草稿:颶風阿德里安 (2005年)

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Hurricane Adrian
一級颶風(SSHS
Hurricane Adrian May 19 915.jpg
5月19日時接近巔峰的颶風阿德里安
形成 2005年5月17日
消散 2005年5月21日
最高風速 1分鐘持續 80英里/小時(130公里/小時)
最低氣壓 982毫巴百帕);29英寸汞柱
死亡 12人傷,1人重傷,5人死亡
影響地區 瓜地馬拉薩爾瓦多尼加拉瓜宏都拉斯
2005年太平洋颶風季的一部分

颶風阿德里安英语:Hurricane Adrian)是一個形成於2005年太平洋颶風季早期的颶風,它的東北向路徑使其比1949年起的記錄中任何颶風都更加靠近薩爾瓦多

阿德里安是2005年太平洋颱風季的第一個颶風,其在5月17日於墨西哥南南東方數百哩外生成,自官方的風季起始時間僅過兩日。

風暴在反常地向西北方向移動的同時緩步增強。阿德里安於5月19日達到其巔峰強度,當時風暴的最大風速為每小時80哩,即每小時130公里。阿德里安在巔峰過後不久便急遽減弱,到了5月20日早上已變成一個弱熱帶風暴,並轉為向正東行進。阿德里安當日稍後於宏都拉斯豐塞卡灣登陸,數小時後消散。

氣象歷史[编辑]

根據薩菲爾-辛普森颶風等級的強度而繪製的風暴路徑圖

2005年5月初,一道東風波維德角附近出海,離開非洲西岸。數個擾動天氣區域接下來於5月10至14日間橫越中美洲,促進墨西哥830餘公里外一個廣闊低壓區的發展;5月15日另一道東風波與低壓區產生相互作用,使低壓區的結構得以鞏固,接下來的幾天裡系統在原地近似停滯,對流持續增強。[1]

太平洋夏令時5月17日上午11時前後,美國國家颶風中心認為此系統已成為2005年太平洋颶風季的第一個熱帶性低氣壓,給予編號01E。不像東太平洋上的大部分風暴,01E受墨西哥上空一道低壓槽的牽引而向東北行進,同時由於系統前方的環境適合熱帶氣旋發展,模式預報亦認為其能夠持續增強。[2]而01E升為熱帶性低氣壓不到六小時後,便被認為達到熱帶風暴強度,並予命名為阿德里安。[1][3]

阿德里安在接下來的數天中通過中等垂直風切區域並緩慢增強[1],5月18日時其中心區域及螺旋雨帶英语Rainbelt已受深對流固著,儘管風切和雲系與中美洲高地的互動影響著系統的發展,溫暖的海面仍提供其後續增強空間,某些預測甚至認為阿德里安能夠在通過中美洲時存活並進入加勒比海海域[4]而可能成為已知第三個從東太平洋跨入北大西洋海域的熱帶氣旋。[5]

到了5月19日,風暴結構變得相對鬆散,僅有小塊對流區域存在於其中心附近。[6]但不消數小時阿德里安便快速鞏固結構且能從衛星雲圖上看見風眼成形的跡象[7],隨後阿德里安增強為一個颶風並於當日太平洋夏令時上午10時前後達到巔峰。當時風暴距離陸地約140公里,最大平均風速達到每小時130公里,最低氣壓為982百帕。[1]

阿德里安在成為颶風不久後被薩爾瓦多的離岸風切所影響而突然減弱,並在5月20日太平洋夏令時下午5時前後以每小時35公里的最高風速登陸宏都拉斯豐塞卡灣,數小時後消散於中美洲的山區。[1]

Preparations[编辑]

Tropical Depression Adrian several hours before landfall in Honduras on May 20

In response to the approaching hurricane, officials in El Salvador initiated the evacuations of about 3,500 families throughout 13 municipalities.[8] Public facilities, as precautionary measures, were closed. The local governments and citizens were mindful of the damages caused to the region by other hurricanes, namely the 9,000 deaths caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998.[9] According to President Antonio Saca, roughly 23,000 people evacuated by the storm's arrival.[10] In fears of significant damage, a state of emergency was declared for the entire country, home to roughly 6.5 million people.[11]

