelling in another medium, such as music, film or games. For example, composers Rimsky-Korsakov, Ravel and Szymanowski have each been inspired by the Scheherazade story and turned it into an orchestral work; director Pasolini made a film adaptation; and there is an innovative video game based on the tale. Stories may be told wordlessly, in music, dance or puppetry for example, such as in the Javanese tradition of wayang, in which the performance is accompanied by a gamelan orchestra or the similarly traditional Punch and Judy show.

Epic narratives, poems, sagas and allegories from all cultures tell such gripping tales that they have inspired countless other stories in all forms of entertainment. Examples include the Hindu Ramayana and Mahabharata; Homer's Odyssey and Iliad; the first Arabic novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan; the Persian epic Shahnameh; the Sagas of Icelanders and the celebrated Tale of the Genji. Collections of stories, such as Grimms' Fairy Tales or those by Hans Christian Andersen, have been similarly influential. Originally published in the early 19th century, this collection of folk stories significantly influence modern popular culture, which subsequently used its themes, images, symbols, and structural elements to create new entertainment forms.[74]

Some of the most powerful and long-lasting stories are the foundation stories, also called origin or creation myths such as the Dreamtime myths of the Australian aborigines, the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh,[75] or the Hawaiian stories of the origin of the world.[76] These too are developed into books, films, music and games in a way that increases their longevity and enhances their entertainment value.

Telling stories
William Blake's painting of the pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales 
Scheherazade telling her stories to King Shahryar in The Arabian Nights 
Telling stories via Wayang golek puppets in Java 
Tosa Mitsuoki illustrating her Tale of Genji 

Theatre[编辑]

Saturday night audience at the Victoria Theatre, London (1872)

Theatre performances, typically dramatic or musical, are presented on a stage for an audience and have a history that goes back to Hellenistic times when "leading musicians and actors" performed widely at "poetical competitions", for example at "Delphi, Delos, Ephesus".[77] Aristotle and his teacher Plato both wrote on the theory and purpose of theatre. Aristotle posed questions such as "What is the function of the arts in shaping character? Should a member of the ruling class merely watch performances or be a participant and perform? What kind of entertainment should be provided for those who do not belong to the elite?"[78] The "Ptolemys in Egypt, the Seleucids in Pergamum" also had a strong theatrical tradition and later, wealthy patrons in Rome staged "far more lavish productions".[79][80]

Expectations about the performance and their engagement with it have changed over time (1).[81] For example, in England during the 18th century, "the prejudice against actresses had faded"[82] and in Europe generally, going to the theatre, once a socially dubious activity, became "a more respectable middle-class pastime"[83] in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when the variety of popular entertainments increased. Operetta and music halls became available, and new drama theatres such as the Moscow Art Theatre and the Suvorin Theatre in Russia opened.[84] At the same time, commercial newspapers "began to carry theatre columns and reviews" that helped make theatre "a legitimate subject of intellectual debate" in general discussions about art and culture.[84] Audiences began to gather to "appreciate creative achievement, to marvel at, and be entertained by, the prominent 'stars'."[84] Vaudeville and music halls, popular at this time in the United States, England, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, were themselves eventually superseded.[85]

Plays,[86] musicals,[87] monologues, pantomimes, and performance poetry are part of the very long history of theatre, which is also the venue for the type of performance known as stand-up comedy.[88] In the 20th century, radio and television, often broadcast live, extended the theatrical tradition that continued to exist alongside the new forms.

The stage and the spaces set out in front of it for an audience create a theatre. All types of stage are used with all types of seating for the audience, including the impromptu or improvised (2, 3, 6); the temporary (2); the elaborate (9); or the traditional and permanent (5, 7). They are erected indoors (3, 5, 9) or outdoors (2, 4, 6). The skill of managing, organising and preparing the stage for a performance is known as stagecraft (10). The audience's experience of the entertainment is affected by their expectations, the stagecraft, the type of stage, and the type and standard of seating provided.

Theatrical entertainment – stages, staging and stagecraft
1 Satirical representation of audience reaction (1809) 
2 Improvised stage for a public performance at a fair (1642) 
3 Improvised stage for domestic theatre 
4 Outdoor stage before a show 
5 Concert theatre ready for solo instrumentalist 
6 Outdoor theatre created from Edinburgh castle forecourt 
7 Traditional stage for Japanese Noh theatre 
8 Stage for theatre in the round 
9 Teatro Colón, a highly decorative, horseshoe theatre 
10 Stagecraft – a locking rail backstage 

Cinema and film[编辑]

Film audiences are typically seated in comfortable chairs arranged in close rows before a projection screen. Norway (2005)

Films are a major form of entertainment, although not all films have entertainment as their primary purpose: documentary film, for example, aims to create a record or inform,[89] although the two purposes often work together. The medium was a global business from the beginning: "The Lumière brothers were the first to send cameramen throughout the world, instructing them to film everything which could be of interest for the public."[90] In 1908, Pathé launched and distributed newsreels[90] and by World War I, films were meeting an enormous need for mass entertainment. "In the first decade of the [20th] century cinematic programmes combined, at random, fictions and newsfilms."[90] The Americans first "contrived a way of producing an illusion of motion through successive images," but "the French were able to transform a scientific principle into a commercially lucrative spectacle".[91] Film therefore became a part of the entertainment industry from its early days. Increasingly sophisticated techniques have been used in the film medium to delight and entertain audiences. Animation, for example, which involves the display of rapid movement in an art work, is one of these techniques that particularly appeals to younger audiences.[92] The advent of computer-generated imagery (CGI) in the 21st century made it "possible to do spectacle" more cheaply and "on a scale never dreamed of" by Cecil B. DeMille.[93] From the 1930s to 1950s, movies and radio were the "only mass entertainment" but by the second decade of the 21st century, technological changes, economic decisions, risk aversion and globalisation reduced both the quality and range of films being produced.[94] Sophisticated visual effects and CGI techniques, for example, rather than humans, were used not only to create realistic images of people, landscapes and events (both real and fantastic) but also to animate non-living items such as Lego normally used as entertainment as a game in physical form.[95] Creators of The Lego Movie "wanted the audience to believe they were looking at actual Lego bricks on a tabletop that were shot with a real camera, not what we actually did, which was create vast environments with digital bricks inside the computer."[95] The convergence of computers and film has allowed entertainment to be presented in a new way and the technology has also allowed for those with the personal resources to screen films in a home theatre, recreating in a private venue the quality and experience of a public theatre. This is similar to the way that the nobility in earlier times could stage private musical performances or the use of domestic theatres in large homes to perform private plays in earlier centuries.

