Talk:飞轮储能

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物理特性

Compared with other ways to store electricity, FES systems have long lifetimes (lasting decades with little or no maintenance;[1] full-cycle lifetimes quoted for flywheels range from in excess of 105, up to 107, cycles of use),[2] high energy density (100-130 W·h/kg, or 360-500 kJ/kg),[2][3] and large maximum power output. The energy efficiency (ratio of energy out per energy in) of flywheels can be as high as 90%. Typical capacities range from 3 kWh to 133 kWh.[1] Rapid charging of a system occurs in less than 15 minutes.[4] The high energy densities often cited with flywheels can be a little misleading as commercial systems built have much lower energy density, for example 11 W·h/kg, or 40 kJ/kg.[5]

能量密度

The maximum energy density of a flywheel rotor is mainly dependent on two factors, the first being the rotor's geometry, and the second being the properties of the material being used. For single-material, isotropic rotors this relationship can be expressed as[6]

${\displaystyle {\frac {E}{m}}=K\left({\frac {\sigma }{\rho }}\right)}$,

where the variables are defined as follows:

${\displaystyle E}$ - kinetic energy of the rotor [J]
${\displaystyle m}$ - the rotor's mass [kg]
${\displaystyle K}$ - the rotor's geometric shape factor [dimensionless]
${\displaystyle \sigma }$ - the tensile strength of the material [Pa]
${\displaystyle \rho }$ - the material's density [kg/m^3]

几何 (形状因子)

The highest possible value for the shape factor of a flywheel rotor, is ${\displaystyle K=1}$, which can only be achieved by the theoretical constant-stress disc geometry.[7] A constant-thickness disc geometry has a shape factor of ${\displaystyle K=0.606}$, while for a rod of constant thickness the value is ${\displaystyle K=0.333}$. A thin cylinder has a shape factor of ${\displaystyle K=0.5}$.

材料

For energy storage purposes, materials with high strength, and low density are desirable. For this reason, composite materials are frequently being used in advanced flywheels. The strength-to-density ratio of a material can be expressed in the units [Wh/kg], and values greater that 400 Wh/kg can be achieved by certain composite materials.

飞轮

Several modern flywheel rotors are made from composite materials. Examples include the Smart Energy 25 flywheel from Beacon Power Corporation,[8] and the PowerThru flywheel from Phillips Service Industries.[9]

For these rotors, the relationship between material properties, geometry and energy density can be expressed by using a weighed-average approach.[10]

抗张强度

One of the primary limits to flywheel design is the tensile strength of the material used for the rotor. Generally speaking, the stronger the disc, the faster it may be spun, and the more energy the system can store.

When the tensile strength of a composite flywheel's outer binding cover is exceeded the binding cover will fracture, followed by the wheel shattering as the outer wheel compression is lost around the entire circumference, releasing all of its stored energy at once; this is commonly referred to as "flywheel explosion" since wheel fragments can reach kinetic energy comparable to that of a bullet. Composite materials that are wound and glued in layers tend to disintegrate quickly, first into small-diameter filaments that entangle and slow each other, and then into red-hot powder, instead of large chunks of high-velocity shrapnel as can occur with a cast metal flywheel.

For a cast metal flywheel, the failure limit is the binding strength of the grain boundaries of the polycrystalline molded metal. Aluminum in particular suffers from fatigue and can develop microfractures due to repeated low-energy stretching. Angular forces may cause portions of a metal flywheel to bend outward and begin dragging on the outer containment vessel, or to separate completely and bounce randomly around the interior. The rest of the flywheel is now severely unbalanced, which may lead to rapid bearing failure from vibration, and sudden shock fracturing of large segments of the flywheel.

Traditional flywheel systems require strong containment vessels as a safety precaution, which increases the total mass of the device. The energy release from failure can be dampened with a gelatinous or encapsulated liquid inner housing lining, which will boil and absorb the energy of destruction. Still, many customers of large-scale flywheel energy-storage systems prefer to have them embedded in the ground to halt any material that might escape the containment vessel.

