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官委議員英语:Nominated Member of Parliament,NMP)是新加坡一種由總統委任的國會議員,既不屬於任何政黨,也不代表任何選區。在1990年9月引入的官委議員制度是新加坡對傳統西敏制的一項重要修訂,作用是令更多獨立人士晉身國會。官委議員每屆任期兩年半,他們在國會裏可以參與各項辯論和議案表決,但不得就憲法修正案、涉及公款的動議、對政府不信任動議和總統罷免案表決。

官委議員的人選由國會特別特選委員會提議。特別特選委員會由國會議長擔任主席,may nominate persons who have rendered distinguished public service or who have brought honour to Singapore, and also invites proposals of candidates from community groups in the fields of arts and letters, culture, the sciences, business, industry, the professions, social or community service, and the labour movement. In 2009, 新加坡總理李顯龍 proposed in Parliament that the Committee should also invite nominations from the civil society such as candidates from the environmental movement, young activists, new citizens, and community and grassroots leaders. In addition, the Committee must have regard to the need for NMPs to reflect as wide a range of independent and nonpartisan views as possible.

The NMP scheme has been criticized on the grounds that it is undemocratic, and that unelected NMPs have no incentive to express the electorate's views in Parliament. It has also been claimed that the scheme reinforces the ruling People's Action Party's technocratic and elitist view of politics. On the other hand, it is said that NMPs have placed pressure on PAP MPs to be more competent in Parliament.

NMPs have made contributions to Singapore's political landscape. In 1996, the Maintenance of Parents Act (Template:Singapore legislation) became the first public Act originating from a private member's bill initiated by an NMP, Walter Woon. During parliamentary debates, NMPs have also offered critical views on Government policies. The scheme was declared a success by the Prime Minister in 2009, and NMPs were made a permanent feature of Parliament – before this change, Parliament had to resolve within six months of every election whether NMPs should be appointed.

Nominated Member of Parliament scheme[编辑]

Implementation[编辑]

A Nominated Member of Parliament (NMP) is a member of the Parliament of Singapore (MP) who is not elected, but chosen by a committee of MPs. Introducing the NMP scheme was a progression of the plan by the Government, the first step of which was the introduction of the Non-constituency Member of Parliament (NCMP) scheme, to increase the number of non-government MPs to enable "alternative views to be expressed and dissenting voices to be heard".[1]

During a debate in Parliament on 29 and 30 November 1989,[2] the First Deputy Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong set out the Government's reasons for implementing the scheme. The NMP scheme was a move to provide more opportunities for Singaporeans to participate in politics. It was a "privilege" extended to Singaporeans who could make valuable contributions to public policy but for good reasons did not desire to enter politics and look after constituencies. Women were mentioned as an example of people who might be more willing to become NMPs, as many have to handle their families and careers and therefore do not have much spare time.[3]

First Deputy Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong (shown above in June 2001) set out the Government's case for introducing the NMP scheme in Parliament on 29 and 30 November 1989

The aim of the scheme was to create a more "consensual style of government where alternative views are heard and constructive dissent accommodated".[4] NMPs could play a constructive role in contributing to good governance that the Opposition and MPs of the ruling People's Action Party (PAP) could not provide. While PAP MPs had been encouraged to air opposing views, they were after all Government MPs and were not allowed to vote against the Government unless the Whip was lifted. Moreover, there were very few Opposition MPs. According to Goh, the Opposition had not been constructive as their objective was to discredit the Government so that they could win office. In contrast, NMPs would not belong to any political party, and could therefore represent the views of people who did not identify themselves with the PAP or the Opposition. Thus, NMPs would be able to concentrate on the "substance of the debate rather than form and rhetoric", and provide dissenting and constructive views that would contribute to good government.[5]

Furthermore, with NMPs Parliament would be able to better represent the views of the people. While the ruling party attempted to represent the mainstream political opinion in Singapore and fielded as representative a range of candidates as possible during general elections, it would inevitably not be able to succeed in completely representing every viewpoint. On the other hand, the Opposition MPs and NCMPs represented anti-establishment voters. Goh expressed the view that people who stood as Opposition candidates usually believed that having the PAP government was bad for Singapore and wished to oust the PAP. Therefore, the range of people likely to be elected to Parliament as Opposition MPs was limited. NMPs could represent the people who disagreed with the PAP but did not wish to oust them from government.[6]

Goh also pointed out that at least 20 other countries had nominated Members in their Houses of Representatives,[7] while noting that each variant of the NMP system had to be tailored to the country in which it was implemented.[8]

The bill[9] for amending the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore[10] to implement the NMP scheme was introduced in Parliament and underwent its First Reading on 6 October 1989.[11] On 30 November 1989, the bill was read a second time, and referred to a select committee.[12] The report of the select committee[13] was presented to Parliament on 15 March 1990, and the bill read a third time and enacted as the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 1990[14] on 29 March 1990.[15] It came into force on 10 September 1990.