Films also re-imagine entertainment from other forms, turning stories, books and plays, for example, into new entertainments.[96] The Story of Film, a documentary about the history of film, gives a survey of global achievements and innovations in the medium, as well as changes in the conception of film-making. It demonstrates that while some films, particularly those in the Hollywood tradition that combines "realism and melodramatic romanticism",[97] are intended as a form of escapism, others require a deeper engagement or more thoughtful response from their audiences. For example, the award winning Senegalese film Xala takes government corruption as its theme. Charlie Chaplin's film The Great Dictator was a brave and innovative parody, also on a political theme. Stories that are thousands of years old, such as Noah, have been re-interpreted in film, applying familiar literary devices such as allegory and personification with new techniques such as CGI to explore big themes such as "human folly", good and evil, courage and despair, love, faith, and death – themes that have been a main-stay of entertainment across all its forms.[98]

As in other media, excellence and achievement in films is recognised through a range of awards, including ones from the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, the Cannes International Film Festival in France and the Asia Pacific Screen Awards.

Dance[编辑]

Dancers creating their own entertainment at a ball.
Peterborough (2008) (silent video)

The many forms of dance provide entertainment for all age groups and cultures. Dance can be serious in tone, such as when it is used to express a culture's history or important stories; it may be provocative; or it may put in the service of comedy. Since it combines many forms of entertainment – music, movement, storytelling, theatre – it provides a good example of the various ways that these forms can be combined to create entertainment for different purposes and audiences.

Dance is "a form of cultural representation" that involves not just dancers, but "choreographers, audience members, patrons and impresarios ... coming from all over the globe and from vastly varied time periods."[99] Whether from Africa, Asia or Europe, dance is constantly negotiating the realms of political, social, spiritual and artistic influence."[100] Even though dance traditions may be limited to one cultural group, they all develop. For example, in Africa, there are "Dahomean dances, Hausa dances, Masai dances and so forth."[101] Ballet is an example of a highly developed Western form of dance that moved to the theatres from the French court during the time of Louis XIV, the dancers becoming professional theatrical performers.[102] Some dances, such as the quadrille, a square dance that "emerged during the Napoleonic years in France"[103] and other country dances[104] were once popular at social gatherings like balls,[105][106] but are now rarely performed. On the other hand, many folk dances (such as Scottish Highland dancing and Irish dancing), have evolved into competitions, which by adding to their audiences, has increased their entertainment value. "Irish dance theatre, which sometimes features traditional Irish steps and music, has developed into a major dance form with an international reputation."[107]

Since dance is often "associated with the female body and women's experiences",[100] female dancers, who dance to entertain, have in some cases been regarded as distinct from "decent" women because they "use their bodies to make a living instead of hiding them as much as possible".[108] Society's attitudes to female dancers depend on the culture, its history and the entertainment industry itself. For example, while some cultures regard any dancing by women as "the most shameful form of entertainment",[109] other cultures have established venues such as strip clubs where deliberately erotic or sexually provocative dances such as striptease are performed in public by professional women dancers for mostly male audiences.

Various political regimes have sought to control or ban dancing or specific types of dancing, sometimes because of disapproval of the music or clothes associated with it. Nationalism, authoritarianism and racism have played a part in banning dances or dancing. For example, during the Nazi regime, American dances such as swing, regarded as "completely un-German", had "become a public offense and needed to be banned".[110] Similarly, in Shanghai, China, in the 1930s, "dancing and nightclubs had come to symbolise the excess that plagued Chinese society" and officials wondered if "other forms of entertainment such as brothels" should also be banned. Banning had the effect of making "the dance craze" even greater.[111] In Ireland, the Public Dance Hall Act of 1935 "banned – but did not stop – dancing at the crossroads and other popular dance forms such as house and barn dances."[107] In the US, various dances have been banned, either because like burlesque, they were suggestive,[112] or because, like the Twist, they were associated with African Americans.[113] "African American dancers were typically banned from performing in minstrel shows until after the Civil War."[114]

Dances can be performed solo (1, 4); in pairs, (2, 3); in groups, (5, 6, 7); or by massed performers (10). They might be improvised (4, 8) or highly choreographed (1, 2, 5, 10); spontaneous for personal entertainment, (such as when children begin dancing for themselves); a private audience, (4); a paying audience (2); a world audience (10); or an audience interested in a particular dance genre (3, 5). They might be a part of a celebration, such as a wedding or New Year (6, 8); or a cultural ritual with a specific purpose, such as a dance by warriors like a haka (7). Some dances, such as traditional dance in 1 and ballet in 2, need a very high level of skill and training; others, such as the can-can, require a very high level of energy and physical fitness. Entertaining the audience is a normal part of dance but its physicality often also produces joy for the dancers themselves (9).

Dance – 10 types across 10 cultures
1 Traditional dancer (Thailand) 
3 Ballroom dancing (Czech Republic) 
4 Belly dancer (Morocco) 
5 Morris dancing (England) 
6 Highland wedding (Scotland, 1780) 
7 Warrior dancers (Papua New Guinea) 
8 Fire Dragon dance for Chinese New Year 
10 Children in Mass Games (North Korea) 

Animals[编辑]

Animals have been used for the purposes of entertainment for millennia. They have been hunted for entertainment (as opposed to hunted for food); displayed while they hunt for prey; watched when they compete with each other; and watched while they perform a trained routine for human amusement. The Romans, for example, were entertained both by competitions involving wild animals and acts performed by trained animals. They watched as "lions and bears danced to the music of pipes and cymbals; horses were trained to kneel, bow, dance and prance ... acrobats turning handsprings over wild lions and vaulting over wild leopards." There were "violent confrontations with wild beasts" and "performances over time became more brutal and bloodier".[115]

Animals that perform trained routines or "acts" for human entertainment include fleas in flea circuses, dolphins in dolphinaria, and monkeys doing tricks for an audience on behalf of the player of a street organ. Animals kept in zoos in ancient times were often kept there for later use in the arena as entertainment or for their entertainment value as exotica.[116]

Many contests between animals are now regarded as sports – for example, horse racing is regarded as both a sport and an important source of entertainment. Its economic impact means that it is also considered a global industry, one in which horses are carefully transported around the world to compete in races. In Australia, the horse race run on Melbourne Cup Day is a public holiday and the public regards the race as an important annual event. Like horse racing, camel racing requires human riders, while greyhound racing does not. People find it entertaining to watch animals race competitively, whether they are trained, like horses, camels or dogs, or untrained, like cockroaches.

