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TLS的应用对比

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安全传输层协议 (TLS) 保障网络间的通信安全。本文比较几种最常用的TLS应用。市面上存在许多种自由开源的TLS应用软件。

所有类目的比较均使用下列概述部分中列出软件的稳定版本。该比较仅限于与TLS协议直接相关的功能。

概述[编辑]

应用软件 开发商 开源 软件证书 版权拥有 编辑语言 最新版本,日期 源于
Botan Jack Lloyd Simplified BSD License Jack Lloyd C++ Template:Latest stable software release/Botan 美国 (Vermont)
GnuTLS GnuTLS项目 GNU LGPLv2.1+ 自由软件基金会 C 3.7.8(2022年9月27日,​58天前​(2022-09-27[1][±] 欧洲 (希腊和瑞典)
LibreSSL OpenBSD Project Apache License 1.0, 4-clause BSD License, ISC License, and some are public domain Eric Young, Tim Hudson, Sun, OpenSSL project, OpenBSD Project, and others C, 汇编语言 3.6.1(2022年10月31日,​24天前​(2022-10-31[2][±] 加拿大
MatrixSSL[3] PeerSec Networks GNU GPLv2+ and commercial license PeerSec Networks C 4.5.1(2022年7月29日,​3個月前​(2022-07-29[4][±] 美国
Mbed TLS (previously PolarSSL) Arm Apache License 2.0, GNU GPLv2+ and commercial license Arm Holdings C

3.2.1(2022年7月12日,​4個月前​(2022-07-12 [5][±]

EU (Netherlands)
Network Security Services (NSS) Mozilla, AOL, Red Hat, Sun, Oracle, Google and others MPL 2.0 NSS contributors C, 汇编语言 Template:Latest stable software release/Network Security Services US
OpenSSL OpenSSL 项目 OpenSSL-SSLeay dual-license Eric Young, Tim Hudson, Sun, OpenSSL 项目, 及其他 C汇编语言 3.0.7(2022年11月1日,​23天前​(2022-11-01[6][±] 澳大利亚/欧洲
wolfSSL (曾名为 CyaSSL) wolfSSL[7] GNU GPLv2+ and commercial license wolfSSL 公司.[8] C 5.4.0(2022年7月11日,​4個月前​(2022-07-11[9][10][±] 美国

协议支持[编辑]

TLS协议存在几种版本。 SSL 2.0是一个被弃用的[11] 协议版本,具有明显的缺陷。 SSL 3.0(1996)和TLS 1.0(1999)是具有两个CBC-填充弱点的版本——在2001年由Serge Vaudenay解析.[12] 。 TLS 1.1(2006)通过将CBC块密码切换到随机初始化矢量(IV)解决了其中一个问题,RFC7366[13]强调了 更严重的mac-pad-encrypt使用问题而不是使pad-mac-encrypt更安全的问题。

在2011年底,一种用于SSL 3.0和TLS 1.0的解决方法,基本等同于TLS 1.1的随机的IV被很多应用软件广泛采用[14] 。所以从安全角度来看,所有现有TLS 1.0,1.1和1.2版本在2030年前均在基本协议中提供相同的强度协议并适用于128位,据 NIST SP800-57。在2014年,SSL 3.0的POODLE漏洞被发现,其利用在CBCd的已知漏洞,以及浏览器中不安全的回退协商。[15]

TLS 1.2(2008)是最新发布的基本协议,引入了一种用于识别数字签名的散列方法。虽然在SSL 3.0保守选择(rsa,sha1 + md5)上允许将来使用更强大的散列函数进行数字签名(rsa,sha256 / sha384 / sha512),但TLS 1.2协议不经意间变化并大大削弱了默认数字签名并提供(rsa,sha1)甚至(rsa,md5)。[16]

数据报传输层安全性(DTLS或数据报TLS)1.0是针对面向数据包的传输层的TLS 1.1修改,其中必须容忍数据包丢失和数据包重新排序。基于TLS 1.2的修订版DTLS 1.2于2012年1月发布[17]

在SSL 2.0和SSL 3.0中存在已知的漏洞。除了可预测的IV(存在简单的解决方法)之外,所有当前已知的漏洞都会影响所有版本的TLS 1.0 / 1.1 / 1.2。[18]

应用软件 SSL 2.0 (不安全)[19] SSL 3.0 (不安全)[20] TLS 1.0[21] TLS 1.1[22] TLS 1.2[23] TLS 1.3
[24][25]
DTLS 1.0[26] DTLS 1.2[17]
Botan No No[27] Yes Yes Yes
GnuTLS [a] 默认禁止[28]
MatrixSSL No Disabled by default at compile time[29] Yes Yes Yes
Mbed TLS No No[30] No[30] No[30] Yes
(experimental)
Yes[31] [31]
NSS No[a] Disabled by default[32] Yes Yes[33] [34] [35] Yes[33] [36]
LibreSSL No[37] No[38] Yes Yes Yes [39]
OpenSSL [40] 默认禁止
wolfSSL 默认禁止[41]
  1. ^ 即使SSL 2.0不支持或由于向后兼容性而被禁用,客户端问候也会被支持。
  2. ^ SSL / TLS协议的服务器端实现仍支持处理收到的v2兼容客户端问候消息。[42]
  3. ^ 安全传输:在OS X 10.8中停用了SSL 2.0。在OS X 10.11和iOS 9中停用了SSL 3.0。TLS 1.1,1.2和DTLS在iOS 5.0和更高版本以及OS X 10.9和更高版本中均可用 。[43]
  4. [44]

NSA Suite B 密码学[编辑]

NSA Suite B 密码学 (RFC 6460) 的必须部分:

