草稿:MeToo

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此草稿的本来名称是「#MeToo」,因技术限制而“#”符号被替换或省略。

"Me Too" (or "#MeToo", with local alternatives in other languages) spread virally英语Viral phenomenon as a two-word 主題標籤 used on social media in October 2017 to denounce sexual assault and harassment, in the wake of sexual misconduct allegations against film producer and executive 哈維·溫斯坦.[1][2][3] The phrase, long used in this sense by social activist Tarana Burke英语Tarana Burke, was popularized by actress 艾莉莎·米蘭諾, who encouraged women to 在Twitter发文 to publicize experiences to demonstrate the widespread nature of misogynistic behavior.[4][5] Since then, millions of people have used the hashtag to come forward with their experiences, including many celebrities.[6][7]

起源[编辑]

艾莉莎·米蘭諾 encouraged use of the 主題標籤 after accusations against 哈維·溫斯坦 surfaced in 2017.

Social activist and community organizer Tarana Burke created the phrase "Me Too" on the MySpace social network[8] in 2006 as part of a grassroots campaign to promote "empowerment through empathy" among women of color who have experienced sexual abuse, particularly within underprivileged communities.[4][9][10][11][12] Burke, who is creating a documentary titled Me Too, has said she was inspired to use the phrase after being unable to respond to a 13-year-old girl who confided to her that she had been sexually assaulted. Burke later wished she had simply told the girl, "me too".[8]

On October 15, 2017, actress 艾莉莎·米蘭諾 encouraged spreading英语Spreadability the phrase as part of an awareness campaign to show the scale and ubiquity of the problem, tweeting: "If all the women who have been sexually harassed or assaulted wrote 'Me too.' as a status, we might give people a sense of the magnitude of the problem."[13][14][15][6][4] Milano later attributed the phrase to Burke, calling Burke's story "heartwarming and inspiring".[8]

影响范围[编辑]

The phrase had been used more than 200,000 times by October 15,[16] and tweeted more than 500,000 times by October 16.[1] On Facebook, the hashtag had been used by more than 4.7 million people in 12 million posts during the first 24 hours.[7] The platform reported that 45% of users in the United States had a friend who had posted using the term.[17]

Tens of thousands of people replied to Milano's tweet, including:[18]

Some men, such as actors 泰瑞·克魯斯[42] and 詹姆士·范·德·比克,[43] have responded to the hashtag with their own experiences of harassment and abuse, while others have responded by acknowledging past behaviors against women, spawning the hashtag "HowIWillChange."[13] The hashtag "HimThough" was coined by Elizabeth Plank英语Elizabeth Plank.[44]

In addition to 好莱坞, "Me Too" declarations elicited discussion of sexual harassment and abuse in the music industry,[23] sciences,[45] academia,[46] and politics.[47] In the music industry, the band Veruca Salt英语Veruca Salt used the #MeToo hashtag to air allegations of sexual harassment against James Toback英语James Toback,[48] and Alice Glass英语Alice Glass used the hashtag to share a history of alleged sexual assault and other abuses by former Crystal Castles bandmate Ethan Kath英语Ethan Kath.[49][50]

Statehouses in California, Illinois, Oregon, and Rhode Island responded to allegations of sexual harassment surfaced by the campaign,[51] and several women in politics spoke out about their experiences of sexual harassment, including United States Senators Heidi Heitkamp, Mazie Hirono, Claire McCaskill and Elizabeth Warren.[47] Congresswoman Jackie Speier has introduced a bill aimed at making sexual harassment complaints easier to report on 国会山.[52]

On November 12, 2017 in Hollywood, a few hundred men, women, and children participated in the "Take Back the Workplace March" and the "#MeToo Survivors March" to protest sexual abuse.[53]

On November 16, 2017, US Senator 基爾斯滕·吉利布蘭德 of New York specifically referred to "the 'Me Too' Movement" when asked about allegations of sexual misconduct by politicians such as President 唐納德·川普, former President 比尔·克林顿, Senator Al Franken of Minnesota, and Roy Moore.[54]

On November 23, 2017, actress 乌玛·瑟曼 posted a Thanksgiving Day message on her Instagram account accompanied by the #MeToo hashtag. She wrote, "I said I was angry recently, and I have a few reasons, #metoo, in case you couldn’t tell by the look on my face."[55]

