LGBT历史年表

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以下内容为女同性恋者,男同性恋者,双性恋者,与跨性别者(LGBT) 的历史年表

史前时期[编辑]

公元前9660年到公元前5000年[编辑]

公元前1700年到公元前7000年[编辑]

公元前22世纪[编辑]

公元前7世纪[编辑]

  • 约公元前630年,一枚在克里特岛发现的牌匾最早记录了的多利安人贵族和其青少年男性之间建立的这种被称为古希腊少年愛的社会现象。[6] (另见克里特少年愛 Cretan pederasty英语Cretan pederasty)。古希腊男性之间的婚姻并不被法律所承认,但是男性可以保持长达一生的少年愛(少年愛这个词不同于现代,在当时没有轻佻的负面含义),这种伙伴关系不同于异性恋婚姻在于其中年长的一方同时充当年轻一方的教育者和导师的角色。 [7]
  • 希腊莱斯博斯岛的抒情诗人莎孚(生于公元前630-612,卒于公元前570前后),以其描绘女同性恋主题的作品著称,亚历山大居民将其位列九名抒情诗人之一。西方语言中「女同性恋者」一词(例如德語Lesbe法語lesbienne英語lesbian),即源自其居住地莱斯博斯岛(現代希腊语:Λέσβος,拉丁字母转写:Lesvos)。她于公元前600年被放逐。

公元前6世纪[编辑]

公元前4世纪[编辑]

公元前2世纪[编辑]

  • 公元前149年及以前,在罗马共和国时期,斯堪提尼亚法(Lex Scantinia英语Lex Scantinia)惩罚那些侵犯自由民青年的性犯罪者;偶尔也适用于检举那些愿意在同性关系中作为被动者的男性公民(罗马人认为在同性关系中充当被动者是丧失男子气概的表现,并予以谴责)[15],对这些人的惩罚是死刑还是罚款并不十分清楚。对于一个成年男性罗马公民而言,只要他的伴侣是男妓,奴隶或丧失荣誉者infamis英语infamis)等其他失去公民资格的人,那么他自愿地参与到同性关系被认为是自然和可被接受的。 在罗马帝国时期,斯堪提尼亚法被图密善作为他司法和道德改革的一部分而发扬。[16]
  • 约公元前九十到八十年代,卡图鲁斯加入了以写作流行于罗马后期的简短希腊式讽刺诗歌的诗人小团体中,他的以男性为渴望对象的讽刺诗,显示了罗马文化中新一轮的同性恋美学风潮。[17]

公元前1世纪[编辑]

  • 公元前57年,卡图卢斯创作了卡米亚(Carmina),其中包括对Juventius的情诗,称赞了年轻人蓬勃的性能力,并猛烈地抨击了被动的性悖軌者。
  • 公元前42年到39年,维吉尔的《牧歌集》中的第十章是著名的拉丁文版本的同性恋题材。
  • 公元前26年到18年,提布鲁斯挽歌中涉及到了同性恋题材。

公元1世纪[编辑]

  • 公元1世纪  - 沃伦杯被制作,这个银质饮水杯上有描绘了两个男性的同性性行为场景的浮雕。
庞贝郊区浴室墙上的女性伴侣壁画

公元2世纪[编辑]

  • 130年 -- 安提诺乌斯,这位罗马皇帝哈德良最宠爱的男孩十九岁时神秘地死于作为罗马行省时的埃及。哈德良因为他的死十分悲痛,全国性地通过命名城市、树立雕像、发行纹章的方式来纪念他,还举行仪式效仿亚历山大大帝纪念情人的方式宣布他为神。
  • 165年 – 基督教殉道者Giustino 写到:“我们了解到一个对于新生儿可怕的事,那就是几乎在任何地方,不但女孩,甚至男孩也被强迫卖淫”。[20]

公元3世纪[编辑]

公元4世纪[编辑]

公元5世纪[编辑]

  • 498年 – 尽管宣布同性性行为违法,基督徒罗马皇帝继续向男妓收税,直到阿纳斯塔修斯一世最后废除这项税收。[24]

公元6世纪[编辑]

公元7世纪[编辑]

公元9世纪[编辑]

公元10世纪[编辑]

