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Mycophenolic acid ball-and-stick.png
(4E)-6-(4-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid
读音 /ˌmkfˈnɒlɪk/
商品名 CellCept, Myfortic
Drugs.com Multum消费者信息
MedlinePlus a601081
  • AU: D
  • US: D (证据表明有风险)
给药途径 Oral,
生物利用度 72% (sodium),
94% (mofetil)[2]
蛋白结合度 82–97%[2]
代谢 Hepatic[2]
生物半衰期 17.9±6.5 hours[2]
排泄 Urine (93%),
faeces (6%)[2]
CAS注册号 24280-93-1 ✓
ATC代码 L04AA06
PubChem CID 446541
DrugBank DB01024 ✓
ChemSpider 393865 ✓
KEGG D05096 ✓
ChEBI CHEBI:168396 ✓
化学式 C17H20O6
摩尔质量 320.34 g/mol
 ✗✓ (what is this?)英语Wikipedia:WikiProject_Chemicals/Chembox_validation  (verify)
Mycophenolate mofetil
Mycophenolate mofetil2DACS.svg
Mycophenolate mofetil ball-and-stick.png
2-Morpholin-4-ylethyl (E)-6-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-1H-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-4-methylhex-4-enoate
商品名 CellCept
Drugs.com Monograph
CAS注册号 128794-94-5 ✓
ATC代码 L04AA06
PubChem CID 5281078
DrugBank DB00688 ✓
ChemSpider 4444535 ✓
KEGG C07908 ✓
ChEBI CHEBI:8764 ✗
化学式 C23H31NO7
摩尔质量 433.49474 g/mol
 ✗✓ (what is this?)英语Wikipedia:WikiProject_Chemicals/Chembox_validation  (verify)

黴酚酸(英文:Mycophenolic acid 或 mycophenolate),為器官移植手術使用來預防排斥作用的免疫抑制藥物。它抑制T細胞B細胞生長所需的酵素。早期黴酚酸是以黴酚酸酯的前體藥物之型態來販售,以提升它的生物利用度。 近年來,它也以黴酚酸鈉(睦體康[3])的形式販售,而黴酚酸酯在市面上也可以買到(山喜多[4])。

黴酚酸原本是由義大利醫學家巴托羅密歐‧高西歐在1893年發現的抗生素,也是第一個人工合成與純化到結晶型態的抗生素;但是它卻被世人所遺忘,直到1912年美國科學家阿爾斯柏格與布萊克重新合成並將之命名為黴酚酸,才又得到注意。它是一個廣效性的藥物,可用於抗病毒、抗真菌、抗癌以及抗銀屑病[5]。山喜多是由南美洲遺傳學家安東尼‧艾力森英语Anthony Clifford Allison與他的妻子艾爾西‧悠桂(Elsie M. Eugui)開發出來,並於1995年5月3日通過美國食品藥品監督管理局許可用於腎臟移植[6]




在狼瘡性腎炎的治療上,因為相比於環磷酰胺丸劑,黴酚酸少了副作用(骨髓抑制、不育、惡性化)[11][9]且病人反應較佳,因此採用黴酚酸治療狼瘡性腎炎有增加的趨勢。在持續的治療上,黴酚酸的表現也較環磷酰胺為佳[11]。 沃爾什等人甚至認為在病人的沒有喪失腎功能的情況下,應該先使用黴酚酸來治療狼瘡性腎炎[12]




Mycophenolate mofetil is beginning to be used in the management of auto-immune disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma (systemic sclerosis or SSc), and pemphigus vulgaris英语pemphigus vulgaris (PV) with success for some patients.[15]

It is also currently being used as a long-term therapy for maintaining remission of granulomatosis with polyangiitis, though thus far, studies have found it inferior to azathioprine.[來源請求] A combination of mycophenolate and ribavirin has been found to stop infection by and replication英语viral replication of dengue virus in vitro.[16][17]