The use of animals for entertainment is often controversial, especially the hunting of wild animals. Some contests between animals, once popular entertainment for the public, have become illegal because of the cruelty involved. Among these are blood sports such as bear-baiting, dog fighting and cockfighting. Other contests involving animals remain controversial and have both supporters and detractors. For example, the conflict between opponents of pigeon shooting who view it as "a cruel and moronic exercise in marksmanship, and proponents, who view it as entertainment" has been tested in a court of law.[117] Fox hunting, which involves the use of horses as well as hounds, and bullfighting, which has a strong theatrical component, are two entertainments that have a long and significant cultural history. They both involve animals and are variously regarded as sport, entertainment or cultural tradition. Among the organisations set up to advocate for the rights of animals are some whose concerns include the use of animals for entertainment.[118] However, "in many cases of animal advocacy groups versus organisations accused of animal abuse, both sides have cultural claims."[119]

Animals used for entertainment
‘Ala’ud-Din and Mahima Dharma hunting an Indian tiger, 1790. 
Trained monkey performing for an audience of children (1900–20). 
Crowd watches Pharlap win the Melbourne Cup in Australia, 1930. 
Crowd watches a bullfight in Mexico, 2010. 

Circus[编辑]

Children entertained by a stilt walker performing in a circus act

A circus, described as "one of the most brazen of entertainment forms",[120] is a special type of theatrical performance, involving a variety of physical skills such as acrobatics and juggling and sometimes performing animals. Usually thought of as a travelling show performed in a big top, circus was first performed in permanent venues. Philip Astley is regarded as the founder of the modern circus in the second half of the 18th century and Jules Léotard is the French performer credited with developing the art of the trapeze, considered synonymous with circuses.[121] Astley brought together performances that were generally familiar in traditional British fairs "at least since the beginning of the 17th century": "tumbling, rope-dancing, juggling, animal tricks and so on".[120] It has been claimed that "there is no direct link between the Roman circus and the circus of modern times. ... Between the demise of the Roman 'circus' and the foundation of Astley's Amphitheatre in London some 1300 years later, the nearest thing to a circus ring was the rough circle formed by the curious onlookers who gathered around the itinerant tumbler or juggler on a village green."[122]

Magic[编辑]

The form of entertainment known as stage magic or conjuring and recognisable as performance, is based on traditions and texts of magical rites and dogmas that have been a part of most cultural traditions since ancient times. (References to magic, for example, can be found in the Bible, in Hermeticism, in Zoroastrianism, in the Kabbalistic tradition, in mysticism and in the sources of Freemasonry.)[123]

Stage magic is performed for an audience in a variety of media and locations: on stage, on television, in the street, and live at parties or events. It is often combined with other forms of entertainment, such as comedy or music and showmanship is often an essential part of magic performances. Performance magic relies on deception, psychological manipulation, sleight of hand and other forms of trickery to give an audience the illusion that a performer can achieve the impossible. Audiences amazed at the stunt performances and escape acts of Harry Houdini, for example, regarded him as a magician.[124][125][126]

Fantasy magicians have held an important place in literature for centuries, offering entertainment to millions of readers. Famous wizards such as Merlin in the Arthurian legends have been written about since the 5th and 6th centuries, while in the 21st century, the young wizard Harry Potter became a global entertainment phenomenon when the book series about him sold about 450 million copies (as at June 2011), making it the best-selling book series in history.[127][128]

Street performance[编辑]

Didgeridoo player entertaining passers by in the street

Street entertainment, street performance or "busking" are forms of performance that have been meeting the public's need for entertainment for centuries.[129] It was "an integral aspect of London's life", for example, when the city in the early 19th century was "filled with spectacle and diversion".[130] Minstrels or troubadours are part of the tradition. The art and practice of busking is still celebrated at annual busking festivals.[131]

There are three basic forms of contemporary street performance. The first form is the "circle show". It tends to gather a crowd, usually has a distinct beginning and end, and is done in conjunction with street theatre, puppeteering, magicians, comedians, acrobats, jugglers and sometimes musicians. This type has the potential to be the most lucrative for the performer because there are likely to be more donations from larger audiences if they are entertained by the act. Good buskers control the crowd so patrons do not obstruct foot traffic. The second form, the walk-by act, has no distinct beginning or end. Typically, the busker provides an entertaining ambience, often with an unusual instrument, and the audience may not stop to watch or form a crowd. Sometimes a walk-by act spontaneously turns into a circle show. The third form, café busking, is performed mostly in restaurants, pubs, bars and cafés. This type of act occasionally uses public transport as a venue.

Parades[编辑]

Parades are held for a range of purposes, often more than one. Whether their mood is sombre or festive, being public events that are designed to attract attention and activities that necessarily divert normal traffic, parades have a clear entertainment value to their audiences. Cavalcades and the modern variant, the motorcade, are examples of public processions. Some people watching the parade or procession may have made a special effort to attend, while others become part of the audience by happenstance. Whatever their mood or primary purpose, parades attract and entertain people who watch them pass by. Occasionally, a parade takes place in an improvised theatre space (such as the Trooping the Colour in 5) and tickets are sold to the physical audience while the global audience participates via broadcast.

One of the earliest forms of parade were "triumphs" – grand and sensational displays of foreign treasures and spoils, given by triumphant Roman generals to celebrate their victories. They presented conquered peoples and nations that exalted the prestige of the victor. "In the summer of 46 B.C.E. Julius Caesar chose to celebrate four triumphs held on different days extending for about one month."[132] In Europe from the Middle Ages to the Baroque the Royal Entry celebrated the formal visit of the monarch to the city with a parade through elaborately decorated streets, passing various shows and displays. The annual Lord Mayor's Show in London is an example of a civic parade that has survived since medieval times.

Many religious festivals (especially those which incorporate processions, such as Holy Week processions or the Indian festival of Holi) have some entertainment appeal in addition to their serious purpose. Sometimes, religious rituals have been adapted or evolved into secular entertainments, or like the Festa del Redentore in Venice, have managed to grow in popularity while holding both secular and sacred purposes in balance. However, pilgrimages, such as the Christian pilgrimage of the Way of St. James, the Muslim Hajj and the Hindu Kumbh Mela, which may appear to the outsider as an entertaining parade or procession, are not intended as entertainment: they are instead about an individual's spiritual journey. Hence, the relationship between spectator and participant, unlike entertainments proper, is different. The manner in which the Kumbh Mela, for example, "is divorced from its cultural context and repackaged for Western consumption – renders the presence of voyeurs deeply problematic."[133]

Parades generally impress and delight (5, 6, 7, 8), often by including unusual, colourful costumes (6, 7). Sometimes they also commemorate (5, 8) or celebrate (1, 4, 8, 9, 10). Sometimes they have a serious purpose, such as when the context is military (1, 2, 5), when the intention is sometimes to intimidate; or religious, when the audience might participate or have a role to play (6, 7, 9). Even if a parade uses new technology and is some distance away (10), it is likely to have a strong appeal, draw the attention of onlookers and entertain them.