  • 高级加密标准 (AES), 密钥大小为128和256位。对于业务流量,AES应与低带宽流量的计数器模式(CTR)或高带宽流量的伽罗瓦/计数器模式(GCM)操作模式一起使用(请参阅分块密码模式操作) - 对称加密
  • 椭圆曲线数字签名算法(ECDSA) - 数字签名
  • 椭圆曲线 Diffie-Hellman(ECDH) - 密钥协议
  • 安全散列算法2 (SHA-256 和 SHA-384) — 消息摘要

根据CNSSP-15,256位椭圆曲线(FIPS 186-2中),SHA-256和AES 128位密钥足以保护机密信息达到Secret级别,而384位椭圆曲线(在FIPS 186-2中指定),SHA-384和带有256位密钥的AES是保护最高机密信息所必需的。

应用软件 TLS 1.2 Suite B
Botan
GnuTLS
LibreSSL
MatrixSSL
Mbed TLS
NSS [45]
OpenSSL [46]
wolfSSL

证书[编辑]

请注意,某些认证已受到实际参与研发人的严重负面批评。[47]

应用软件 FIPS 140-1, FIPS 140-2[48] 通用标准 Embedded FIPS Solution
第一层面 Level 2Template:Disputed inline
Botan[49]
GnuTLS[50] 红帽企业Linux GnuTLS加密模块(#2780)
LibreSSL[37] no support
MatrixSSL[51] SafeZone FIPS Cryptographic Module: 1.1 (#2389)
Mbed TLS[52]
NSS[53] Network Security Services: 3.2.2 (#247)
Network Security Services Cryptographic Module: 3.11.4 (#815), 3.12.4 (#1278), 3.12.9.1 (#1837)
Netscape Security Module: 1 (#7[notes 1]), 1.01 (#47[notes 2])
Network Security Services: 3.2.2 (#248[notes 3])
Network Security Services Cryptographic Module: 3.11.4 (#814[notes 4]), 3.12.4 (#1279, #1280[notes 5])
OpenSSL[54] OpenSSL FIPS 对象模块: 1.0 (#624), 1.1.1 (#733), 1.1.2 (#918), 1.2, 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.3 or 1.2.4 (#1051)
2.0, 2.0.1, 2.0.2, 2.0.3, 2.0.4, 2.0.5, 2.0.6, 2.0.7 or 2.0.8 (#1747)
wolfSSL[55] wolfCrypt FIPS 模块: 3.6.0 (#2425)
已验证的操作环境详见于NIST 证书 for validated Operating Environments
  1. ^ with Sun Sparc 5 w/ Sun Solaris v 2.4SE (ITSEC-rated)
  2. ^ with Sun Ultra-5 w/ Sun Trusted Solaris version 2.5.1 (ITSEC-rated)
  3. ^ with Solaris v8.0 with AdminSuite 3.0.1 as specified in UK IT SEC CC Report No. P148 EAL4 on a SUN SPARC Ultra-1
  4. ^ with these platforms; Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 4 Update 1 AS on IBM xSeries 336 with Intel Xeon CPU, Trusted Solaris 8 4/01 on Sun Blade 2500 Workstation with UltraSPARC IIIi CPU
  5. ^ with these platforms; Red Hat Enterprise Linux v5 running on an IBM System x3550, Red Hat Enterprise Linux v5 running on an HP ProLiant DL145, Sun Solaris 10 5/08 running on a Sun SunBlade 2000 workstation, Sun Solaris 10 5/08 running on a Sun W2100z workstation

密钥交换算法(仅限于证书)[编辑]

本节列出了在不同应用软件中中可用的证书验证功能。

应用软件 RSA[23] RSA-EXPORT (不安全)[23] DHE-RSA (forward secrecy)[23] DHE-DSS (forward secrecy)[23] ECDH-ECDSA[56] ECDHE-ECDSA (forward secrecy)[56] ECDH-RSA[56] ECDHE-RSA (forward secrecy)[56] GOST R 34.10-94, 34.10-2001[57]
Botan 默认禁止 默认禁止
GnuTLS 默认禁止[28]
LibreSSL [37] Yes[58]
MatrixSSL
Mbed TLS
NSS Yes 默认禁止 [59] [60][61]
OpenSSL [40] 默认禁止[40] [62]
wolfSSL

密钥交换算法(备选密钥交换)[编辑]

应用软件 SRP[63] SRP-DSS[63] SRP-RSA[63] PSK-RSA[64] PSK[64] DHE-PSK (前向保密)[64] ECDHE-PSK (前向保密)[65] KRB5[66] DH-ANON[23] (不安全) ECDH-ANON[56] (不安全)
Botan 默认禁止 默认禁止
GnuTLS 默认禁止 默认禁止
LibreSSL [67] [67] [67]
MatrixSSL 默认禁止
Mbed TLS
NSS [68] [68] [68] [69] [69] [69] [69] Client side only, disabled by default[70] 默认禁止[71]
OpenSSL [72] 默认禁止[73] 默认禁止[73]
wolfSSL [74]

证书验证算法[编辑]

应用软件 应用程序定义 PKIX path validation[75] CRL[76] OCSP[77] DANE (DNSSEC)[78] 首用信任 (TOFU)
Botan
GnuTLS
LibreSSL
MatrixSSL [79]
Mbed TLS [80]
NSS [81]
OpenSSL
wolfSSL

加密算法[编辑]