In nearby Honduras, officials closed schools and public workers were given a half day as a precautionary measure. Small-scale evacuations also took place in parts of Guatemala and Nicaragua.[10] Guatemala also declared a state of maximum alert as heavy rains from Adrian were expected to trigger flooding.[11] Shelters were set up across the country to house roughly 400,000 people at-risk from the storm.[12]

Impact[编辑]

Adrian had minor effects in Honduras, only a few poorly constructed building were destroyed and minor floods were reported and there were no known fatalities associated with the storm.[13]

In El Salvador, rains from Adrian led to numerous landslides and flash floods, mainly along coastal areas. Fallen trees were reported throughout the country.[8] The floods prompted officials to shut down roads to keep people out of harms way.[14] Heavy rains up to 16.4 inches (418.6 mm) caused several landslides that damaged roads.[15] Two deaths took place, one due to a plane crash caused by strong winds, the other caused by flooding.[16] In all, damages in El Salvador totaled to $12 million (2005 USD; $1472萬 2016 USD).[17]

In Guatemala, two people were killed after rains ahead of Adrian caused a ditch to cave in on them.[18] One person was killed due to flooding in Nicaragua.[1]

See also[编辑]

References[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Richard D. Knabb. Hurricane Adrian Tropical Cyclone Report (PDF). National Hurricane Center. 2005-11-24 [2010-06-22]. 
  2. ^ Richard D. Knabb and Stacey Stewart. Tropical Depression One-E Discussion One. National Hurricane Center. 2005-05-17 [2010-06-22]. 
  3. ^ Tropical cyclone records in the Eastern Pacific are available as far back as 1949.
  4. ^ Lixion A. Avila. Tropical Storm Adrian Discussion Three. National Hurricane Center. 2005-05-18 [2010-06-22]. 
  5. ^ Hurricane Research Division. Easy-To-Read HURDAT: 1851-2009. National Hurricane Center. 2010 [2010-06-22]. 
  6. ^ James L. Franklin. Tropical Storm Adrian Discussion Seven. National Hurricane Center. 2005-05-19 [2010-06-22]. (英文)
  7. ^ Richard D. Knabb and Lixion A. Avila. Tropical Storm Adrian Discussion Eight. National Hurricane Center. 2005-05-19 [2010-06-22]. (英文)
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Informe De Perdidas y Daños Ocurridos Por Huracan Adrian (PDF). National Service of Territorial Studies. 2005-06-08 [2008-11-08] (西班牙文). 
  9. ^ Hurricane Adrian hits El Salvador. BBC. 2005-05-20 [2008-11-08]. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Diego Mendez. Hurricane Adrian fizzles in Central American coast. Associated Press. 2005-05-20 [2010-06-22]. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Diego Mendez. Hurricane Adrian Threatens El Salvador. Associated Press. 2005-05-20 [2010-06-22]. 
  12. ^ Joel Roberts. Central America In Eye Of Storm. Associated Press. CBS News. 2005-05-18 [2010-06-22]. 
  13. ^ Associated Press. Hurricane Adrian whacks El Salvador, then fizzles. USA Today. 2005-05-20 [2008-11-29]. 
  14. ^ El Diario de Hoy. Cierran calles peligrosas. Nationales. 2005-05-19 [2008-11-28] (西班牙文). 
  15. ^ Report of Landslides generated by Hurricane Adrian, El Salvador (PDF). National Service of Territorial Studies. 2005 [2005-11-28] (西班牙文). 
  16. ^ El Salvador, Honduras escape hurricane's wrath. CBC News. 2005-05-21 [2005-11-29]. 
  17. ^ El Diario de Hoy. Estiman $12 millones en pérdidas por Adrián. Nationales. 2005-05-21 [2008-11-29] (西班牙文). 
  18. ^ Diego Mendez. El Salvador awaits Hurricane Adrian's arrival. Independent Online. 2005-05-20 [2008-11-29]. 

External links[编辑]

Template:2005 Pacific hurricane season buttons