Takayasu arteritis, ANCA-associated vasculitides英语ANCA-associated vasculitides and all medium vessel vasculitic conditions do respond to it. However, due to its slow onset of action, initial aggressive disease may be managed with high dose steroids and other immunosuppressants. Maintenance of remission is much better with mycophenolate, especially due to lower infection rate with this agent. After persistent remission, dose can be reduced to 1000 mg per day, but not lower as relapses more common in doses lower than this.[來源請求]


Common adverse drug reactions (≥1% of patients) associated with mycophenolate therapy include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, joint pain; infections, leukopenia, and/or anemia reflect the immunosuppressive and myelosuppressive nature of the drug. Mycophenolate sodium is also commonly associated with fatigue, headache, cough and/or breathing issues. Intravenous (IV) administration of mycophenolate mofetil is also commonly associated with thrombophlebitis英语thrombophlebitis and thrombosis. Infrequent adverse effects (0.1–1% of patients) include esophagitis英语esophagitis, gastritis, gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage, and/or invasive cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.[7] More rarely, pulmonary fibrosis英语pulmonary fibrosis or various neoplasia occur: melanoma, lymphoma, other malignancies having an occurrences of 1 in 20 to 1 in 200, depending on the type, with neoplasia in the skin being the most common site.[18][19] Several cases of pure red cell aplasia英语pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) have also been reported.[20]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an alert that patients on mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolic acid are at increased risk of opportunistic infections, such as activation of latent viral infections, including shingles, other herpes infections, cytomegalovirus, and BK virus英语BK virus associated nephropathy. In addition the FDA is investigating 16 patients that developed a rare neurological disease while taking the drug. This is a viral infection known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; it attacks the brain and is usually fatal.[21]

Mycophenolic acid is associated with miscarriage and congenital malformations when used during pregnancy, and should be avoided whenever possible by women trying to conceive.[22][23]

GI intolerance in about 10% of patients taking mycophenolate mofetil can be overcome largely by replacing it with mycophenolate sodium or azathioprine.[來源請求]


Among the most common effects of this drug is increased blood cholesterol levels. Other changes in blood chemistry such as hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia英语hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, and an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) can occur.[1][24]


Mycophenolate is derived from the fungus Penicillium stoloniferum英语Penicillium stoloniferum or in P. echinulatum英语Penicillium echinulatum.[25] Mycophenolate mofetil is metabolised in the liver to the active moiety mycophenolic acid. It reversibly inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase英语inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase,[26] the enzyme that controls the rate of synthesis of guanine monophosphate in the de novo pathway of purine synthesis used in the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes.[27] Other cells are able to recover purines via a separate salvage pathway and are thus able to escape the effect.[1]

Mycophenolate is potent and can, in many contexts, be used in place of the older anti-proliferative azathioprine.[28] It is usually used as part of a three-compound regimen of immunosuppressants, also including a calcineurin inhibitor (ciclosporin or tacrolimus英语tacrolimus) and prednisolone.


Mycophenolate mofetil is the morpholino‌ethyl ester of mycophenolic acid; the ester masks the carboxyl group. Mycophenolate mofetil is reported to have a pKa values of 5.6 for the morpholino moiety and 8.5 for the phenolic group.[29]


Mycophenolic acid was discovered by Italian medical scientist Bartolomeo Gosio. Gosio collected a fungus from spoiled corn and named it Penicillium glaucum. (The species is now called P. brevicompactum英语Penicillium brevicompactum.) In 1893 he found that the fungus had antibacterial activity. In 1896 he could isolate the crystals of the compound, which he successfully demonstrated as the active antibacterial compound against the anthrax bacterium.[5] This was the first antibiotic that was isolated in pure and crystalline form. But the discovery was forgotten.[30] It was rediscovered by two American scientists C.L. Alsberg and O.M. Black in 1912, and gave the name mycophenolic acid. The compound was eventually demonstrated to have antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, anticancer, and antipsoriasis activities.[31] Although it is not commercialised as antibiotic due to its adverse effects, its modified compound (ester derivative) is an approved immunosuppressant drug in kidney, heart, and liver transplantations, and is marketed under the brands CellCept (mycophenolate mofetil by Roche) and Myfortic (mycophenolate sodium by Novartis英语Novartis Foundation).[32]

