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Samuel F. B. Morse
Samuel Finley Breese Morse - Daguerreotype -3g12153v.jpg
萨缪尔·摩尔斯
出生 (1791-04-27)1791年4月27日
麻省查爾斯鎮
逝世 1872年4月2日(1872-04-02)(80歲)
紐約州紐約第22街西5號
职业 作家畫家投資者

萨缪尔·芬利·布里斯·摩尔斯英语:Samuel Finley Breese Morse)(1791年4月27日-1872年4月2日),美国发明家,摩尔斯电码的创立者。

Death[编辑]

Morse died on April 2, 1872, 25 days short of his 81st birthday, at his home at 5 West 22nd Street, New York City, at the age of 80, and was buried in the Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York. [1]

逝世


Anti-Catholic and anti-immigration efforts[编辑]

Morse was a leader in the anti-Catholic and anti-immigration movement of the mid-19th century. In 1836, he ran unsuccessfully for mayor of New York under the anti-immigrant Nativist Party's banner, receiving only 1496 votes. When Morse visited Rome, he refused to take his hat off in the presence of the Pope. Upon seeing this, an offended Swiss Guardsman rushed over and hit the hat off of his head. Morse worked to unite Protestants against Catholic institutions (including schools), wanted to forbid Catholics from holding public office, and promoted changing immigration laws to limit immigration from Catholic countries. On this topic, he wrote, “We must first stop the leak in the ship through which muddy waters from without threaten to sink us.” [3]

反天主教和反移民的努力

  • 摩尔斯在19世纪中期是一个反天主教和反移民运动的领导者。
  • 1836年,他以本土党的身份和口号参加了纽约市市长的竞选,但最终并不成功,只获得了1496票。
  • 有一次摩尔斯到罗马访问,在出席会上,他拒绝向罗马教皇脱帽以示抗议,见到如此情形,一个瑞士近卫队士兵怒气冲冲地跑了过来,把帽子从他的头上打翻掉地。摩尔斯一直致力于联合新教去反对天主教协会。希望能够制止天主教控制公共部门,同时也希望能够通过修订和加强《移民法》来限制那些来自信仰天主教的国家的移民。在这个议题上,他曾写道:“为了大船不被沉没,我们必须尽快堵住这个流着污泥脏水的漏洞。”[4]

Morse was the author of a number of letters to the New York Observer (his brother Sidney was the editor at the time) urging people to fight the perceived Catholic menace. These articles were widely reprinted in other newspapers. Among other claims, he believed that the Austrian government and Catholic aid organizations were subsidizing Catholic immigration to the United States in order to gain control of the country.[5]

  • 摩尔斯还是《纽约观察者》的专栏作家(他哥哥西德尼时任该报主编),文章提醒民众要警觉天主教的威胁,并提倡为之而战。这些文章被各大报纸广泛的再版刊登。在这个主张讨论上,他认为奥地利政府和天主教救助组织对那些移民美国的天主教徒的援助,目的是为了逐渐控制美国。[6]

In his Conspiracy Against the Liberties of the United States, Morse wrote: “Surely American Protestants, freemen, have discernment enough to discover beneath them the cloven foot of this subtle foreign heresy. They will see that Popery is now, what it has ever been, a system of the darkest political intrigue and despotism, cloaking itself to avoid attack under the sacred name of religion. They will be deeply impressed with the truth, that Popery is a political as well as a religious system; that in this respect it differs totally from all other sects, from all other forms of religion in the country.” [7]

  • 在他的著作《外国阴谋美国的自由》(Conspiracy Against the Liberties of the United States) 中,他写道:“当然,美国的新教教徒,自由民有足够的洞察力去发觉那些外国异教徒在他们眼皮底下搞破坏,他们会明白天主教会无论过去还是现在,都一直是最 邪恶的且已经体制化了的政治阴谋家和独裁者,只不过利用‘宗教’ 这一神圣的幌子来保护自己不受攻击。他们最终会明白这一真相:天主教会是一个政教合一的组织,这种关系完全有别于现存于我国的其他宗教组织,有别于其他形 式的宗教信仰。”[8]


Marriages[编辑]

Morse married Lucretia Pickering Walker on September 29, 1819, in Concord, New Hampshire. She died on February 7, 1825, shortly after the birth of their fourth child (Susan b. 1819, Elizabeth b. 1821, Charles b. 1823, James b. 1825). His second wife was Sarah Elizabeth Griswold. They were married on August 10, 1848 in Utica, New York and had four children (Samuel b. 1849, Cornelia b. 1851, William b. 1853, Edward b. 1857).

婚姻

  • 1819年9月29日,摩尔斯在新罕布什尔州康科德市娶了卢克雷蒂亚·毕麒麟·沃克(Lucretia Pickering Walker)为妻。妻子在第四个孩子出生不久(四个孩子分别为:生于1819年的苏珊,生于1821年的伊丽莎白,生于1823年的查尔斯和生于1825年的詹姆斯),于1825年2月7日去世。摩尔斯的第二任妻子是莎拉·伊丽莎白·格里斯沃尔德(Sarah Elizabeth Griswold),他们于1848年8月在纽约州尤蒂卡市结婚,婚后产下四子(分别为:生于1849年的萨缪尔,生于1851年的高奈利亚,生于1853年的威廉和生于1857年的爱德华 )。

发明专利[编辑]

轶闻[编辑]

  • 纽约大学的核心课程和必修课就是摩尔斯学术计划(Morse Academic Plan ,MAP)。
  • A letter to a friend describes the challenge of defending his patent on the electromagnetic telegraph.[1] (1848).[2]
I have been so constantly under the necessity of watching the movements of the most unprincipled set of pirates I have ever known, that all my time has been occupied in defense, in putting evidence into something like legal shape that I am the inventor of the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph!! Would you have believed it ten years ago that a question could be raised on that subject?
  • There is a blue plaque commemorating him at 141 Cleveland Street, London, where he lived from 1812 to 1815.
Statue of Samuel F. B. Morse by Byron M. Picket, New York's Central Park, dedicated 1871

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Prof. Samuel Finley Breese Morse.. New York Times. April 3, 1872, Wednesday. Prof. Morse died last evening at 8 o'clock, his condition having become very low soon after surprise. Though expected, the death of this distinguished man will be received with regret by thousands to whom he was only known by fame. 
  2. ^ Prof. Samuel Finley Breese Morse.. New York Times. April 3, 1872, Wednesday. Prof. Morse died last evening at 8 o'clock, his condition having become very low soon after surprise. Though expected, the death of this distinguished man will be received with regret by thousands to whom he was only known by fame. 
  3. ^ Billington, Ray A. 'Anti-Catholic Propaganda and the Home Missionary Movement, 1800–1860' The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, (December, 1935), pp. 361–384. Published by Organization of American Historians. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1892624]
  4. ^ Billington, Ray A. 'Anti-Catholic Propaganda and the Home Missionary Movement, 1800-1860' The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, (Dec., 1935), pp. 361-384. Published by Organization of American Historians. 固定链接: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1892624]
  5. ^ Curran, Thomas J. International Migration Digest, Vol. 3, No. 1, (Spring, 1966), pp. 15–25 Published by The Center for Migration Studies of New York, Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3002916
  6. ^ Curran, Thomas J. International Migration Digest, Vol. 3, No. 1, (Spring, 1966), pp. 15-25 Published by The Center for Migration Studies of New York, Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3002916
  7. ^ America | The National Catholic Weekly – Return of the Know-Nothings
  8. ^ America | The National Catholic Weekly - Return of the Know-Nothings

延伸閱讀[编辑]

外部链接[编辑]