公元11世紀[编辑]

公元12世纪[编辑]

公元13世纪[编辑]

公元14世纪[编辑]

  • 1308-14年 – 法国国王腓力四世以异端、偶像崇拜和性悖軌罪命令逮捕所有圣殿骑士,但是实际上他们只是国王为了解决财务危机的牺牲品。骑士团领袖被判处死刑并于1314年3月18日在巴黎圣母院附近于火刑柱上烧死。
  • 1321年 – 但丁神曲中将性悖軌者置于地狱第七层。
  • 1327年 – 英格兰废王爱德华二世被杀,据说被用烧热的拨火棍刺穿直肠而死。爱德华二世曾经为他多次被驱逐的情人第一任康沃尔伯爵英语Earl of Cornwall皮尔斯格·威斯顿英语Piers Gaveston与贵族争斗。[來源請求]
  • 1347年 – Rolandino Roncaglia因被指控性悖軌罪而在意大利引起轰动。他承认自己从未与妻子或者其他女人有过性接触,因为他对此从未感到过渴望也从未因她们而勃起过。在他的妻子因瘟疫死后,Rolandino开始衣着女性服装卖淫。尽管他有着男性而不是女性的性器官,很多人还是认为他是女人,因为他有着女性的外观、声音和步态。[31]
  • 1370左右 – Jan van Aersdone 和 Willem Case 两位男性在1370年左右在比利时安特卫普被判处死刑,他们被指控因进行同性性行为而严重触犯欧洲中世纪的法律。[來源請求] 相关文件的发现使得Aersdone 和 Case的名字为人所知。十四世纪另一对已知的同性恋者是威尼斯的Giovanni Braganza 和 Nicoleto Marmagna。[32]
  • 1395年 – John Rykener英语John Rykener是英国伦敦附近活跃于牛津的一位異裝妓男,他于1395年因異裝被逮捕和审讯。

公元15世纪[编辑]

  • 1424年 – 天主教圣徒锡耶纳的圣伯纳丁(Bernardio of Siena)在意大利佛罗伦萨讲道三日,斥责同性恋和其他形式的肉欲,并以焚烧化妆品、假发以及其他美容装饰品的仪式结束。他同时呼吁判处性悖軌者陶片放逐制驱逐流放。这种布道以及其他神职人员的做法强化并鼓动了政府更多的对于同性恋人群的迫害。[33]
  • 1432年 – 佛罗伦萨建立了第一个特别为检举性悖軌者的组织“夜间警卫”,在之后的70年里逮捕了大约1000名成年男子和男孩,判罪2000余人,大多数处以罚款。
  • 1451年 – 教宗尼古拉五世授意宗教裁判所迫害性悖軌者。
  • 1475年 – 秘鲁卡帕克·尤潘基统治下的一部编年史记录了对同性恋者处以公开火刑并捣毁住所的迫害(通常用于被征服的部落)。
  • 1476年 – 佛罗伦萨法庭1476年的一份记录显示达芬奇和其他三名年轻男性两次被指控犯有性悖軌罪,最后无罪释放。[34]
  • 1483年 – 西班牙宗教裁判所建立,性悖軌罪犯被处以石刑、阉割和火刑。在1540到1700年间,超过1600人被判处性悖軌罪。[13]
  • 1492年 – 著名的人文主义思想家神学家德西德里乌斯·伊拉斯谟在荷兰Steyn的一座修道院期间写作了一系列情书给另一位僧侣。[35]
  • 1494年 – 意大利多明我会修士萨佛纳罗拉 批判佛罗伦萨民众"可怕的罪行"(主要是同性恋和赌博)并且劝告他们离开他们年轻无须的情人。
  • 1497年 – 在西班牙,斐迪南和伊莎贝拉加强了一直以来只是在城市实行的性悖軌法,使其在严重程度上等同于叛国罪和异端罪,而判罚所需的证据数量却被减少了,并允许使用刑罚来获取证据,被告人的财产会被没收。

公元16世纪[编辑]

公元17世纪[编辑]

公元18世纪[编辑]

公元19世纪[编辑]

卡尔·亨利希·乌尔利克斯 (1825–1895),LGBT人权先驱

公元20世纪[编辑]