应用软件 分组密码操作模式 流密码 None
AES GCM
[82]
AES CCM
[83]
AES CBC Camellia GCM
[84]
Camellia CBC
[85]
ARIA GCM
[86]
ARIA CBC
[86]
SEED CBC
[87]
3DES EDE CBC
(不安全)[88]
GOST 28147-89 CNT
(提出)
[57][n 1]
ChaCha20-Poly1305
[89]
Null
(insecure)
[n 2]
Botan Yes Yes No No 默认禁止 默认禁止 No [90] Not implemented
GnuTLS yes[28] 默认禁止[91] [92] 默认禁止
LibreSSL [37] No [58] [37] [58] [37] 默认禁止
MatrixSSL 默认禁止 [93] 默认禁止
Mbed TLS [94] [95] [95] [30] [96] Disabled by default at compile time
NSS [97] [98][n 3] [99] [100] [60][61] [101] 默认禁止
OpenSSL [102] 默认禁止[40] 默认禁止[40] 默认禁止 默认禁止[40] 默认禁止[40] [62] [40] 默认禁止
wolfSSL 默认禁止


废弃算法[编辑]

应用软件 分组密码操作模式 流密码
IDEA CBC
[n 4](不安全)[104]
DES CBC
(不安全)
[n 4]
DES-40 CBC
(EXPORT, 不安全)
[n 5]
RC2-40 CBC
(EXPORT, 不安全)
[n 5]
RC4-128
(不安全)
[n 6]
RC4-40
(EXPORT, 不安全)
[n 7][n 5]
Botan No[105]
GnuTLS 默认禁止[28]
LibreSSL No[37] No[37] Yes No[37]
MatrixSSL No No No 默认禁止 No
Mbed TLS Disabled by default at compile time No Disabled by default at compile time[31] No
NSS 默认禁止 默认禁止 默认禁止 Lowest priority[106][107] 默认禁止
OpenSSL 默认禁止[40] 默认禁止 [40] [40] 默认禁止 [40]
wolfSSL 默认禁止[108] 默认禁止

支持的椭圆曲线[编辑]

在 RFC 8446 (for TLS 1.3) 和 RFC 8422, 7027 (for TLS 1.2 and earlier) 中定义的曲线[编辑]

适用的 TLS 版本 TLS 1.3 and earlier TLS 1.2 and earlier
应用软件 secp256r1
prime256v1
NIST P-256
(0x0017,[109] 23[110])
secp384r1
NIST P-384
(0x0018,[109] 24[110])
secp521r1
NIST P-521
(0x0019,[109] 25[110])
X25519
(0x001D,[109] 29[110])
X448
(0x001E,[109] 30[110])
brainpoolP256r1
(26)[111]
brainpoolP384r1
(27)[111]
brainpoolP512r1
(28)[111]
Botan [90] [112] [112] [112]
BoringSSL Yes (disabled by default)
BSAFE
GnuTLS [113] [114]
JSSE Yes
x25519: JDK 13+[115]
Ed25519:JDK 15+[116]
Yes
x448: JDK 13+[115]
Ed448: JDK 15+[116]
LibreSSL [117] [37] [37] [37]
MatrixSSL TLS 1.3 only[118]
Mbed TLS Primitive only[119] Primitive only[120] [121] [121] [121]
NSS [122] [123][124] [125] [125] [125]
OpenSSL [126][127] [128][129] [46] [46] [46]
Schannel Vista/2008, 7/2008R2, 8/2012, 8.1/2012R2, 10
Secure Transport
wolfSSL [130]
Erlang/OTP SSL application
Implementation secp256r1
prime256v1
NIST P-256
(0x0017, 23)
secp384r1
NIST P-384
(0x0018, 24)
secp521r1
NIST P-521
(0x0019, 25)
X25519
(0x001D, 29)
X448
(0x001E, 30)
brainpoolP256r1
(26)
brainpoolP384r1
(27)
brainpoolP512r1
(28)

RFC 8422 中弃用的曲线[编辑]

应用! sect163k1
NIST K-163
(1)[56]
sect163r1
(2)[56]
sect163r2
NIST B-163
(3)[56]
sect193r1
(4)[56]
sect193r2
(5)[56]
sect233k1
NIST K-233
(6)[56]
sect233r1
NIST B-233
(7)[56]
sect239k1
(8)[56]
sect283k1
NIST K-283
(9)[56]
sect283r1
NIST B-283
(10)[56]
sect409k1
NIST K-409
(11)[56]
sect409r1
NIST B-409
(12)[56]
sect571k1
NIST K-571
(13)[56]
sect571r1
NIST B-571
(14)[56]
Botan No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
GnuTLS
LibreSSL
MatrixSSL No No No No No
Mbed TLS No No No No No
NSS
OpenSSL
wolfSSL No No No No No No
应用 sect163k1
NIST K-163
(1)
sect163r1
(2)
sect163r2
NIST B-163
(3)
sect193r1
(4)
sect193r2
(5)
sect233k1
NIST K-233
(6)
sect233r1
NIST B-233
(7)
sect239k1
(8)
sect283k1
NIST K-283
(9)
sect283r1
NIST B-283
(10)
sect409k1
NIST K-409
(11)
sect409r1
NIST B-409
(12)
sect571k1
NIST K-571
(13)
sect571r1
NIST B-571
(14)
应用 secp160k1
(15)[56]
secp160r1
(16)[56]
secp160r2
(17)[56]
secp192k1
(18)[56]
secp192r1
prime192v1
NIST P-192
(19)[56]
secp224k1
(20)[56]
secp224r1
NIST P-244
(21)[56]
secp256k1
(22)[56]
arbitrary prime curves
(0xFF01)[56][131]
arbitrary char2 curves
(0xFF02)[56][131]
Botan No No No No No No No No No No
GnuTLS No No No No No No No No
LibreSSL No No
MatrixSSL No No No No No No No No
Mbed TLS No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
NSS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
OpenSSL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
wolfSSL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
应用 secp160k1
(15)
secp160r1
(16)
secp160r2
(17)
secp192k1
(18)
secp192r1
prime192v1
NIST P-192
(19)
secp224k1
(20)
secp224r1
NIST P-244
(21)
secp256k1
(22)
arbitrary prime curves
(0xFF01)
arbitrary char2 curves
(0xFF02)