Parades – 10 types, six cultures
1 Triumph of Caesar, Andreani (1588/9) 
2 Alfred Jacob Miller Cavalcade by the Snake Indians (1858–60) 
3 Parade from the onlooker perspective (1816) 
4 Inauguration parade of US President McKinley (1897) 
5 Respectful crowd at motorcade in Canada (1945) 
6 Festive parade in Brazil (2004) 
7 Costumes in West Indian Day parade (2008) 
8 Celebratory parade in London before seated audience (2008) 
9 Ganesh Visarjan, Mumbai (2007) 
10 Flypast (2012) 

烟花[编辑]

Spectators at Bicentennial fireworks in Colombia

自从17世纪以来,烟花就是许多公共娱乐的一部分,并成为重大庆典的主要特征,且一直受到欢迎。它们最初被中国、古典古代和欧洲用于军事用途。烟花在18世纪时最为受欢迎, 人们支付给pyrotechnists高额报酬,特别是因技巧娴熟而被召唤到其他国家进行展示的意大利人。[134][135] Fire and water were important aspects of court spectacles because the displays "inspired by means of fire, sudden noise, smoke and general magnificence the sentiments thought fitting for the subject to entertain of his sovereign: awe fear and a vicarious sense of glory in his might. Birthdays, name-days, weddings and anniversaries provided the occasion for celebration."[136] One of the most famous courtly uses of fireworks was one used to celebrate the end of the War of the Austrian Succession and while the fireworks themselves caused a fire,[137] the accompanying Music for the Royal Fireworks written by Handel has been popular ever since. Aside from their contribution to entertainments related to military successes, courtly displays and personal celebrations, fireworks are also used as part of religious ceremony. For example, during the Indian Dashavatara Kala of Gomantaka "the temple deity is taken around in a procession with a lot of singing, dancing and display of fireworks".[138]

The "fire, sudden noise and smoke" of fireworks is still a significant part of public celebration and entertainment. For example, fireworks were one of the primary forms of display chosen to celebrate the turn of the millennium around the world. As the clock struck midnight and 1999 became 2000, firework displays and open-air parties greeted the New Year as the time zones changed over to the next century. Fireworks, carefully planned and choreographed, were let off against the backdrop of many of the world's most famous buildings, including the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Pyramids of Giza in Egypt, the Acropolis in Athens, Red Square in Moscow, Vatican City in Rome, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, and Elizabeth Tower in London.

体育竞技[编辑]

来自意大利的体育迷观众
2010 FIFA World Cup上的南非球迷

体育运动一直是人们娱乐的方式。区别于运动员,体育竞技的观赏者通常被称作观众。 随着體育場条件的改善和观众席的设计以及录制和传播技术的发展,人们无需到比赛场所即可观看比赛,因此观众的规模愈发壮大、观赏性运动也变得越来越流行。全球涌现的最受欢迎的两项运动是足球板球,它们的国际比赛 國際足協世界盃板球對抗賽在世界各地广泛受到追捧。除了直接参与比赛的运动员以外,体育竞技还是世界各地数百万观众的主要娱乐项目。[139]具有全球魅力的环法自行车赛是一项多阶段、长时间的竞技性运动。较其他竞技运动来说不寻常的是,它不在体育场而是在乡村间进行比赛。[140]

除了具有世界吸引力和竞争力的体育运动以外,还有奥林匹克运动会。它的娱乐价值还涉及举办国及其运动文化。例如,在美国棒球篮球是流行的娱乐形式;不丹的全国性运动是射箭;新西兰丹的全国性运动是橄欖球;伊朗则是自由式摔跤;日本独特的相撲摔跤包含从悠久历史中衍生的仪式元素。[141]某些情况下,诸如国际跑步组Hash House Harriers,参与者为自己创造了体育和娱乐的融合。和作为观众参与大不相同的是,它的社交性强于竞争性。

一项活动逐渐成为运动,进而演变成一项娱乐活动也受到当地气候和条件的影响。例如,现代运动冲浪和夏威夷相关联,而滑雪则更可能在斯堪的纳维亚发展。虽然它们产生给观众的这些运动娱乐在世界范围广泛传播,但发源国仍以实力著称。有时气候会造就一种运动,如加拿大的重要娱乐活动冰球就是适应气候而生的。

集市、展览与购物[编辑]

集市 (非常设)与展览在古代和中世纪就已经存在了。这种地方用于展示财富、创新和交易物品,在提供特定的娱乐项目的同时本身也作为娱乐场所存在着。[142]不管是在地中海的市场上还是在小型商店里,“购物总是能提供某种形式的愉悦感,让人远离日常生活。”[143]然而在现代世界,“营销手段成了新的娱乐形式:旋转发光的标牌、重音乐、……、大屏幕、交互式电脑亭、日间日托、……咖啡馆。”[143]

到了十九世纪,艺术、制造、商业展览已经变成了国际性的。它们不仅大受欢迎,还能影响国际观念。例如,1878年巴黎世博会促进了在观念、创新和标准方面的国际合作。从1851年的伦敦到1900年的巴黎,“超过两亿的参观者踏入了伦敦、巴黎、维也纳、费城、芝加哥世博会乃至世界各地其他小型展览的大门[142][144]。”第二次世界大战后,有远超五亿次的参观通过世博会的旋转大门被记录下来[145]。作为一种壮景、一种娱乐形式,“从建筑、到全球化模式、再到根本的人类身份认同[145],”这些展览的影响无处不在。“集市、专门商店的兴起、艺术博物馆[146]”、大量消费的现代世界、和娱乐工业之间的紧密联系也在这一过程中塑造了起来。

Entertainment in expositions and shops
Advertisement for 1889 Paris Universal Exposition 
Audience queuing for Qatar's World Exposition Pavilion at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo 
Ball pit of the type provided for children's entertainment in shopping malls 

Safety[编辑]