能量效率

An additional limitation for some flywheel types is energy storage time. Flywheel energy storage systems using mechanical bearings can lose 20% to 50% of their energy in 2 hours.[11] Much of the friction responsible for this energy loss results from the flywheel changing orientation due to the rotation of the earth (a concept similar to a Foucault pendulum). This change in orientation is resisted by the gyroscopic forces exerted by the flywheel's angular momentum, thus exerting a force against the mechanical bearings. This force increases friction. This can be avoided by aligning the flywheel's axis of rotation parallel to that of the earth's axis of rotation.

Conversely, flywheels with Magnetic bearings and high vacuum can maintain 97% mechanical efficiency, and 85% round trip efficiency.[12]

陀螺效应

When used in vehicles, flywheels also act as gyroscopes, since their angular momentum is typically of a similar order of magnitude as the forces acting on the moving vehicle. This property may be detrimental to the vehicle's handling characteristics while turning or driving on rough ground; driving onto the side of a sloped embankment may cause wheels to partially lift off the ground as the flywheel opposes sideways tilting forces. On the other hand, this property could be utilized to keep the car balanced so as to keep it from rolling over during sharp turns.[13]

The resistance of angular tilting can be almost completely removed by mounting the flywheel within an appropriately applied set of gimbals, allowing the flywheel to retain its original orientation without affecting the vehicle (see Properties of a gyroscope). This doesn't avoid the complication of gimbal lock, and so a compromise between the number of gimbals and the angular freedom is needed.

The center axle of the flywheel acts as a single gimbal, and if aligned vertically, allows for the 360 degrees of yaw in a horizontal plane. However, for instance driving up-hill requires a second pitch gimbal, and driving on the side of a sloped embankment requires a third roll gimbal.

万向环

Although the flywheel itself may be of a flat ring shape, a free-movement gimbal mounting inside a vehicle requires a spherical volume for the flywheel to freely rotate within. Left to its own, a spinning flywheel in a vehicle would slowly precess following the Earth's rotation, and precess further yet in vehicles that travel long distances over the Earth's curved spherical surface.

A full-motion gimball has additional problems of how to communicate power into and out of the flywheel, since the flywheel could potentially flip completely over once a day, precessing as the Earth rotates. Full free rotation would require slip rings around each gimbal axis for power conductors, further adding to the design complexity.

Limited-motion gimballs

To reduce space usage, the gimbal system may be of a limited-movement design, using shock absorbers to cushion sudden rapid motions within a certain number of degrees of out-of-plane angular rotation, and then gradually forcing the flywheel to adopt the vehicle's current orientation. This reduces the gimbal movement space around a ring-shaped flywheel from a full sphere, to a short thickened cylinder, encompassing for example +/- 30 degrees of pitch and +/- 30 degrees of roll in all directions around the flywheel.

Counterbalancing of angular momentum

An alternative solution to the problem is to have two joined flywheels spinning synchronously in opposite directions. They would have a total angular momentum of zero and no gyroscopic effect. A problem with this solution is that when the difference between the momentum of each flywheel is anything other than zero the housing of the two flywheels would exhibit torque. Both wheels must be maintained at the same speed to keep the angular velocity at zero. Strictly speaking, the two flywheels would exert a huge torqueing moment at the central point, trying to bend the axle. However, if the axle were sufficiently strong, no gyroscopic forces would have a net effect on the sealed container, so no torque would be noticed.

To further balance the forces and spread out strain, a single large flywheel can be balanced by two half-size flywheels on each side, or the flywheels can be reduced in size to be a series of alternating layers spinning in opposite directions. However this increases housing and bearing complexity.

