Entoprocta is a phylum of mostly sessile（英语：Sessility (zoology)） aquatic animals, ranging from 0.1 to 7 millimetres (0.0039 to 0.28 in) long. Mature individuals are goblet（英语：goblet）-shaped, on relatively long stalks. They have a "crown" of solid tentacles whose cilia generate water currents that draw food particles（英语：filter feeder） towards the mouth, and both the mouth and anus lie inside the "crown". The superficially similar Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) have the anus outside a "crown" of hollow tentacles. Most families of entoprocts are colonial, and all but 2 of the 150 species are marine. A few solitary species can move slowly. Some species eject unfertilized ova into the water while others keep their ova in brood chambers until they hatch, and some of these species use placenta-like organs to nourish the developing eggs. After hatching, the larvae swim for a short time and then settle on a surface. There they metamorphose, and the larval gut generally rotates by up to 180°, so that the mouth and anus face upwards. Both colonial and solitary species also reproduce by cloning — solitary species grow clones in the space between the tentacles and then release them when developed, while colonial ones produce new members from the stalks or from corridor-like stolon（英语：stolon）s. Some species of nudibranchs ("sea slugs") and turbellarian flatworms prey on entoprocts. A few entoproct species have been found living in close association with other animals. It is uncertain whether any are invasive species.
The 美洲豹（學名：Panthera onca），也叫美洲虎，是豹屬動物，胎生，乃貓科中繼虎和獅之後的第三大物種，同時亦為西半球最大型和最強健的貓科動物，外表型態的確和豹極為相似，但較粗壯，圓斑中有黑點，生態位也較像虎。是美洲地區唯一的豹屬動物。現時美洲豹分布於墨西哥至中美洲大部分地區，南至巴拉圭及阿根廷北部。除了已被發現在亞利桑那州的美洲豹繁殖族群（在圖森南部），美洲豹自1900年代初開始就已在美國消失（地區性絕種）。雖然如此，一些美洲豹的族群仍然很可能存在於美國一些未被觀察的地區，包括南亞利桑那州、新墨西哥州甚至德克薩斯州。