Some entertainments, such as at large festivals (whether religious or secular), concerts, clubs, parties and celebrations, involve big crowds. From earliest times, crowds at an entertainment have associated hazards and dangers, especially when combined with the recreational consumption of intoxicants such as alcohol. The Ancient Greeks had Dionysian Mysteries, for example, and the Romans had Saturnalia. The consequence of excess and crowds can produce breaches of social norms of behaviour, sometimes causing injury or even death, such as for example, at the Altamont Free Concert, an outdoor rock festival. The list of serious incidents at nightclubs includes those caused by stampede; overcrowding; terrorism, such as the 2002 Bali bombings that targeted a nightclub; and especially fire. Investigations, such as that carried out in the US after The Station nightclub fire often demonstrate that lessons learned "regarding fire safety in nightclubs" from earlier events such as the Cocoanut Grove fire do "not necessarily result in lasting effective change".[147] Efforts to prevent such incidents include appointing special officers, such as the medieval Lord of Misrule or, in modern times, security officers who control access; and also ongoing improvement of relevant standards such as those for building safety. The tourism industry now regards safety and security at entertainment venues as an important management task.[148]

Industry[编辑]

Although kings, rulers and powerful people have always been able to pay for entertainment to be provided for them and in many cases have paid for public entertainment, people generally have made their own entertainment or when possible, attended a live performance. Technological developments in the 20th century meant that entertainment could be produced independently of the audience, packaged and sold on a commercial basis by an entertainment industry.[149][150] Sometimes referred to as show business, the industry relies on business models to produce, market, broadcast or otherwise distribute many of its traditional forms, including performances of all types.[151] The industry became so sophisticated that its economics became a separate area of academic study.[152]

The film industry is a part of the entertainment industry. Components of it include the Hollywood[153] and Bollywood[154] film industries, as well as the cinema of the United Kingdom and all the cinemas of Europe, including France, Germany, Spain, Italy and others.[155] The sex industry is another component of the entertainment industry, applying the same forms and media (for example, film, books, dance and other performances) to the development, marketing and sale of sex products on a commercial basis.

Amusement parks entertain paying guests with rides, such as roller coasters, train rides, water rides, and dark rides, as well as other events and associated attractions. The parks are built on a large area subdivided into themed areas named "lands". Sometimes the whole amusement park is based on one theme, such as the various SeaWorld parks that focus on the theme of sea life.

One of the consequences of the development of the entertainment industry has been the creation of new types of employment. While jobs such as writer, musician and composer exist as they always have, people doing this work are likely to be employed by a company rather than a patron as they once would have been. New jobs have appeared, such as gaffer or special effects supervisor in the film industry, and attendants in an amusement park.

Prestigious awards are given by the industry for excellence in the various types of entertainment. For example, there are awards for Music, Games (including video games), Comics, Comedy, Theatre, Television, Film, Dance and Magic. Sporting awards are made for the results and skill, rather than for the entertainment value.

The entertainment industry
Packaged entertainment
35mm film reels in boxes 
Choosing music from a record store (Germany, 1988) 
Ticket showing electronic barcode (Valencia, 2005) 

建筑[编辑]

为娱乐而生的建筑[编辑]

Purpose-built structures as venues for entertainment that accommodate audiences have produced many famous and innovative buildings, among the most recognisable of which are theatre structures.[156] For the ancient Greeks, "the architectural importance of the theatre is a reflection of their importance to the community, made apparent in their monumentality, in the effort put into their design, and in the care put into their detail."[157] The Romans subsequently developed the stadium in an oval form known as a circus. In modern times, some of the grandest buildings for entertainment have brought fame to their cities as well as their designers. The Sydney Opera House, for example, is a World Heritage Site and The O₂ in London is an entertainment precinct that contains an indoor arena, a music club, a cinema and exhibition space. The Bayreuth Festspielhaus in Germany is a theatre designed and built for performances of one specific musical composition.

Two of the chief architectural concerns for the design of venues for mass audiences are speed of egress and safety. The speed at which the venue can be emptied is important both for amenity and safety because large crowds take a very long time to disperse from a badly designed venue and this in turn creates a safety risk. The Hillsborough disaster is an example of how poor aspects of building design can contribute to audience deaths. Sightlines and acoustics are also important design considerations in most theatrical venues.

In the 21st century, entertainment venues, especially stadia, are "likely to figure among the leading architectural genres".[158] However, they require "a whole new approach" to design, because they need to be "sophisticated entertainment centres, multi-experience venues, capable of being enjoyed in many diverse ways".[159] Hence, architects now have to design "with two distinct functions in mind, as sports and entertainment centres playing host to live audiences, and as sports and entertainment studios serving the viewing and listening requirements of the remote audience".[159]

Architecture for entertainment
Colosseum (70–80 B.C.E.) Roman venue for mass entertainment 
The Grand Foyer in the Palais Garnier, Paris (1875), influenced architecture around the world. 
Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, at inauguration (1950) the world's largest stadium by capacity 

作为娱乐的建筑[编辑]

Inauthentic castle in Disneyland amusement park

那些挑战设计或建造的极限的建筑师们有时会造出一些本身就具有娱乐性的建筑物,它们超出了公众和顾客的预期,又有卓越的美学价值。诸如法蘭克·蓋瑞设计的毕尔巴鄂古根海姆美术馆就属于这一类建筑,它本身既是旅游胜地,又是重要的世界性博物馆。Other apparently usable buildings are really follies, deliberately constructed for a decorative purpose and never intended to be practical.

On the other hand, sometimes architecture is entertainment, while pretending to be functional. The tourism industry, for example, creates or renovates buildings as "attractions" that have either never been used or can never be used for their ostensible purpose. They are instead re-purposed to entertain visitors often by simulating cultural experiences. Buildings, history and sacred spaces are thus made into commodities for purchase. Such intentional tourist attractions divorce buildings from the past so that "the difference between historical authenticity and contemporary entertainment venues/theme parks becomes hard to define".[160] Examples include "the preservation of the Alcázar of Toledo, with its grim Civil War History, the conversion of slave dungeons into tourist attractions in Ghana, [such as, for example, Cape Coast Castle] and the presentation of indigenous culture in Libya".[161] The specially constructed buildings in amusement parks represent the park's theme and are usually neither authentic nor completely functional.

1888 wax cylinder recording of composer Arthur Sullivan speaking about his reaction to Thomas Edison's invention of the phonograph. ... I am astonished and somewhat terrified at the results of this evening's experiment – astonished at the wonderful power you have developed, and terrified at the thought that so much hideous and bad music may be put on record forever. But all the same, I think it is the most wonderful thing that I have ever experienced, and I congratulate you with all my heart on this wonderful discovery.