应用

交通

公路

In the 1950s, flywheel-powered buses, known as gyrobuses, were used in Yverdon, Switzerland and there is ongoing research to make flywheel systems that are smaller, lighter, cheaper and have a greater capacity. It is hoped that flywheel systems can replace conventional chemical batteries for mobile applications, such as for electric vehicles. Proposed flywheel systems would eliminate many of the disadvantages of existing battery power systems, such as low capacity, long charge times, heavy weight and short usable lifetimes. Flywheels may have been used in the experimental Chrysler Patriot, though that has been disputed.[14]

Flywheels have also been proposed for use in continuously variable transmissions. Punch Powertrain is currently working on such a device.[15]

During the 1990s, Rosen Motors developed a gas turbine powered series hybrid automotive powertrain using a 55,000 rpm flywheel to provide bursts of acceleration which the small gas turbine engine could not provide. The flywheel also stored energy through regenerative braking. The flywheel was composed of a titanium hub with a carbon fiber cylinder and was gimbal-mounted to minimize adverse gyroscopic effects on vehicle handling. The prototype vehicle was successfully road tested in 1997 but was never mass-produced.[16]

轨道交通

Flywheel systems have also been used experimentally in small electric locomotives for shunting or switching, e.g. the Sentinel-Oerlikon Gyro Locomotive. Larger electric locomotives, e.g. British Rail Class 70, have sometimes been fitted with flywheel boosters to carry them over gaps in the third rail. Advanced flywheels, such as the 133 kW·h pack of the University of Texas at Austin, can take a train from a standing start up to cruising speed.[1]

The Parry People Mover is a railcar which is powered by a flywheel. It was trialled on Sundays for 12 months on the Stourbridge Town Branch Line in the West Midlands, England during 2006 and 2007 and was intended to be introduced as a full service by the train operator London Midland in December 2008 once two units had been ordered. In January 2010, both units are in operation.[17]

实验室

A long-standing niche market for flywheel power systems are facilities where circuit-breakers and similar devices are tested: even a small household circuit-breaker may be rated to interrupt a current of 10,000 or more amperes, and larger units may have interrupting ratings of 100,000 or 1,000,000 amperes. The enormous transient loads produced by deliberately forcing such devices to demonstrate their ability to interrupt simulated short circuits would have unacceptable effects on the local grid if these tests were done directly from building power. Typically such a laboratory will have several large motor-generator sets, which can be spun up to speed over some minutes; then the motor is disconnected before a circuit breaker is tested.

Other similar high power applications are in tokamak fusion (like the Joint European Torus) and laser experiments, where very high currents are also used for very brief intervals. JET has two 775 ton flywheels that can spin up to 225 rpm.[23]

娱乐

The Incredible Hulk roller coaster at Universal's Islands of Adventure features a rapidly accelerating uphill launch as opposed to the typical gravity drop. This is achieved through powerful traction motors that throw the car up the track. To achieve the brief very high current required to accelerate a full coaster train to full speed uphill, the park utilizes several motor generator sets with large flywheels. Without these stored energy units, the park would have to invest in a new substation or risk browning-out the local energy grid every time the ride launches.

摩托车

A Flybrid Systems Kinetic Energy Recovery System built for use in Formula One

The FIA has re-allowed the use of KERS (see kinetic energy recovery system) as part of its Formula One 2009 Sporting Regulations.[24] which is now back in for the 2011 Formula 1 season. Using a continuously variable transmission (CVT), energy is recovered from the drive train during braking and stored in a flywheel. This stored energy is then used during acceleration by altering the ratio of the CVT.[25] In motor sports applications this energy is used to improve acceleration rather than reduce carbon dioxide emissions—although the same technology can be applied to road cars to improve fuel efficiency.[26]

Automobile Club de l'Ouest, the organizer behind the annual 24 Hours of Le Mans event and the Le Mans Series, is currently "studying specific rules for LMP1 which will be equipped with a kinetic energy recovery system."[27]

电网

Beacon Power opened a 20 MW, (5 MWh over 15 mins)[12] flywheel energy storage plant in Stephentown, New York in 2011.[28] Lower carbon emissions, faster response times and ability to buy power at off-peak hours are among some advantages of using flywheels instead of traditional sources of energy for peaking power plants.[29]

风力发电机

Flywheels may be used to store energy generated by wind turbines during off-peak periods or during high wind speeds.