国际回应[编辑]

The hashtag has trended in at least 85 countries,[56] including India, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. Variants of the phrase trended in France,[16] using "BalanceTonPorc" (DenounceYourPig),[57] which encouraged users to share the names of their alleged abusers.[58] In the Philippines men and women shared their harrowing experiences with their offenders.[59] In Italy, women posted stories of assault and harassment under the hashtag #QuellaVoltaChe translated literally into "#TheTimeThat."[60][61] The Spanish-language counterpart is "#YoTambién". In French-speaking parts of Canada, the campaign is done under the hashtag "#MoiAussi". In 以色列, the Hebrew hashtag "גםאנחנו#" (#UsToo) began trending on October 18, with a front page spread in the newspaper Yediot Aharonot英语Yediot Aharonot.[57] In Sweden, several women used the hashtag to confront television presenter Martin Timell英语Martin Timell[62], whose shows on TV4 were cancelled on October 20, 2017,[63][64] and journalist Fredrik Virtanen英语Fredrik Virtanen's[65] alleged abuse towards them.

The 欧洲议会 convened a session directly in response to the Me Too campaign, after it gave rise to allegations of abuse in Parliament and in the 欧洲联盟的 offices in Brussels. Cecilia Malmstrom英语Cecilia Malmstrom, the European Commissioner for Trade, specifically cited the hashtag as the reason the meeting had been convened.[66] In the UK, the Cabinet Office has launched an investigation in allegations that Parliament member Mark Garnier ordered a secretary to buy sex toys for his wife and mistress.[67]

In 中国, the websphere reacted in anger following the media claims that harassment was a foreign problem, claiming Chinese men to be educated as protective.[68]

In 香港, track and field athlete Vera Lui Lai-Yiu posted her own case of sex abuse with the hashtag on her Facebook fanpage on her 23rd birthday. She decided to reveal the case after similar action by the gymnast McKayla Maroney. Lui specifically used the "#metoo" hashtag and posted a picture of herself holding a piece of paper with the handwritten words "#metoo lly" (her initials).[69][70][71][72][73]

名地相对应的主题标签列表[编辑]

"MeToo"效应[编辑]

Shortly after the allegations against Harvey Weinstein broke and with the explosion of the "MeToo" hashtag, numerous people have come forward to talk about their experiences with inappropriate behavior of a sexual nature (including but not limited to harassment, assault, etc.) or gender discrimination. The following public figures have been mentioned:

批评[编辑]

The hashtag has been criticized for putting the responsibility of publicizing sexual harassment and abuse on those who experienced it, which could be re-traumatizing.[311][312][313][314] Some found the hashtag to inspire fatigue and outrage, rather than emotionally dense communication.[315][316] Burke had initially criticized the movement for ignoring the work of black women in creating dialogue addressing sexual assault. However, she did salute those who partook in the movement and credited Milano for acknowledging Burke's own similar movement.[9]

参见[编辑]

备注[编辑]

  1. ^ Glaser currently represents Harvey Weinstein.
  2. ^ Sargent committed suicide following the allegations.

参考来源[编辑]