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Magazine advertisement for crystal radio (1922)
Television tower in Almaty, Kazakhstan (constructed 1983)

电子媒体发展的影响[编辑]

Globalisation[编辑]

By the second half of the 20th century, developments in electronic media made possible the delivery of entertainment products to mass audiences across the globe. The technology enabled people to see, hear and participate in all the familiar forms – stories, theatre, music, dance – wherever they live. The rapid development of entertainment technology was assisted by improvements in data storage devices such as cassette tapes or compact discs, along with increasing miniaturisation. Computerisation and the development of barcodes also made ticketing easier, faster and global.

Obsolescence[编辑]

In the 1940s, radio was the electronic medium for family entertainment and information.[162][163][164] In the 1950s, it was television that was the new medium and it rapidly became global, bringing visual entertainment, first in black and white, then in colour, to the world.[165] By the 1970s, games could be played electronically, then hand-held devices provided mobile entertainment, and by the last decade of the 20th century, via networked play. In combination with products from the entertainment industry, all the traditional forms of entertainment became available personally. People could not only select an entertainment product such as a piece of music, film or game, they could choose the time and place to use it. The "proliferation of portable media players and the emphasis on the computer as a site for film consumption" together have significantly changed how audiences encounter films.[166] One of the most notable consequences of the rise of electronic entertainment has been the rapid obsolescence of the various recording and storage methods. As an example of speed of change driven by electronic media, over the course of one generation, television as a medium for receiving standardised entertainment products went from unknown, to novel, to ubiquitous and finally to superseded.[167] One estimate was that by 2011 over 30 percent of households in the US would own a Wii console, "about the same percentage that owned a television in 1953".[168] Some expected that halfway through the second decade of the 21st century, online entertainment would have completely replaced television—which didn't happen. The so-called "digital revolution" has produced an increasingly transnational marketplace that has caused difficulties for governments, business, industries, and individuals, as they all try to keep up.[169][170][171][172] Even the sports stadium of the future will increasingly compete with television viewing "...in terms of comfort, safety and the constant flow of audio-visual information and entertainment available."[173] Other flow on effects of the shift are likely to include those on public architecture such as hospitals and nursing homes, where television, regarded as an essential entertainment service for patients and residents, will need to be replaced by access to the internet. At the same time, the ongoing need for entertainers as "professional engagers" shows the continuity of traditional entertainment.[174]

Convergence[编辑]

By the second decade of the 21st century, analogue recording was being replaced by digital recording and all forms of electronic entertainment began to converge.[175] For example, convergence is challenging standard practices in the film industry: whereas "success or failure used to be determined by the first weekend of its run. Today, ... a series of exhibition 'windows', such as DVD, pay-per-view, and fibre-optic video-on-demand are used to maximise profits."[176] Part of the industry's adjustment is its release of new commercial product directly via video hosting services. Media convergence is said to be more than technological: the convergence is cultural as well.[177] It is also "the result of a deliberate effort to protect the interests of business entities, policy institutions and other groups".[166] Globalisation and cultural imperialism are two of the cultural consequences of convergence.[178] Others include fandom and interactive storytelling as well as the way that single franchises are distributed through and affect a range of delivery methods.[179] The "greater diversity in the ways that signals may be received and packaged for the viewer, via terrestrial, satellite or cable television, and of course, via the Internet" also affects entertainment venues, such as sports stadia, which now need to be designed so that both live and remote audiences can interact in increasingly sophisticated ways – for example, audiences can "watch highlights, call up statistics", "order tickets and merchandise" and generally "tap into the stadium's resources at any time of the day or night".[159]

The introduction of television altered the availability, cost, variety and quality of entertainment products for the public and the convergence of online entertainment is having a similar effect. For example, the possibility and popularity of user-generated content, as distinct from commercial product, creates a "networked audience model [that] makes programming obsolete".[180] Individuals and corporations use video hosting services to broadcast content that is equally accepted by the public as legitimate entertainment.

While technology increases demand for entertainment products and offers increased speed of delivery, the forms that make up the content are in themselves, relatively stable. Storytelling, music, theatre, dance and games are recognisably the same as in earlier centuries.

参见[编辑]