Beacon Power began testing of their Smart Energy 25 (Gen 4) flywheel energy storage system at a wind farm in Tehachapi, California. The system is part of a wind power/flywheel demonstration project being carried out for the California Energy Commission (Beacon Power Press Release March 2010).

Toggle action presses

In industry, toggle action presses are still popular. The usual arrangement involves a very strong crankshaft and a heavy duty connecting rod which drives the tup. Large and heavy flywheels are driven by electric motors but the flywheels only turn the crankshaft when clutches are activated.

与一般电池的比较

Flywheels are not as adversely affected by temperature changes, can operate at a much wider temperature range, and are not subject to many of the common failures of chemical rechargeable batteries.[30] They are also less potentially damaging to the environment, being largely made of inert or benign materials.

Unlike lithium ion polymer batteries which operate for a finite period of roughly 36 months, a flywheel can potentially have an indefinite working lifespan. Flywheels built as part of James Watt steam engines have been continuously working for more than two hundred years.[31] Working examples of ancient flywheels used mainly in milling and pottery can be found in many locations in Africa, Asia, and Europe.[32][33]

However, this is a somewhat unfair comparison because batteries are typically a complex sealed device that is minimally maintained throughout its service life. Flywheels in a sealed device would have a similar lifespan because eventually components such as bearings wear out and need replacement. Open flywheels are subject to airborne dust collecting in the bearing grease, which will lead to loss of efficiency and eventually seizure if the grease is not periodically replaced or replenished.

Bearing replacement can be quite difficult due to the high mass of the flywheel, and may require a large crane to lift and support it while the bearings are serviced. Severe injury or death from pinching and crushing can occur during servicing due to the very high mass of the flywheel, which also has the potential to roll away at high speed on gently sloped surfaces, if not properly restrained or supported during servicing.

Another advantage of flywheels is that by a simple measurement of the rotation speed it is possible to know the exact amount of energy stored.

参考

1. 引用错误：没有为名为ScienceNews的参考文献提供内容
2. Storage Technology Report, ST6 Flywheel
3. ^ Next-gen Of Flywheel Energy Storage. Product Design & Development. [2009-05-21].
4. Vere, Henry. A Primer of Flywheel Technology. Distributed Energy. [2008-10-06].
5. ^ rosseta Technik GmbH, Flywheel Energy Storage Model T4, retrieved February 4, 2010.
6. ^ Genta, Giancarlo. Kinetic Energy Storage. London: Butterworth & Co. Ltd. 1985.
7. ^ Genta, Giancarlo. Some considerations on the constant stress disc profile. Meccanica. 1989, 24: 235–248. doi:10.1007/BF01556455.
8. ^ Smart Energy 25 Flywheel. [2012-04-29].
9. ^ PowerThru flywheel. [2012-04-29].
10. ^ Janse van Rensburg, P.J. Energy storage in composite flywheel rotors. University of Stellenbosch.
11. ^ rosseta Technik GmbH, Flywheel Energy Storage, German, retrieved February 4, 2010.
12. Beacon Power Corp, Frequency Regulation and Flywheels fact sheet, retrieved July 11, 2011.
13. ^ Study on Rollover prevention of heavy-duty vehicles by using flywheel energy storage systems, Suda Yoshihiro, Huh Junhoi, Aki Masahiko, Shihpin Lin, Ryoichi Takahata, Naomasa Mukaide, Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering Volume 197, 2013, pp 693-701, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-33805-2_57
14. ^ Allpar - The Chrysler Patriot
15. ^ Punch Powertrain working on flywheel-equipped CVT
16. ^ Wakefield, Ernest. History of the Electric Automobile: Hybrid Electric Vehicles. SAE. 1998: 332. ISBN 0-7680-0125-0.
17. ^ Parry People Movers for Stourbridge branch line. London Midland. 2008-01-03 [2008-03-19]. （原始内容存档于2008-05-17）.
18. ^ High-speed flywheels cut energy bill. Railway Gazette International. 2001-04-01 [2010-12-02].
19. ^ Kinetic energy storage wins acceptance. Railway Gazette International. 2004-04-01 [2010-12-02].
20. ^ New York orders flywheel energy storage. Railway Gazette International. 2009-08-14 [2011-02-09].
21. ^
22. ^ Active Power Article – Flywheel energy storage
23. ^
24. ^ F1 technical regulations
25. ^ - Flybrid Systems
26. ^ - Flybrid Systems, Road Car Application
27. ^ ACO Technical Regulations 2008 for Prototype "LM"P1 and "LM"P2 classes, page 3 (PDF). Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO). 2007-12-20 [2008-04-10]. [失效連結]
28. ^ Beacon Power Flywheel Plant in Stephentown Reaches Full 20 MW Capacity
29. ^ Flywheel-based Solutions for Grid Reliability
30. ^ http://www.mpoweruk.com/lithium_failures.htm
31. ^ Powerhouse Museum. Boulton and Watt steam engine. Powerhouse Museum, Australia. [2 August 2012].
32. ^ Donners, K.; Waelkens, M.; Deckers, J. Water Mills in the Area of Sagalassos: A Disappearing Ancient Technology. Anatolian Studies. 2002, 52: 1–17. doi:10.2307/3643076.
33. ^ Wilson, A. Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy. The Journal of Roman Studies. 2002, 92: 1–32. doi:10.2307/3184857.