Notes
  1. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为NSS-3.24的参考文献提供内容

数据完整性[编辑]

应用软件 HMAC-MD5 HMAC-SHA1 HMAC-SHA256/384 AEAD GOST 28147-89 IMIT[57] GOST R 34.11-94[57]
Botan
GnuTLS
LibreSSL [58] [58]
MatrixSSL
Mbed TLS Yes
NSS [60][61] [60][61]
OpenSSL [62] [62]
wolfSSL

压缩[编辑]

请注意,CRIME 安全漏洞 利用了TLS压缩的优势,因此传统应用不会在TLS层启用压缩。 HTTP 压缩是不相关的且不受此漏洞攻击的影响,但会被BREACH相关的攻击利用。

应用软件 DEFLATE[132]
(不安全)
Botan
GnuTLS 默认禁用
LibreSSL [37]
MatrixSSL 默认禁用
Mbed TLS 默认禁用
NSS 默认禁用
OpenSSL 默认禁用
wolfSSL 默认禁用

扩展[编辑]

在本节中列出了每个应用支持的扩展。请注意,安全重新协商扩展对于HTTPS客户端安全至关重要。不执行TLS协议的客户端很容易受到攻击,无论客户端是否实施TLS重新协商。

Implementation Secure Renegotiation
[133]
Server Name Indication
[134]
ALPN
[135]
Certificate Status Request
[134]
OpenPGP
[136]
Supplemental Data
[137]
Session Ticket
[138]
Keying Material Exporter
[139]
Maximum Fragment Length
[134]
Truncated HMAC
[134]
Encrypt-then-MAC
[140]
TLS Fallback SCSV
[141]
Extended Master Secret
[142]
ClientHello Padding
[143]
Raw Public Keys
[144]
Botan [145] [146] [147] 未知
GnuTLS [148] 弃用[149] [28] [150] [28] [151]
LibreSSL [152] 否? 是? Server side only[153]
MatrixSSL [154] [93] [93] [93] 未知
Mbed TLS [155] Disabled by default[31] [156] [156] [156]
NSS [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [157] 未知
OpenSSL [46] 否? 是? [162] [163] [164] 未知
wolfSSL [108] [165] 未知

辅助加密[编辑]

本节列出了已知的利用CPU指令集优化加密,或利用系统特定允许访问底层加密硬件加速或分离数据的设备。

应用软件 PKCS #11 device Intel AES-NI VIA PadLock ARMv8-A Intel SGX Intel QAT页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
GnuTLS [166]
OpenSSL [167] [168]
wolfSSL [169]

系统特定的后端[编辑]

本节列出了已知利用可用操作系统特定后端或另一个提供的后端的应用。

应用软件 /dev/crypto Windows CSP 一般加密CommonCrypto页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 OpenSSL
GnuTLS
OpenSSL
wolfSSL 部分

加密模块/令牌支持[编辑]

Implementation TPM support Hardware token support Objects identified via
Botan 部份[147] PKCS11
GnuTLS PKCS11 RFC7512 PKCS #11 URLs[170]
LibreSSL PKCS11 (via 3rd party module) Custom method
MatrixSSL PKCS11
Mbed TLS PKCS11 (via libpkcs11-helper) or standard hooks Custom method
NSS PKCS11
OpenSSL PKCS11 (通过第三方模块)[171] RFC7512 PKCS #11 URLs[170]
wolfSSL PKCS11

代码属性[编辑]

应用软件 属性 可选属性
Botan C++11 sqlite
zlib (compression)
bzip2 (compression)
liblzma (compression)
boost
openssl (crypto backend)
trousers (TPM)
GnuTLS libc
nettle
gmp
zlib (compression)
p11-kit (PKCS #11)
trousers (TPM)
MatrixSSL none zlib (compression)
MatrixSSL-open libc or newlib
Mbed TLS libc libpkcs11-helper (PKCS #11)
zlib (compression)
NSS libc
libnspr4
libsoftokn3
libplc4
libplds4
zlib (compression)
OpenSSL libc zlib (压缩)
wolfSSL None libc, zlib (压缩)

开发环境[编辑]

应用软件 Namespace 建设工具 API 手册 加密后端 OpenSSL 兼容层
Botan Botan::TLS Makefile Sphinx Included (pluggable)
GnuTLS gnutls_* Autoconf, automake, libtool Manual and API reference (HTML, PDF) External, libnettle 是 (部分)
MatrixSSL matrixSsl_*

ps*

Makefile, MSVC project workspaces, Xcode projects for OS X and iOS API Reference (PDF), Integration Guide Included (pluggable) 是 (Subset: SSL_read, SSL_write, etc.)
Mbed TLS mbedtls_ssl_*

mbedtls_sha1_*
mbedtls_md5_*
mbedtls_x509*
...

Makefile, CMake, MSVC project workspaces, yotta API Reference + High Level and Module Level Documentation (HTML) Included (monolithic)
NSS CERT_*

SEC_*
SECKEY_*
NSS_*
PK11_*
SSL_*
...

Makefile Manual (HTML) Included, PKCS#11 based[172] 是 (separate package called nss_compat_ossl[173])
OpenSSL SSL_*

SHA1_*
MD5_*
EVP_*
...

