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IPA 諺文 文觀部式轉寫 英語近似發音
b[a] b ball
d[a] d doll
dz[b] j beds
[a] j roughly like gee
ɡ[a] g gall
h h hall
ɦ[a] h behind
j [ㅛ, ㅠ,ㅑ,ㅕ,
ㅖ, ㅒ][c]
y you
k ㄱ [ㅋ][d] g, k lock
kk skin
ㅋ [ㅎㄱ] k cup
l ㄹ [ㄴ][e] l alike
m ㅁ [ㅂ][f] m mall
[ㄹ, ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ][g]
n not
ŋ ㅇ [ㄱ][h] ng king
p [ㅍ][i] b, p clip
pp spit
[ㅎㅂ] p paint
ɾ r Scottish great or American ladder
s s like see, but aspirated (with more breath)
ss see
ɕ[j] s roughly like she
ɕ͈[j] ss see
[ㅌ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ][k]
d, t let
tt stall
[ㅎㄷ] t tall
ts[b] j cats
ts͈[b] jj
tsʰ[b] ㅊ [ㅎㅈ] ch let's have
j roughly like cheek
tɕ͈ jj roughly like pitcher
tɕʰ ㅊ [ㅎㅈ] ch roughly like cheek
w [ㅜ, ㅗ][l] w wall
z[a] s like zee, but murmured (with more breath)
ʑ[m] s roughly like illusion
IPA 諺文 文觀部式轉寫 英語近似發音
a a American bot
e e sate
ɛ ae bet
ɛː bed, RP bare
i i meat
o o American boat
RP broad
ø [l] oe weld
øː wave
u u bull
ʌ eo mud
əː RP pearl
ɯ eu somewhat like book
ɯː somewhat like rude
ɰi ui somewhat like we
y [l] wi somewhat like sweet
somewhat like swede
Korean suprasegmentals
IPA 諺文 文觀部式轉寫 說明
ː [o] 輔音延長


  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 The plain stops and affricate /p t tɕ k/ and the fricatives /h s/ are voiced to [b d dʑ ɡ ɦ z] respectively between voiced sounds.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 [ts ts͈ tsʰ dz] occur before back vowels.
  3. ^ /j/ cannot be spelled by itself, but by doubling the short line on the vowel which it phonetically precedes.
  4. ^ ㅋ is [k] and RR k at the end of a syllable.
  5. ^ ㄹ is [l] at the end of a syllable. ㄹㄴ and ㄴㄹ may be [].
  6. ^ ㅂ is [m] before /n/ or /m/.
  7. ^ ㄹ may be [n] at the start of a word. ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ are [n] before /n/ or /m/.
  8. ^ ㅇ is [ŋ] at the end of a syllable. ㄱ is [ŋ] before /n/, /m/, or /ɾ/.
  9. ^ ㅍ is [p] and RR p at the end of a syllable.
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 [ɕ ɕ͈] are the allophones of /s s͈/ before /i/ and /j/.
  11. ^ ㅌ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ are [t] and RR t at the end of a syllable.
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 12.2 /w/ is spelled ㅜ before /ʌ/, /e/, /i/ (the latter combination producing /y/~[ɥi]), ㅗ before /ɛ/, /a/; ㅚ /ø/ can also be pronounced [we].
  13. ^ [ʑ] is the allophone of /z/ before /i/ and /j/.
  14. ^ In Standard Korean vowel length is contrastive, but this has mostly been lost in the spoken language.
  15. ^ Resulting from various sequences of consonants (and their relative transcriptions) in regressive assimilation.


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