1901–1909[编辑]

1910s[编辑]

1920s[编辑]

  • 1921 – 在英格兰历史上,第一次试图将女同性恋设为违法的尝试以失败告终。[60]
  • 1922 – 苏联在刑法典中讲同性恋行为去刑事化(合法化)。
  • 1923 – 同性恋一词fag 第一次在Nels Anderson英语Nels_Anderson 的作品 The Hobo 中出现: "Fairies or Fags are men or boys who exploit sex for profit."
  • 1923 – 女同性恋Elsa Gidlow在英格兰出生。她在美国发表了第一部描写女同性恋的诗歌《On A Grey Thread》[61]
  • 1924 – Henry Gerber英语Henry_Gerber 在芝加哥建立了美国第一个同性恋权益组织“人权协会“[62]。该组织在警方的压力下只维持了几个月[63]。 同性恋在巴拿马,巴拉圭和秘鲁合法化。
  • 1926 – 同性恋“homosexuality”一词第一次出现在美国主流刊物纽约时报[13]
  • 1927– 波兰同性恋作曲家卡罗尔·马切伊·席曼诺夫斯基被任命为国立音乐学院 Fryderyk Chopin Music Academy主任。
  • 1928 – 瑞克里芙·霍尔的《寂寞之井》在英国出版,之后进入美国。它的发表出发了法律争议并将同性恋问题带入公众议题。
  • 1929 – 5月22日,《美丽的阿美利加》作者Katharine Lee Bates英语Katharine_Lee_Bates去世。 10月16日,德意志帝国议会投票废除德國刑事法第175條,纳粹掌权后制止了投票的生效。

1930s[编辑]

二次大戰後[编辑]