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  76. ^ McDonald, Marianne and Walton, J. Michael (编). The Cambridge companion to Greek and Roman theatre. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007. ISBN 0-521-83456-2.  p. 26.
  77. ^ McDonald & Walton (2007), p. 93.
  78. ^ McDonald & Walton (2007), p. 26.
  79. ^ Milling, Jane; Donohue, Joseph W.; Thomson, Peter (编). The Cambridge History of British Theatre. Cambridge University Press (3 volumes). 2005. ISBN 0-521-82790-6. 
  80. ^ Kenrick, John. Musical theatre: a history. London: Continuum. c. 2008. ISBN 0-8264-2860-6. 
  81. ^ Ackroyd, Peter. London: The Biography. New York: Anchor Books. 2000. ISBN 0-385-49771-7.  p. 620.
  82. ^ Frame, Murray. The St. Petersburg Imperial Theaters: Stage and State in Revolutionary Russia, 1900–1920. McFarland & Co, Inc. Publishers. 2000. ISBN 978-0-7864-4330-7.  pp. 65–6.
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  84. ^ Bailey, Peter. Popular Culture and Performance in the Victorian City. Cambridge University Press. 1998. ISBN 0-521-57417-X. 
  85. ^ Mordden, Ethan. All that glittered: the golden age of drama on Broadway. New York: St. Martin's Press. 2007. ISBN 0-312-33898-8. 
  86. ^ Stempel, Larry. Showtime: a history of the Broadway musical theater. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. c. 2010. ISBN 978-0-393-06715-6. 
  87. ^ Robinson, Peter M. The dance of the comedians: the people, the president, and the performance of political standup comedy in America. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. c. 2010. ISBN 978-1-55849-733-7. 
  88. ^ Wyver, John. The Moving Image: An International History of Film, Television, and Video. John Wiley & Sons, Limited. 1989. ISBN 0-631-16821-4. 
  89. ^ 90.0 90.1 90.2 Paris, Michael (编). The First World War and popular Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 1999. ISBN 0-8135-2824-0.  p. 9.
  90. ^ Paris (1999), p. 115.
  91. ^ Cavalier, Stephen. The world history of animation. Berkeley: University of California Press. c. 2011. ISBN 0-520-26112-7. 
  92. ^ Byrnes, Paul. Pompeii, Noah and Exodus: The sword giveth again. Film. The Sydney Morning Herald. [30 March 2014]. 
  93. ^ Byrnes, Paul. Losing the plot. The Sydney Morning Herald. 12 December 2015: 12–13. 
  94. ^ 95.0 95.1 Maddox, Garry. The Lego Movie: Hit off the old block. The Sydney Morning Herald. [30 March 2014]. 
  95. ^ Rothwell, Kenneth S. A History of Shakespeare on Screen: A Century of Film and Television. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. 1999. ISBN 0-521-59404-9. 
  96. ^ Paris (1999), p. 17.
  97. ^ Byrnes, Paul. Noah review: Moments of brilliance but can't shake sinking feeling. Review. The Sydney Morning Herald. [30 March 2014]. 
  98. ^ Albright, Ann Cooper. Dils, Ann, 编. Moving History/Dancing Cultures: A Dance History Reader. Durham, North Carolina: Wesleyan University Press. 2001. ISBN 0-8195-6412-5.  p. xviii.
  99. ^ 100.0 100.1 Dils & Albright (2001), p. 96.
  100. ^ Dils & Albright (2001), p. 34.
  101. ^ Clarke, Mary. The history of dance. New York: Crown Publishers. 1981. ISBN 0-517-54282-X.  p. 98.
  102. ^ Clarke (1981), p. 97.
  103. ^ Wilson, Thomas. An Analysis of Country Dancing. W. Calvert. 1808. 
  104. ^ Fullerton, Susannah; Le Faye, Deirdre. A Dance with Jane Austen: How a Novelist and Her Characters Went to the Ball. Pgw. 2012. ISBN 0-7112-3245-8. 
  105. ^ Wilson, Thomas. The Treasures of Terpsichore: or, A Companion for the Ball-Room. London: Sherwood, Neely and Jones. 1816. 
  106. ^ 107.0 107.1 Wulff, Helena. Dancing at the Crossroads: Memory and Mobility in Ireland. Berghahn Books. 2007: 137. ISBN 978-1-84545-328-2. 
  107. ^ Dils & Albright (2001), p. 142.
  108. ^ van Nieuwkerk, Karin. "Changing Images and Shifting Identities: Female Performers in Egypt" in Dils & Albright (2001). p. 141.
  109. ^ Karina, Lilian; Kant, Marion. Hitler's Dancers: German Modern Dance and the Third Reich. Translated by Jonathan Steinberg English language. Berghahn Books. 1999: 174. ISBN 1-57181-300-4. 
  110. ^ Field, Andrew David. Shanghai's Dancing World: Cabaret Culture and Urban Politics, 1919–1954. Sha Tin, Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong. 2010: 169. ISBN 978-962-996-373-6. 
  111. ^ Butters, Gerald R. Banned in Kansas: Motion Picture Censorship, 1915–1966. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. 2007: 230. ISBN 978-0-8262-1749-3. 
  112. ^ Pruter, Robert. Chicago Soul. University of Illinois. 1991: 191. ISBN 0-252-06259-0. 
  113. ^ Hill, Constance Valis. Tap Dancing America: A Cultural History. New York: Oxford University Press. 2010: 12. ISBN 978-0-19-539082-7. 
  114. ^ St Leon, Mark. Circus: the Australian story. Melbourne: Melbourne Books. 2011: 3. ISBN 978-1-877096-50-1. 
  115. ^ Hancocks, David. A different nature: the paradoxical world of zoos and their uncertain future. Berkeley: University of California Press. c. 2001. ISBN 0-520-23676-9. 
  116. ^ An extensive discussion of the legal and cultural issues can be found in Bronner, Simon J. Killing Tradition: Inside Hunting and Animal Rights Controversies. The University Press of Kentucky. 2008. ISBN 978-0-8131-2528-2. 
  117. ^ Examples include: The League against Cruel Sports, UK; People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), multinational; and Showing Animals Respect and Kindness (SHARK), US.
  118. ^ Bronner 2008.
  119. ^ 120.0 120.1 Stoddart, Helen. Rings of Desire: Circus History and Representation. Manchester, UK & New York: Manchester University Press. 2000: 13. ISBN 0-7190-5233-5. 
  120. ^ Diamond, Michael. Victorian sensation, or, The spectacular, the shocking, and the scandalous in nineteenth-century Britain. London: Anthem Press. 2003. ISBN 1-84331-076-7. 
  121. ^ St Leon (2011).
  122. ^ Lévi, Éliphas. The History of Magic (originally published in 1860 as Histoire de la Magie English edition, translated by A. E. Waite in 1913). Boston, Massachusetts: Red Wheel/Weiser. 2001. ISBN 0-87728-929-8. 
  123. ^ Gresham, William Lindsay, Houdini: the man who walked through walls, Holt, 1959 
  124. ^ Epstein, Beryl; Epstein, Sam, The Great Houdini: magician extraordinary, Folkestone: Bailey Brothers and Swinfen (Reprint. Originally published: New York : Dutton, c1920), 1971, ISBN 0561000948 
  125. ^ Houdini, Harry, 1874–1926, Miracle mongers and their methods: a complete exposé, Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1981, ISBN 0879751436  (Reprint. Originally published: New York: Dutton, c1920)
  126. ^ Rowling 'makes £5 every second'. BBC News. 3 October 2008 [27 February 2013]. 
  127. ^ Harry Potter series to be sold as e-books. BBC News. 23 June 2011 [27 February 2013]. 
  128. ^ Cohen, David; Greenwood, Ben. The buskers: a history of street entertainment. Newton Abbot; North Pomfret, Vermont: David & Charles. c. 1981. ISBN 0-7153-8026-5. 
  129. ^ Ackroyd (2000), p. 346 (caption to plate following text pages).