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  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Schmidt, Samantha. #MeToo: Harvey Weinstein case moves thousands to tell their own stories of abuse, break silence. The Washington Post. October 16, 2017 [October 16, 2017]. 
  3. ^ Chuck, Elizabeth. #MeToo: Alyssa Milano promotes hashtag that becomes anti-harassment rallying cry. NBC News. October 16, 2017 [October 16, 2017]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Guerra, Cristela. Where'd the "Me Too" initiative really come from? Activist Tarana Burke, long before hashtags - The Boston Globe. BostonGlobe.com. October 17, 2017 [October 18, 2017]. 
  5. ^ Khomami, Nadia. #MeToo: how a hashtag became a rallying cry against sexual harassment. October 20, 2017 –通过www.theguardian.com. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 #MeToo: Sexual Harassment and Assault Movement Tweeted Over 500,000 Times as Celebs Share Stories. People. October 16, 2017. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 CNN, Cassandra Santiago and Doug Criss. An activist, a little girl and the heartbreaking origin of 'Me too'. CNN. [October 18, 2017]. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Ohlheiser, Abby. The woman behind 'Me Too; knew the power of the phrase when she created it — 10 years ago. The Washington Post. October 19, 2017 [October 20, 2017]. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Hill, Zahara. Black Woman Tarana Burke Founded the "Me Too" Movement. Ebony. October 16, 2017 [October 17, 2017]. ISSN 0012-9011. 
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  63. ^ Timell bryter tystnaden och erkänner: "Är chockad över att jag gjort så mycket fel". Expressen. [October 20, 2017]. 
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  68. ^ Anger as Chinese media claim harassment is just a western problem https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/17/anger-as-chinese-media-claim-harassment-is-just-a-western-problem
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  71. ^ Hong Kong athlete says coach abused her as teen. Digital Journal. November 30, 2017. 
  72. ^ Police to investigate after Hong Kong hurdler Vera Lui says coach sexually assaulted her when she was 13. South China Morning Post. November 30, 2017. 
  73. ^ Hurdler Vera Lui claims sexual assault by coach in teenage years. the Standard. November 30, 2017. 
  74. ^ ‘Revolt’ in France Against Sexual Harassment Hits Cultural Resistance https://nyti.ms/2jCTJxD
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  77. ^ CNN, Sandra Gonzalez,. Ben Affleck apologizes to Hilarie Burton. cnn.com. [October 29, 2017]. 
  78. ^ Oklahoma leading rusher Rodney Anderson accused of rape in protective order. CBS Sports. [4 December 2017]. 
  79. ^ 79.0 79.1 79.2 Ang Bandang Shirley, Farewell Fair Weather deny sexual abuse allegations. InterAksyon. 25 November 2017 [25 November 2017]. 
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  83. ^ Celebrity Hotelier Andre Balazs Accused of Groping by Jason Bateman's Wife and Others. The Hollywood Reporter (英语). 
  84. ^ Sud apologizes for sexual misconduct but says 'some allegations are untrue'. InterAksyon. 23 November 2017 [25 November 2017]. 
  85. ^ Fandos, Nicholas; Martin, Jonathan. Joe Barton, Senior Texas Republican, Apologizes for Explicit Photo. The New York Times. 22 November 2017 [22 November 2017]. 
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  88. ^ At DC Comics, An Editor Rose Through The Ranks Even After Being Accused Of Sexual Harassment. BuzzFeed. [11 November 2017] (英语). 
  89. ^ Celebrity Chef Accused Of Sexual Harassment And Resigns From His Company. delish.com. October 24, 2017 [October 29, 2017]. 
  90. ^ NPR chief Michael Oreskes resigns after sexual harassment accusations. Salon. 1 November 2017 [1 November 2017]. 
  91. ^ 91.0 91.1 'Florida is on fire'. POLITICO. [21 November 2017]. 
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  96. ^ Richard Branson Accused Of Sexual Assault. Refinery29. [25 November 2017] (英语). 
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  101. ^ Bell, Chris. George Bush Snr accused by interpreter. BBC News. 17 November 2017 [18 November 2017]. 
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  104. ^ Mariah Carey's Former Security Guard Is Accusing Her Of Racism And Sexual Harassment. BET.com. [8 November 2017]. 
  105. ^ Four Women Detail Alleged Sexual Misconduct by FYF Fest Founder Sean Carlson. Spin. 15 November 2017 [16 November 2017]. 