1990s[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

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  2. ^ Lauren E. Talalay, "The Gendered Sea: Iconography, Gender, and Mediterranean Prehistory," in The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory (Blackwell, 2005), pp. 130–148, especially p. 136.
  3. ^ Grave of stone age transsexual excavated in Prague. Archeology News Network. [2013-07-06]. 
  4. ^ Greenberg, David,The Construction of Homosexuality, 1988; Parkinson, R.B.,‘Homosexual’ Desire and Middle Kingdom Literature Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol. 81, 1995, p. 57-76; Montserrat, Dominic, Akhenaten: History, Fantasy, and Ancient Egypt, 2000. More details at [1] & [2]
  5. ^ Lynn Meskell, when writing about homosexuality, calls it "Another well documented example" (Archaeologies of social life: age, sex, class et cetera in ancient Egypt, Wiley-Blackwell, 1999, p.95)
  6. ^ Kenneth Dover, Greek Homosexuality (Harvard University Press, 1978, 1898), pp. 205-7
  7. ^ Boswell, John (1994). Same-Sex Unions in Pre-Modern Europe. New York: Vintage Books
  8. ^ Stephan Steingräber, Abundance of Life: Etruscan Wall Painting (Getty Publications, 2006), pp. 67, 70, 91–92; Otto Brendel, Etruscan Art, translated by R. Serra Ridgway (Yale University Press, 1978, 1995), pp. 165–170; Fred S. Kleiner, A History of Roman Art (Wadsworth, 2007, 2010), p. xxxii.
  9. ^ 2,500-year-old erotic graffiti found in unlikely setting on Aegean island. the Guardian. 2014-07-06. 
  10. ^ Symposium. Symposium 189c. [2011-09-18].  Authors list列表中的|first1=缺少|last1= (帮助)
  11. ^ Symposium 201d. Symposium.  Authors list列表中的|first1=缺少|last1= (帮助)
  12. ^ Symposium 214e. Symposium.  Authors list列表中的|first1=缺少|last1= (帮助)
  13. ^ 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 Fone, Byrne R. S. Homophobia: a history. New York: Metropolitan Books. 2000. ISBN 0-8050-4559-7.  引用错误:带有name属性“Fone”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  14. ^ Haggerty, George E. Gay histories and cultures: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. 2000: 418. ISBN 978-0-8153-1880-4. 
  15. ^ Thomas A.J. McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law in Ancient Rome (Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 140–141; Amy Richlin, The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor (Oxford University Press, 1983, 1992), pp. 86, 224; John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century(University of Chicago Press, 1980), pp. 63, 67–68; Craig Williams, Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity(Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 116.
  16. ^ James L. Butrica, "Some Myths and Anomalies in the Study of Roman Sexuality," inSame-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition (Haworth Press, 2005), p. 231.
  17. ^ Eva Cantarella, Bisexuality in the Ancient World (Yale University Press, 1992, 2002, originally published 1988 in Italian), p. 120; Edward Courtney, The Fragmentary Latin Poets (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), p. 75.
  18. ^ Ornamentis Augustarum: Suetonius, Life of Nero 28–29, discussed by Craig A. Williams,Roman Homosexuality (Oxford University Press, 1999), p. pp. 284, 400, 424.
  19. ^ Dio Cassius, Epitome of Book 68.6.4; 68.21.2–6.21.3
  20. ^ Apologia I, 27, UTA, RANKE-HEINEMANN, Eunuchi per il regno dei cieli, Rizzoli 1990, p. 66.
  21. ^ Augustan History, Life of Elagabalus10
  22. ^ Theodosian Code 9.8.3: "When a man marries and is about to offer himself to men in womanly fashion (quum vir nubit in feminam viris porrecturam), what does he wish, when sex has lost all its significance; when the crime is one which it is not profitable to know; when Venus is changed to another form; when love is sought and not found? We order the statutes to arise, the laws to be armed with an avenging sword, that those infamous persons who are now, or who hereafter may be, guilty may be subjected to exquisite punishment.
  23. ^ (Theodosian Code 9.7.6): All persons who have the shameful custom of condemning a man's body, acting the part of a woman's to the sufferance of alien sex (for they appear not to be different from women), shall expiate a crime of this kind in avenging flames in the sight of the people.
  24. ^ Evagrius Ecclesiastical History 3.39
  25. ^ JustinianNovels 77, 144
  26. ^ Visigothic Code 3.5.5, 3.5.6; "The doctrine of the orthodox faith requires us to place our censure upon vicious practices, and to restrain those who are addicted to carnal offences. For we counsel well for the benefit of our people and our country, when we take measures to utterly extirpate the crimes of wicked men, and put an end to the evil deeds of vice. For this reason we shall attempt to abolish the horrible crime of sodomy, which is as contrary to Divine precept as it is to chastity. And although the authority of the Holy Scriptures, and the censure of earthly laws, alike, prohibit offences of this kind, it is nevertheless necessary to condemn them by a new decree; lest if timely correction be deferred, still greater vices may arise. Therefore, we establish by this law, that if any man whosoever, of any age, or race, whether he belongs to the clergy, or to the laity, should be convicted, by competent evidence, of the commission of the crime of sodomy, he shall, by order of the king, or of any judge, not only suffer emasculation, but also the penalty prescribed by ecclesiastical decree for such offences, and promulgated in the third year of our reign."