扩展阅读

• Beacon Power Applies for DOE Grants to Fund up to 50% of Two 20 MW Energy Storage Plants, Sep. 1, 2009 [1]
• Sheahen, T., P. Introduction to High-Temperature Superconductivity. New York: Plenum Press. 1994: 76–78, 425–431. ISBN 0-306-44793-2.
• El-Wakil, M., M. Powerplant Technology. McGraw-Hill. 1984: 685–689.
• Koshizuka, N.; Ishikawa, F.,Nasu, H., Murakami, M., Matsunaga, K., Saito, S., Saito, O., Nakamura, Y., Yamamoto, H., Takahata, R., Itoh, Y., Ikezawa, H., Tomita, M. Progress of superconducting bearing technologies for flywheel energy storage systems. Physica C. 2003, (386): 444–450.
• Wolsky, A., M. The status and prospects for flywheels and SMES that incorporate HTS. Physica C. 2002, (372–376): 1495–1499.
• Sung, T., H.; Han, S., C., Han, Y., H., Lee, J., S., Jeong, N., H., Hwang, S., D., Choi, S., K. Designs and analyses of flywheel energy storage systems using high-Tc superconductor bearings. Cryogenics. 2002, 42 (6–7): 357–362. doi:10.1016/S0011-2275(02)00057-7.
• Akhil, Abbas; Swaminathan, Shiva; Sen, Rajat K. Cost Analysis of Energy Storage Systems for Electric Utility Applications (pdf). Sandia National laboratories. 2007. 已忽略未知参数|month=（建议使用|date=） (帮助)
• Larbalestier, David; Blaugher, Richard D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Sokolowski, Robert S.; Suenaga, Masaki; Willis, Jeffrey O.;. Flywheels. Power Applications of Superconductivity in Japan and Germany. World Technology Evaluation Center. 1997. 已忽略未知参数|month=（建议使用|date=） (帮助)
• A New Look at an Old Idea: The Electromechanical Battery (PDF). Science & Technology Review (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). 1996: 12–19. 已忽略未知参数|month=（建议使用|date=） (帮助)
• Janse van Rensburg, P.J. Energy storage in composite flywheel rotors. University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. 2011. 已忽略未知参数|month=（建议使用|date=） (帮助)