Cellcept was developed by a South African geneticist Anthony Allison英语Anthony Clifford Allison and his wife Elsie M. Eugui. In the 1970s while working at the Medical Research Council英语Medical Research Council (United Kingdom), Allison investigated the biochemical causes of immunune deficiency in children. He discovered the metabolic pathway involving an enzyme, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase英语inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, which is responsible for undersirable immune response in autoimmune diseases, as well as for immune rejection in organ transplantation. He conceived an idea that if a molecule that could block the enzyme is discovered, then, it would become an immunosuppressive drug that could be used for autoimmune diseases and in organ transplantation. In 1981 he decided to go for drug discovery and approached several pharmaceutical companies, which turned him down one by one as he had no primary knowledge on drug research. However, Syntex英语Syntex liked his plans and asked him to join the company with his wife.[33] He became Vice President for the research. In one of their experiments the Allisons used an antibacterial compound, mycophenolate mofetil, which was abandoned in clinical use due to its adverse effects. They discovered that the compound had immunosuppressive activity.[34][35] They synthesised a chemical variant for increased activity and reduced adverse effects.[36][37][38][39][40] They subsequently demonstrated that it was useful in organ transplantation in experimental rats.[41][42] After successful clinical trials,[43] the compound was approved for use in kidney transplant英语Kidney transplantation by the US Food and Drug Administration on 3 May 1995,[6] and was commercialised under the brand name CellCept.[44][45]


  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Jasek, W (编). Austria-Codex 62nd. Vienna: Österreichischer Apothekerverlag. 2007: 1484–95. ISBN 978-3-85200-181-4 (German). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 CellCept (PDF). TGA eBusiness Services. Roche Products Pty Limited. 13 December 2012 [25 February 2014]. 
  3. ^ B023737100 | 藥品資訊 | 就醫指南 | 天主教耕莘醫療財團法人耕莘醫院. www.cth.org.tw. [2017-05-13] (中文(台灣)‎). 
  4. ^ CellCept®山喜多®. www.roche.com.tw. [2017-05-13] (中文(台灣)‎). 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Silverman Kitchin, Jennifer E.; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz; Pak, Grace; Washenik, Ken; Shupack, Jerome L. Rediscovering mycophenolic acid: A review of its mechanism, side effects, and potential uses. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1997, 37 (3): 445–449. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(97)70147-6. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) Under Review for CellCept and Myfortic. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [23 July 2014]. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Rossi S, editor. Australian Medicines Handbook英语Australian Medicines Handbook 2006. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook; 2006. ISBN 0-9757919-2-3[页码请求]
  8. ^ editor, Mark Harber,. Practical nephrology. 2014: 449. ISBN 9781447155478. 
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  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 D'Cruz DP, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet. February 2007, 369 (9561): 587–96. PMID 17307106. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60279-7. 
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  15. ^ Mimouni D, Anhalt GJ, Cummins DL, Kouba DJ, Thorne JE, Nousari HC. Treatment of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus with mycophenolate mofetil. Archives of Dermatology. June 2003, 139 (6): 739–42. PMID 12810504. doi:10.1001/archderm.139.6.739. 
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  18. ^ http://reference.medscape.com/drug/cellcept-myfortic-mycophenolate-343209#4
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  22. ^ FDA Issues Second CellCept Warning. newsinferno.com. 2008-05-18 [2010-10-26]. 
  23. ^ MedWatch Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products. fda.gov. May 2008 [2010-10-26]. 
  24. ^ Drugs.com: Mycophenolic acid 副作用
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  29. ^ http://www.rocheusa.com/products/cellcept/pi.pdf
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  45. ^ CellCept registry data demonstrated superior long-term organ transplant outcomes. Roche.com. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. [23 July 2014].