Makefile Man pages Included (monolithic) 不適用
wolfSSL CyaSSL_*

SSL_*

Autoconf, automake, libtool, MSVC project workspaces, XCode projects, CodeWarrior projects, MPLAB X projects, Keil, IAR, Clang, GCC Manual and API Reference (HTML, PDF) Included (monolithic) 是 (大约 10% of API)

移植问题[编辑]

应用软件 平台要求 网络要求 线程安全 随机速度 能够交叉编译 No OS (bare metal) 可支持的操作系统
Botan C++11 None 线程安全 Platform-dependent Windows, Linux, macOS, Android, iOS, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, QNX, BeOS, IncludeOS
GnuTLS C89 POSIX send() and recv(). API 支持所找的替代品. 线程安全,如果POSIX和Windows线程都不可用,则需要自定义互斥锁钩 取决于平台 基本任何 POSIX 平台 or Windows, 一般已测试的平台包含 GNU/Linux, Win32/64, OS X, Solaris, OpenWRT, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD.
MatrixSSL C89 None 线程安全 Platform dependent All
Mbed TLS C89 POSIX read() and write(). API to supply your own replacement. Threading layer available (POSIX or own hooks) Random seed set through entropy pool Known to work on: Win32/64, Linux, macOS, Solaris, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, OpenWRT, iPhone (iOS), Xbox, Android, eCos, SeggerOS
NSS C89, NSPR[174] NSPR[174] PR_Send() and PR_Recv(). API to supply your own replacement. 线程安全 Platform dependent[175] 是 (but cumbersome) AIX, Android, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, BeOS, HP-UX, IRIX, Linux, macOS, OS/2, Solaris, OpenVMS, Amiga DE, Windows, WinCE, Sony PlayStation
OpenSSL C89? ? 需要互斥量回调 通过原始API设置 Unix, DOS (with djgpp), Windows, OpenVMS, MacOS, NetWare, eCos
wolfSSL C89 POSIX send() and recv(). API 支持所找的替代品. 线程安全,如果POSIX和Windows线程都不可用,则需要自定义互斥锁钩 通过 wolfCrypt设置随机速度 Win32/64, Linux, OS X, Solaris, ThreadX, VxWorks, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, embedded Linux, Haiku, OpenWRT, iPhone (iOS), Android, Nintendo Wii and Gamecube through DevKitPro, QNX, MontaVista, OpenCL, NonStop, TRON/ITRON/µITRON, Micrium's µC OS, FreeRTOS, SafeRTOS, Freescale MQX, Nucleus, TinyOS, HP/UX, Keil RTX, TI-RTOS

其他[编辑]

  • SCTP — 含DTLS 支持
  • DCCP — 含 DTLS 支持
  • SRTP — 含 DTLS 支持 (DTLS-SRTP) 安全实时传输控制协议 (SRTCP)