  27. ^ David Bromell. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History, London, 2000 (Ed. Wotherspoon and Aldrich)
  28. ^ 6. Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2013-05-11.
  29. ^ PETRI DAMIANI Liber gomorrhianus , ad Leonem IX Rom. Pon. in Patrologiae Cursus completus...accurante J.P., MIGNE, series secunda, tomus CXLV, col. 161; CANOSA, Romano, Storia di una grande paura La sodomia a Firenze e a Venezia nel quattrocento, Feltrinelli, Milano 1991, pp.13–14
  30. ^ Opera Omnia 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2008-03-13..
  31. ^ storia completa qui 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2008-05-04.
  32. ^ Crompton, Louis. Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge & London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003
  33. ^ Louis Crompton, Homosexuality and civilisation, Harvard University, 2003
  34. ^ della Chiesa, Angela Ottino. The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. 1967: 83. 
  35. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch (2003). Reformation: A History. pg. 95. MacCulloch says "he fell in love" and further adds in a footnote "There has been much modern embarrassment and obfuscation on Erasmus and Rogerus, but see the sensible comment in J.Huizinga, Erasmus of Rotterdam (London, 1952), pp. 11–12, and from Geoffrey Nutuall, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 26 (1975), 403
  36. ^ Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and Male culture in Renaissance Florence, Oxford University Press, 1996
  37. ^ I. Arnaldi, La vita violenta di Benvenuto Cellini, Bari, 1986
  38. ^ Buonarroti, Michelangelo (1904). Sonnets. now for the first time translated into rhymed English. Trans. John Addington Symonds. p. 26.http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924014269975
  39. ^ R v Jacobs (1817) Russ & Ry 331 confirmed that buggery related only to intercourse per anum by a man with a man or woman or intercourse per anum or per vaginum by either a man or a woman with an animal. Other forms of "unnatural intercourse" may amount to indecent assault or gross indecency, but do not constitute buggery. See generally, Smith & Hogan, Criminal Law (10th ed), ISBN 0-406-94801-1
  40. ^ Godbeer, Richard. Sexual revolution in early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2002. ISBN 0-8018-6800-9. p.123
  41. ^ Borris, Kenneth. Same-sex desire in the English Renaissance: a sourcebook of texts, 1470–1650. New York: Routledge. 2004. ISBN 0-8153-3626-8.  p.113
  42. ^ Foster, Thomas (2007). Long Before Stonewall: Histories of Same-Sex Sexuality in Early America. New York University Press.
  43. ^ オトコノコのためのボーイフレンド (1986)
  44. ^ Norton, Rictor. The Raid of Mother Clap's Molly House. 2005-02-05 [2010-02-12]. 
  45. ^ Gunther, Scott (2009)."The Elastic Closet: A History of Homosexuality in France, 1942–present" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2013-06-03. Book about the history of homosexual movements in France (sample chapter available online). Palgrave-Macmillan, 2009. ISBN 0-230-22105-X.
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  47. ^ Sodomylaws.org. Sodomylaws.org. [2013-10-05]. (原始内容存档于2013-08-28). 
  48. ^ 48.0 48.1 Gay & Lesbian Mormons 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2012-04-24.. Affirmation. Retrieved on 30 November 2010.
  49. ^ Kazi, Tehmina. The Ottoman empire's secular history undermines sharia claims – Tehmina Kazi. The Guardian (London). 2011-10-07. 
  50. ^ (Chauncey, 1995)
  51. ^ Marc Vargo. Scandal: infamous gay controversies of the twentieth century Routledge, 2003. pp 165–7.
  52. ^ Steakley, James D. (revised 1989). "Iconography of a Scandal: Political Cartoons and the Eulenburg Affair in Wilhelmin Germany", Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay & Lesbian Past (1990), Duberman, et al., eds. New York: Meridian, New American Library, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-452-01067-5.
  53. ^ Goldman, Emma (1923). "Offener Brief an den Herausgeber der Jahrbücher über Louise Michel" with a preface by Magnus Hirschfeld. Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen 23: 70.  Translated from German by James Steakley. Goldman's original letter in English is not known to be extant.
  54. ^ Left-wing Homosexuality Emancipation, Sexual Liberation, and Identity Politics. 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2009-04-30. Jeffrey Escoffier,
    "During the first decade of the twentieth-century, the great anarchist and feminist leader Emma Goldman argued for the acceptance of homosexuals in her speeches and writings."
  55. ^ middlebury.edu Russian Gay History
    "It was not until 1832 that the criminal code included Article 995, which made muzhelozhstvo (men lying with men, which the courts interpreted as anal intercourse) a criminal act punishable by exile to Siberia.... The October Revolution of 1917 did away with the entire Criminal Code .... The new Russian Criminal Codes of 1922 and 1926 eliminated the offence of muzhelozhstvo from the law."
  56. ^ Wayne R. Dynes, Stephen Donaldson. History of homosexuality in Europe and America. Taylor & Francis, 1992, pp. 174+
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  58. ^ Famous GLBT & GLBTI People - Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld stonewallsociety
  59. ^ Atina Grossmann. Reforming Sex. Oxford University Press, 1995.
  60. ^ Weird Cases: Lesbian litigants Times Online, 2 May 2008
  61. ^ Holt, Patricia (22 June 1986). "Search for the Independent Mind". San Francisco Chronicle.
  62. ^ Hogan and Hudson, p. 244
  63. ^ Bullough, p. 28