  130. ^ For example, 2012 Coffs Harbour International Buskers and Comedy Festival.
  131. ^ Gurval, Robert Alan. Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War. University of Michigan. 1995: 20. ISBN 0-472-10590-6. 
  132. ^ Maclean, Kama. Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765–1954. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008: 52. ISBN 978-0-19-533894-2. 
  133. ^ Casanova, Giacomo Chevalier de Seingalt. History of My Life, Volumes 9–10 Vol 10. Baltimore, Maryland; London: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1997: 333. ISBN 0-8018-5666-3 (English). 
  134. ^ Kelly, Jack. Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, and Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World. Basic Books. 2005. ISBN 0-465-03722-4. 
  135. ^ Sagarra, Eda. A Social History of Germany 1648–1914. Transaction Publishers. 2003: 31. ISBN 978-0-7658-0982-7. 
  136. ^ Hogwood, Christopher. Handel: Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks. Cambridge University Press. 2005: 80. ISBN 978-0-521-83636-4. 
  137. ^ Varadpande, Manohar Laxman. History of Indian Theatre (vol. 2). New Delhi: Shakti Malik Abhinav Publications. 1992: 286. ISBN 81-7017-278-0. 
  138. ^ Hardy, Stephen; Sutton, William Anthony. Mullin, Bernard James, 编. Sport Marketing. Human Kinetics. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7360-6052-3. 
  139. ^ Thompson, Christopher S. The Tour de France: A Cultural History. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-520-25630-9. 
  140. ^ Kubota, Makoto. Sumo. Chronicle Books Llc. 1999. ISBN 0-8118-2548-5. 
  141. ^ 142.0 142.1 Wilson, Robert. Great Exhibitions: The World Fairs 1851–1937. National Gallery of Victoria. 2007: 10–11. ISBN 978-0-7241-0284-6. 
  142. ^ 143.0 143.1 Moss, Mark Howard. Shopping as an Entertainment Experience. Lanham, Maryland; Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books. 2007: 3. ISBN 978-0-7391-1680-7. 
  143. ^ World's Colombian Exposition of 1893. Chicago Illinois Institute of Technology. [15 November 2012]. 
  144. ^ 145.0 145.1 Rydell, Robert; Boisseau, T. J.; Markwyn, Abigail M.; Rydell, Robert W. Boisseau, T. J., 编. Gendering the Fair: Histories of Women and Gender at World's Fairs. Chicago, Illinois: University of Illinois. 2010: viii. ISBN 978-0-252-03558-6. 
  145. ^ Rydell, Robert W. World of Fairs: The Century-of-Progress Expositions. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. 1993: 15. ISBN 0-226-73236-3. 
  146. ^ Tubbs, Jeffrey; Meacham, Brian. Egress Design Solutions: A Guide to Evacuation and Crowd Management Planning. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. 2007: 83. ISBN 978-0-471-71956-4. 
  147. ^ Mansfeld, Yoel; Pizam, Abraham, Tourism, security and safety: from theory to practice, Burlington, Mass.: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, c. 2006, ISBN 0750678984 
  148. ^ Stein, Andi; Evans, Beth Bingham. An Introduction to the Entertainment Industry. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. 2009. ISBN 978-1-4331-0341-4. 
  149. ^ Walmsley, Ben (编). Key issues in the arts and entertainment industry. Woodeaton, Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers. ISBN 1-906884-20-X. 
  150. ^ Sickels, Robert C. The Business of Entertainment. Greenwood Publishing (Three Volumes). 
  151. ^ Vogel, Harold L. Entertainment industry economics: a guide for financial analysis 7th. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007. ISBN 0-521-87485-8. 
  152. ^ Hollywood News. Mid Day. [28 April 2014]. 
  153. ^ Bollywood News. Mid Day. [28 April 2014]. 
  154. ^ Casper, Drew. Postwar Hollywood, 1946–1962. Oxford: Blackwell. 2007. ISBN 978-1-4051-5074-3. 
  155. ^ Newhouse, Victoria. Site and sound: the architecture and acoustics of new opera houses and concert halls. New York: Monacelli Press. c. 2012. ISBN 978-1-58093-281-3. 
  156. ^ Green, J. R. "The Theatre of Paphos and the Theatre of Alexandria: Some First Thoughts" in MacLeod, Roy (编). The Library of Alexandria. Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. 2002. ISBN 977-424-710-8.  p. 115.
  157. ^ Sheard, Rod. Sports Architecture. London: Spon Press. 2001. ISBN 0-419-21220-5.  p. xvi.
  158. ^ 159.0 159.1 159.2 Sheard (2001), p. xvi.
  159. ^ Lasansky, D. Medina; McLaren, Brian. Architecture and Tourism: Perception, Performance and Place English. Berg Publishers. 2004. ISBN 1-85973-709-9.  p. xvii.
  160. ^ Lasansky (2004), p. xvii, Part II, Ch. 4, 5, 6.
  161. ^ Garratt, G. R. M. The early history of radio: from Faraday to Marconi. London, UK: Institution of Electrical Engineers, in association with the Science Museum. c. 1994. ISBN 0-85296-845-0. 
  162. ^ Hilmes, Michele; Loviglio, Jason (编). Radio reader: essays in the cultural history of radio. New York: Routledge. 2002. ISBN 0-415-92820-6. 
  163. ^ Cox, Jim. The great radio sitcoms. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7864-3146-5. 
  164. ^ Spigel, Lynn. Make room for TV: television and the family ideal in postwar America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1992. ISBN 0-226-76966-6. 
  165. ^ 166.0 166.1 Tryon, Chuck. Reinventing Cinema: Movies in the Age of Media Convergence. Rutgers University Press. 2009: 6, 9. ISBN 978-0-8135-4546-2. 
  166. ^ Spigel, Lynn; Olsson, Jan (编). Television after TV: Essays on a Medium in Transition. Duke University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-8223-3383-X. 
  167. ^ Cogburn, Jon; Silcox, Mark. Philosophy Through Video Games. New York, Oxon: Routledge. 2002: i. ISBN 0-415-98857-8. 
  168. ^ Doyle, Gillian. Media Ownership: The Economics and Politics of Convergence and Concentration in the UK and European Media. (Google eBook): SAGE. 2002. ISBN 0-7619-6680-3. 
  169. ^ Ellis, John. Scheduling: the last creative act in television?. Media Culture Society. Bournemouth University/Large Door Productions. January 2000, 22 (1): 25–38. doi:10.1177/016344300022001002. 
  170. ^ For example, in the UK: Tryhorn, Chris. Government thinktank to tackle media convergence issues. The Guardian. 21 December 2007 [22 November 2012]. 
  171. ^ And for example, in Australia: Convergence Review. Australian Government: Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy. 30 April 2012 [23 November 2012]. 
  172. ^ Sheard (2001), p. 49.
  173. ^ Power, Julie. Laughter and music better than drugs for dementia patients. The Sydney Morning Herald. 3 August 2013 [3 August 2013]. 
  174. ^ Dwyer, Tim. Media Convergence. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England and New York: Open University Press McGraw-Hill Education. 2010. ISBN 978-0-335-22873-7. 
  175. ^ Sayre & King (2010), p. 156.
  176. ^ Sayre & King (2010), pp. 22, 30 ff.
  177. ^ Sayre & King (2010), p. 30.
  178. ^ Jenkins, Henry. Convergence culture: where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-8147-4281-5. 
  179. ^ Sayre & King (2010), p. 536.