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ The GnuTLS Transport Layer Security Library. [2022-09-27]. 
  2. ^ LibreSSL: Releases. [2022-10-31]. 
  3. ^ The features listed are for the closed source version
  4. ^ Releases · matrixssl/matrixssl. GitHub. [2022-08-30] (英语). 
  5. ^ Releases · Mbed-TLS/mbedtls. GitHub. [2022-08-30] (英语). 
  6. ^ OpenSSL: Newslog. [2022-11-01]. 
  7. ^ wolfSSL product description. [2016-05-03]. (原始内容存档于2017-09-08). 
  8. ^ wolfSSL Embedded SSL/TLS. [2016-05-03]. (原始内容存档于2016-05-01). 
  9. ^ wolfSSL ChangeLog. 2022-07-11 [2022-08-29]. 
  10. ^ wolfSSL Release 5.4.0 (July 11, 2022). 2022-07-11 [2022-08-29]. 
  11. ^ [rfc:6176 RFC6176: Prohibiting Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Version 2.0]
  12. ^ "CBC-Padding: Security Flaws in SSL, IPsec, WTLS,...", Serge Vaudenay, 2001 (PDF). [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2019-03-03). 
  13. ^ [rfc:7366 RFC7366: Encrypt-then-MAC for Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security]
  14. ^ Rizzo/Duong BEAST Countermeasures. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-06-23). 
  15. ^ Möller, Bodo; Duong, Thai; Kotowicz, Krzysztof. This POODLE Bites: Exploiting The SSL 3.0 Fallback (PDF). September 2014 [2014-10-15]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2014-10-14). 
  16. ^ TLSv1.2's Major Differences from TLSv1.1
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 RFC 6347
  18. ^ Bard attack. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.61.5887可免费查阅. 
  19. ^ draft-hickman-netscape-ssl-00. tools.ietf.org. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2013-09-10). 
  20. ^ RFC 6101
  21. ^ RFC 2246
  22. ^ RFC 4346
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 RFC 5246
  24. ^ RFC 8446 - The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.3. datatracker.ietf.org. [2022-08-30]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-14) (英语). 
  25. ^ tlswg/tls13-spec branches. tlswg.github.io. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2016-01-04). 
  26. ^ RFC 4347
  27. ^ Version 1.11.13, 2015-01-11 — Botan. 2015-01-11 [2015-01-16]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-09). 
  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 [gnutls-devel] GnuTLS 3.4.0 released. 2015-04-08 [2015-04-16]. (原始内容存档于2015-04-16). 
  29. ^ MatrixSSL - News. [2014-11-09]. (原始内容存档于2015-02-14). 
  30. ^ 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 Mbed TLS 3.0.0 branch released. GitHub. 2021-07-07 [2021-08-13]. (原始内容存档于2021-08-13). 
  31. ^ 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 mbed TLS 2.0.0 released. 2015-07-10 [2015-07-14]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-25). 
  32. ^ NSS 3.19 release notes. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. [2015-05-06]. (原始内容存档于2015-06-05). 
  33. ^ 33.0 33.1 NSS 3.14 release notes. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. [2012-10-27]. (原始内容存档于2013-01-17). 
  34. ^ NSS 3.15.1 release notes. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. [2013-08-10]. (原始内容存档于2013-09-22). 
  35. ^ NSS 3.39 release notes. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. 2018-08-31 [2018-09-15]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-07). 
  36. ^ NSS 3.16.2 release notes. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. 2014-06-30 [2014-06-30]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-07). 
  37. ^ 37.00 37.01 37.02 37.03 37.04 37.05 37.06 37.07 37.08 37.09 37.10 37.11 37.12 OpenBSD 5.6 Released. 2014-11-01 [2015-01-20]. (原始内容存档于2016-01-31). 
  38. ^ LibreSSL 2.3.0 Released. 2015-09-23 [2015-09-24]. (原始内容存档于2021-02-25). 
  39. ^ LibreSSL 3.3.3 Released. 2021-05-04 [2021-05-04]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  40. ^ 40.00 40.01 40.02 40.03 40.04 40.05 40.06 40.07 40.08 40.09 40.10 40.11 Inc., OpenSSL Foundation,. /news/openssl-1.1.0-notes.html. www.openssl.org. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-03-17). 
  41. ^ [wolfssl] wolfSSL 3.6.6 Released. 2015-08-20 [2015-08-24]. (原始内容存档于2015-10-17). 
  42. ^ NSS 3.24 release notes. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. [2016-06-19]. (原始内容存档于2016-08-26). 
  43. ^ Technical Note TN2287: iOS 5 and TLS 1.2 Interoperability Issues. iOS Developer Library. Apple Inc. [2012-05-03]. (原始内容存档于2015-04-03). 
  44. ^ Qualys SSL Labs - Projects / User Agent Capabilities. dev.ssllabs.com. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-19). 
  45. ^ Bug 663320 - (NSA-Suite-B-TLS) Implement RFC6460 (NSA Suite B profile for TLS). Mozilla. [2014-05-19]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  46. ^ 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 46.4 Major changes between OpenSSL 1.0.1l and OpenSSL 1.0.2 [22 Jan 2015]. [2015-01-22]. (原始内容存档于September 4, 2014). 
  47. ^ "Secure or Compliant, Pick One" Steve Marquess blog. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2013-12-27). 
  48. ^ Search - Cryptographic Module Validation Program - CSRC. csrc.nist.gov. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2014-12-26). 
  49. ^ "Is botan FIPS 140 certified?" Frequently Asked Questions — Botan. [2014-11-16]. (原始内容存档于2014-11-29). 
  50. ^ "While, as a free software project, we are not actively pursuing this kind of certification, GnuTLS has been FIPS-140-2 certified in several systems by third parties." GnuTLS 3.5.6 B.5 Certification页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  51. ^ Matrix SSL Toolkit (PDF). [2022-08-30]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-07-07). 
  52. ^ Limited, ARM. Is mbed TLS FIPS certified? - Knowledge Base. polarssl.org. [2022-08-30]. (原始内容存档于2014-12-15). 
  53. ^ FIPS Validation - MozillaWiki. wiki.mozilla.org. [2022-08-30]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  54. ^ OpenSSL and FIPS 140-2. [2018年6月22日]. (原始内容存档于2013年5月28日). 
  55. ^ wolfCrypt FIPS 140-2 Information - wolfSSL Embedded SSL/TLS Library. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2015-04-30). 