  106. ^ Backstreet Boys’s Nick Carter accused of rape by Melissa Schuman. Newsweek. 21 November 2017 [22 November 2017] (英语). 
  107. ^ Prominent Creative-Writing Professor at UVa Is Accused of Sexually Harassing Students. The Chronicle of Higher Education. 22 November 2017 [22 November 2017]. 
  108. ^ CBS Hit With Harassment Lawsuit From 'Hawaii Five-0' Locations Assistant. The Hollywood Reporter. [November 1, 2017]. 
  109. ^ Dwilson, Stephanie Dube. Jordan Chariton of TYT Faces Sexual Allegation from Reporter Carly Hammond. Heavy.com. 17 November 2017 [17 November 2017]. 
  110. ^ Louis C.K. Crossed a Line Into Sexual Misconduct, 5 Women Say. The New York Times. 9 November 2017 [9 November 2017]. 
  111. ^ Police Are Investigating A Rape Claim Against "Make Magic! Do Good!" Author Dallas Clayton. BuzzFeed. [16 November 2017] (英语). 
  112. ^ She complained that a powerful congressman harassed her. Here’s why you didn’t hear her story.. BuzzFeed. [21 November 2017] (英语). 
  113. ^ Minnesota lawmaker, lobbyist accuse Rep. Tony Cornish of sexual harassment. Star Tribune. [14 November 2017]. 
  114. ^ Hughes, Laura; Newell, Claire. Stephen Crabb sent young woman sexually explicit messages after rejecting her application for role in his office. The Telegraph. October 28, 2017 [October 29, 2017]. 
  115. ^ CAA Sued Over Agent's Alleged Sexual Assault of a Client. The Hollywood Reporter. [17 November 2017] (英语). 
  116. ^ Mason, Melanie. California assemblyman accused of forcing lobbyist into bathroom and masturbating. Los Angeles Times. 4 December 2017 [5 December 2017]. 
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  119. ^ Bart De Pauw slaat mea culpa: "Ik ben tot inzicht gekomen". De Morgen. [13 November 2017] (弗拉芒语). 
  120. ^ Andy Dick Fired From Movie Over Sexual Harassment Claims. The Hollywood Reporter. [October 31, 2017]. 
  121. ^ A Hacker Hero Has Been Banned From Cyber Conferences After Decades Of Inappropriate Behavior. Buzzfeed.com. [November 20, 2017]. 
  122. ^ Yuan, Jada. L.A. Writer Says Richard Dreyfuss Harassed, Exposed Himself to Her in the 80s. Vulture. [10 November 2017] (英语). 
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  126. ^ Rayner, Gordon. Defence Secretary Sir Michael Fallon admits touching female radio presenter's knee at a dinner. The Telegraph. 31 October 2017 [1 November 2017]. 
  127. ^ McNary, Dave. Ex-Relativity Executive Adam Fields Accused of Sexual Harassment. Variety. 21 November 2017 [22 November 2017]. 
  128. ^ Vagianos, Alanna. Congresswoman Says Former Congressman Tried To Force Himself On Her In Elevator. Huffington Post. 21 November 2017 [22 November 2017]. 
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  130. ^ Ember, Sydney. Hamilton Fish of The New Republic Goes on Leave After Women's Complaints. The New York Times. October 30, 2017 [October 30, 2017]. 
  131. ^ Bill O'Reilly, Fox News Sued for Disparaging Female Accuser. The Hollywood Reporter. [4 December 2017] (英语). 
  132. ^ Senator Al Franken Kissed and Groped Me Without My Consent, And There’s Nothing Funny About It. www.kabc.com. [16 November 2017]. 
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  137. ^ Pogrebin, Robin. Art Fair Director Replaced After Being Accused of Sex Harassment. The New York Timess. 8 November 2017 [9 November 2017]. 
  138. ^ Kamin, Debra. Israel's Keshet Rocked by Sexual Harassment Allegations. Variety. 7 November 2017 [7 November 2017]. 
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  141. ^ Busch, Anita. Anthony Edwards Writes About Sexual Molestation At Hand Of Gary Goddard. Deadline. 10 November 2017 [10 November 2017]. 
  142. ^ 142.0 142.1 Jensen and the Flips dropped from gig lineup after sexual harassment claims. Rappler. [22 November 2017] (英语). 
  143. ^ Simpson, John. Britain First leader Paul Golding in ‘sex attack’ case. The Times. 1 December 2017 [2 December 2017]. 
  144. ^ Siegel, Jim. 'Inappropriate behavior' with man in his office led to Ohio lawmaker's ouster. The Columbus Dispatch. [16 November 2017] (英语). 
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  249. ^ Carl Sargeant: 'Hanging' cause of ex-minister's death. BBC News. 13 November 2017 [13 November 2017]. 
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  307. ^ Ravi Zacharias Responds to Sexting Allegations, Credentials Critique. Christianity Today. [4 December 2017] (英语). 
  308. ^ Bieler, Des. Blue Jays analyst Gregg Zaun fired for ‘inappropriate’ behavior to female co-workers. Washington Post. 30 November 2017 [2 December 2017]. 
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外部连结[编辑]