  56. ^ 56.00 56.01 56.02 56.03 56.04 56.05 56.06 56.07 56.08 56.09 56.10 56.11 56.12 56.13 56.14 56.15 56.16 56.17 56.18 56.19 56.20 56.21 56.22 56.23 56.24 56.25 56.26 56.27 56.28 RFC 4492
  57. ^ 58.0 58.1 58.2 58.3 58.4 LibreSSL 2.1.2 released. 2014-12-09 [2015-01-20]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  58. ^ NSS 3.20 release notes. Mozilla. 2015-08-19 [2015-08-20]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-07). 
  59. ^ 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.3 Mozilla.org. Bug 518787 - Add GOST crypto algorithm support in NSS. [2014-07-01]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  60. ^ 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 Mozilla.org. Bug 608725 - Add Russian GOST cryptoalgorithms to NSS and Thunderbird. [2014-07-01]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  61. ^ 62.0 62.1 62.2 62.3 OpenSSL: CVS Web Interface. [2014-11-12]. (原始内容存档于2013-04-15). 
  62. ^ 63.0 63.1 63.2 RFC 5054
  63. ^ 64.0 64.1 64.2 RFC 4279
  64. ^ RFC 5489
  65. ^ RFC 2712
  66. ^ 67.0 67.1 67.2 LibreSSL 2.0.4 released. [2014-08-04]. (原始内容存档于2019-03-23). 
  67. ^ 68.0 68.1 68.2 Bug 405155 - add support for TLS-SRP, rfc5054. Mozilla. [2014-01-25]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  68. ^ 69.0 69.1 69.2 69.3 Bug 306435 - Mozilla browsers should support the new IETF TLS-PSK protocol to help reduce phishing. Mozilla. [2014-01-25]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  69. ^ Bug 1170510 - Implement NSS server side support for DH_anon. Mozilla. [2015-06-03]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  70. ^ Bug 236245 - Update ECC/TLS to conform to RFC 4492. Mozilla. [2014-06-09]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  71. ^ Changes between 0.9.6h and 0.9.7 [31 Dec 2002]. [2016-01-29]. (原始内容存档于2016-09-13). 
  72. ^ 73.0 73.1 Changes between 0.9.8n and 1.0.0 [29 Mar 2010]. [2016-01-29]. (原始内容存档于2016-09-13). 
  73. ^ wolfSSL (Formerly CyaSSL) Release 3.9.0 (03/18/2016). 2016-03-18 [2016-04-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-16). 
  74. ^ RFC 5280
  75. ^ RFC 3280
  76. ^ RFC 2560
  77. ^ RFC 6698, RFC 7218
  78. ^ MatrixSSL 3.8.3. [2017-01-18]. (原始内容存档于2017-01-19). 
  79. ^ mbed TLS 2.0 defaults implement best practices. [2017-01-18]. (原始内容存档于2022-03-08). 
  80. ^ Bug 672600 - Use DNSSEC/DANE chain stapled into TLS handshake in certificate chain validation. Mozilla. [2014-06-18]. (原始内容存档于2018-04-06). 
  81. ^ RFC 5288, RFC 5289
  82. ^ RFC 6655, RFC 7251
  83. ^ RFC 6367
  84. ^ RFC 5932, RFC 6367
  85. ^ 86.0 86.1 RFC 6209
  86. ^ RFC 4162
  87. ^ Sweet32: Birthday attacks on 64-bit block ciphers in TLS and OpenVPN. sweet32.info. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-04-08). 
  88. ^ RFC 7905
  89. ^ 90.0 90.1 Version 1.11.12, 2015-01-02 — Botan. 2015-01-02 [2015-01-09]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-10). 
  90. ^ gnutls 3.6.0. 2017-09-21 [2018-01-07]. (原始内容存档于2018-01-18). 
  91. ^ gnutls 3.4.12. 2016-05-20 [2016-05-29]. (原始内容存档于2016-10-13). 
  92. ^ 93.0 93.1 93.2 93.3 Changes in 3.8.3. GitHub. [2016-06-19]. [永久失效連結]
  93. ^ PolarSSL 1.3.8 release notes. [2022-08-30]. (原始内容存档于2014-07-15). 
  94. ^ 95.0 95.1 Mbed TLS 2.11.0, 2.7.4 and 2.1.13 released. [2018-08-30]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-14). 
  95. ^ Mbed TLS 2.12.0, 2.7.5 and 2.1.14 released. [2018-08-30]. (原始内容存档于2021-07-29). 
  96. ^ NSS 3.25 release notes. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. [2016-07-01]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-07). 
  97. ^ Bug 940119 - libssl does not support any TLS_ECDHE_*_CAMELLIA_*_GCM cipher suites. Mozilla. [2013-11-19]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  98. ^ NSS 3.12 is released. [2013-11-19]. (原始内容存档于2019-12-08). 
  99. ^ NSS 3.12.3 Release Notes. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. [2014-07-01]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-10). 
  100. ^ NSS 3.23 release notes. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. [2016-03-09]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-14). 
  101. ^ openssl/CHANGES at OpenSSL_1_0_1-stable · openssl/openssl. [2015-01-20]. (原始内容存档于2016-01-31). 
  102. ^ RFC 5469
  103. ^ 存档副本. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-04-08). 
  104. ^ Version 1.11.15, 2015-03-08 — Botan. 2015-03-08 [2015-03-11]. (原始内容存档于2015-05-15). 
  105. ^ NSS 3.15.3 release notes. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. [2014-07-13]. (原始内容存档于2014-06-05). 
  106. ^ MFSA 2013-103: Miscellaneous Network Security Services (NSS) vulnerabilities. Mozilla. Mozilla. [2014-07-13]. (原始内容存档于2014-07-14). 
  107. ^ 108.0 108.1 wolfSSL (Formerly CyaSSL) Release 3.7.0 (10/26/2015). 2015-10-26 [2015-11-19]. (原始内容存档于2015-11-20). 
  108. ^ 109.0 109.1 109.2 109.3 109.4 RFC 8446
  109. ^ 110.0 110.1 110.2 110.3 110.4 RFC 8422
  110. ^ 111.0 111.1 111.2 RFC 7027
  111. ^ 112.0 112.1 112.2 Version 1.11.5, 2013-11-10 — Botan. 2013-11-10 [2015-01-23]. (原始内容存档于2014-12-03). 
  112. ^ An overview of the new features in GnuTLS 3.5.0. 2016-05-02 [2016-12-09]. (原始内容存档于2016-12-20). 
  113. ^ gnutls 3.6.12. 2020-02-01 [2021-08-31]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  114. ^ 115.0 115.1 JDK 13 Early-Access Release Notes. [2019-06-20]. (原始内容存档于2020-04-01). 
  115. ^ 116.0 116.1 JEP 339: Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA). [2022-01-06]. (原始内容存档于2022-01-06). 
  116. ^ LibreSSL 2.5.1 release notes. OpenBSD. 2017-01-31 [2017-02-23]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  117. ^ MatrixSSL 4.0 changelog. GitHub. [2018-09-18]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  118. ^ PolarSSL 1.3.3 released. 2013-12-31 [2015-01-23]. (原始内容存档于2014-12-18). 
  119. ^ Mbed TLS 2.9.0, 2.7.3 and 2.1.12 released. [2018-08-30]. (原始内容存档于2021-04-14). 
  120. ^ 121.0 121.1 121.2 PolarSSL 1.3.1 released. 2013-10-15 [2015-01-23]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-23). 
  121. ^ Bug 957105 - Add support for curve25519 Key Exchange and UMAC MAC support for TLS. Mozilla. [2017-02-23]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  122. ^ Bug 1305243 - Support for X448. Mozilla. [2022-08-04]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-04). 
  123. ^ Bug 1597057 - Curve448 or named Ed448-Goldilocks support needed (both X448 key exchange and Ed448 signature algorithm ). Mozilla. [2022-08-04]. 
  124. ^ 125.0 125.1 125.2 Bug 943639 - Support for Brainpool ECC Curve (rfc5639). Mozilla. [2014-01-25]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  125. ^ OpenSSL 1.1.0x Release Notes. 25 August 2016 [18 May 2018]. (原始内容存档于18 May 2018). 
  126. ^ OpenSSL  GitHub Issue #487 Tracker. GitHub. 2 December 2015 [18 May 2018]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-06). 
  127. ^ OpenSSL 1.1.1x Release Notes. 1 May 2018 [18 May 2018]. (原始内容存档于2018-05-18). 
  128. ^ OpenSSL  GitHub Issue #5049 Tracker. GitHub. 9 January 2018 [18 May 2018]. (原始内容存档于2019-02-18). 
  129. ^ wolfSSL (Formerly CyaSSL) Release 3.4.6 (03/30/2015). 2015-03-30 [2015-11-19]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-16). 
  130. ^ 131.0 131.1 Negotiation of arbitrary curves has been shown to be insecure for certain curve sizes Mavrogiannopoulos, Nikos and Vercautern, Frederik and Velichkov, Vesselin and Preneel, Bart. A cross-protocol attack on the TLS protocol. Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on Computer and communications security (PDF). 2012: 62–72 [2018-06-22]. ISBN 978-1-4503-1651-4. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2015-07-06). 
  131. ^ RFC 3749
  132. ^ RFC 5746
  133. ^ 134.0 134.1 134.2 134.3 RFC 6066
  134. ^ RFC 7301
  135. ^ RFC 6091
  136. ^ RFC 4680
  137. ^ RFC 5077
  138. ^ RFC 5705
  139. ^ RFC 7366
  140. ^ RFC 7507
  141. ^ RFC 7627
  142. ^ RFC 7685
  143. ^ RFC 7250
  144. ^ Version 1.11.16, 2015-03-29 — Botan. 2016-03-29 [2016-09-08]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  145. ^ Version 1.11.10, 2014-12-10 — Botan. 2014-12-10 [2014-12-14]. (原始内容存档于2014-12-03). 
  146. ^ 147.0 147.1 Version 1.11.26, 2016-01-04 — Botan. 2016-01-04 [2016-02-25]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  147. ^ gnutls 3.2.0. [2015-01-26]. (原始内容存档于2016-01-31). 
  148. ^ 存档副本. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-02-18). 
  149. ^ gnutls 3.4.4. [2015-08-25]. (原始内容存档于2017-07-17). 
  150. ^ %DUMBFW priority keyword. [2017-04-30]. (原始内容存档于2017-04-17). 
  151. ^ LibreSSL 2.1.3 released. 2015-01-22 [2015-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2016-01-31). 
  152. ^ LibreSSL 2.1.4 released. 2015-03-04 [2015-03-04]. (原始内容存档于2019-03-23). 
  153. ^ MatrixSSL - News. 2014-12-04 [2015-01-26]. (原始内容存档于2015-02-14). 
  154. ^ Download overview - PolarSSL. 2014-04-11 [2015-01-26]. (原始内容存档于2015-02-09). 
  155. ^ 156.0 156.1 156.2 mbed TLS 1.3.10 released. 2015-02-08 [2015-02-09]. (原始内容存档于2015-02-09). 
  156. ^ 157.0 157.1 NSS 3.15.5 release notes. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. [2015-01-26]. (原始内容存档于January 26, 2015). 
  157. ^ Bug 961416 - Support RFC6091 - Using OpenPGP Keys for Transport Layer Security Authentication (TLS1.2). Mozilla. [2014-06-18]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  158. ^ Bug 972145 - Implement the encrypt-then-MAC TLS extension. Mozilla. [2014-11-06]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  159. ^ NSS 3.17.1 release notes. [2014-10-17]. (原始内容存档于2019-04-19). 
  160. ^ NSS 3.21 release notes. [2015-11-14]. (原始内容存档于2021-12-07). 
  161. ^ 存档副本. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2015-08-13). 
  162. ^ OpenSSL 1.1.0 Release Notesl. [永久失效連結]
  163. ^ Major changes between OpenSSL 1.0.1f and OpenSSL 1.0.1g [7 Apr 2014]. 2014-04-07 [2015-02-10]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-20). 
  164. ^ wolfSSL Version 4.2.0 is Now Available!. 22 October 2019 [2021-08-13]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  165. ^ 存档副本. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2016-12-20). 
  166. ^ https://habrahabr.ru/post/134725/页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), http://forum.rutoken.ru/topic/1639/页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), https://dev.rutoken.ru/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=18055184页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆(俄文)
  167. ^ git.openssl.org Git - openssl.git/commitdiff. git.openssl.org. [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-01-22). 
  168. ^ wolfSSL Asynchronous Intel QuickAssist Support - wolfSSL. 2017-01-18. 
  169. ^ 170.0 170.1 RFC 7512
  170. ^ libp11: PKCS#11 wrapper library. 2018-01-19 [2018-06-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-06-11) –通过GitHub. 
  171. ^ On the fly replaceable/augmentable.
  172. ^ Nss compat ossl - Fedora Project Wiki. fedoraproject.org. [2022-08-30]. (原始内容存档于2022-08-30). 
  173. ^ 174.0 174.1 NSPR. Mozilla Developer Network. [2022-08-30]. (原始内容存档于2013-03-07). 
  174. ^ For Unix/Linux it uses /dev/urandom if available, for Windows it uses CAPI. For other platforms it gets data from clock, and tries to open system files. NSS has a set of platform dependent functions it uses to determine randomness.
  1. ^ This algorithm is not defined yet as TLS cipher suites in RFCs, is proposed in drafts.
  2. ^ authentication only, no encryption
  3. ^ This algorithm is implemented in an NSS fork used by Pale Moon.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 IDEA and DES have been removed from TLS 1.2.[103]
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 40 bits strength of cipher suites were designed to operate at reduced key lengths in order to comply with US regulations about the export of cryptographic software containing certain strong encryption algorithms (see Export of cryptography from the United States). These weak suites are forbidden in TLS 1.1 and later.
  6. ^ The RC4 attacks weaken or break RC4 used in SSL/TLS. Use of RC4 is prohibited by RFC 7465.
  7. ^ The RC4 attacks weaken or break RC4 used in SSL/TLS.