修訂[编辑]

新加坡總理李顯龍(攝於2010年11月)表示官委議員提升了國會的辯論質素

From 1 September 1997, the maximum number of NMPs in Parliament was increased from six to nine.[16] Introducing a motion in Parliament for the second reading of the constitutional amendment bill that was eventually passed to effect the change, the Minister for Home Affairs Wong Kan Seng said that the NMP scheme was now well accepted by practically all MPs as it had proven its usefulness and worth. The Government intended to expand the scheme "so that more NMPs can be in Parliament to air views which may not be canvassed by the PAP or by the Opposition. ... We are now proposing to increase the number of NMPs so that a wider cross-section of such views can be canvassed and expressed."[17]

In 2002, an NMP's term of office was extended from two to two and a half years.[18] This was done to avoid the need to select NMPs three times if a particular Parliament lasted its full five-year term.[19] In fact, during the Ninth Parliament, the NMPs had only served 17 days from 1 to 17 October 2001 and attended three sittings before Parliament was dissolved for the 2001 general election.[20]

NMPs were made a permanent feature of Parliament with effect from 1 July 2010.[21] Prior to this change, Parliament had to decide within six months after every election whether to appoint NMPs.[22] The rationale for the changes was given by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong in Parliament on 27 May 2009. According to him, the main motivation behind having NMPs as a permanent part of the system of government in Singapore was the fact that the scheme had been a great success and had improved the quality of debate in the House: "The scheme has worked well. The NMPs represent non-partisan alternative views in Parliament, and the NMPs have made effective contributions and raised the quality of debate in Parliament. Sometimes, if I may say so, they may have outshone even the Opposition MPs. This NMP scheme should be a permanent part of our political system."[23]

Appointment, term of office, and powers[编辑]

Parliament House, Singapore, in December 2005

The Fourth Schedule of the Constitution sets out the process for the appointment of NMPs. A Special Select Committee chaired by the Speaker of Parliament and consisting of seven other MPs[24] nominates not more than nine persons to be appointed as NMPs by the President.[25] The Committee may nominate persons who have rendered distinguished public service or who have brought honour to Singapore,[26] and also invites the general public and groups in the community to submit the names of persons who may be considered for nomination by the Committee.[27] These community groups are in the fields of arts and letters, culture, the sciences, business, industry, the professions, social or community service, and the labour movement.[26] In 2009, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong proposed in Parliament that the Committee should also invite nominations from the people sector such as candidates from the environmental movement, young activists, new citizens, and community and grassroots leaders. He felt that "[t]his will give civil society a voice in Parliament and encourage civil society to grow and to mature further".[23] In addition, nominees may be persons who have rendered distinguished public service or who have brought honour to Singapore, and the Committee must have regard to the need for NMPs to reflect as wide a range of independent and non-partisan views as possible.[26] However, a person appointed as an NMP is not required to resign from any political party that he or she is a member of. When this issue was considered by a select committee of Parliament, it took the following view:[13][28]

[T]o formally resign from membership in a political party cannot, in substance, change his political philosophy or his sympathy for the cause of that party. Nor need membership of a political party necessarily affect a person's objectivity.

The usual term of office for an NMP is two and a half years from the date of appointment.[29] NMPs must vacate their seats if they stand as candidates for any political parties in elections, or if they are elected as MPs for any constituencies.[30] In addition, like other MPs, an NMP ceases to be a Member of Parliament when Parliament is dissolved, or in a number of situations specified in the Constitution such as ceasing to be a Singapore citizen, resignation or bankruptcy.[31]

NMPs can vote in Parliament on any bill or motion, except a bill to amend the Constitution; a supply bill, supplementary supply bill or final supply bill; a money bill;[32] a vote of no confidence in the Government; and removing the President from office.[33] However, NMPs can still voice their opinions and join debates on the bills and motions they cannot vote on.

評價[编辑]

在促成官委議員制度的設立的國會辯論當中,孟建南(Arthur Beng)[34][35]陳清木[36]李慕真[37]和简丽中(Aline Wong)[38] 等部分行動黨議員便已經質疑這個制度在本質上是不民主的,因為官委議員是憑着委任狀躋身國會的,既不是由人民選出的,也不是為人民服務的[39]。 However, in accordance with party discipline, they were eventually required to vote in favour of the constitutional amendment. As Beng said: "This is the constraint upon us, and I guess I will have to continue to live a schizophrenic political life – speaking against, yet voting for a Bill."[35]

Secondly, it was argued by Chiam See Tong, the Leader of the Opposition, that since Singapore practices representative democracy, NMPs are useless to the people as, being unelected, they have no incentive to present their views to Parliament.[40] In other words, one should not enjoy the privilege of representing views without bearing the responsibility of serving those whom one represents.[41] The Opposition perceived the scheme as a plan to make it look unnecessary.[42] A similar point has been made by an academic, Chua Beng Huat, who has argued that the NMP scheme co-opts more moderate dissenting voices and is thus an attempt to de-legitimize the need for more aggressive opposition.[43]

From the beginning, the process of appointing NMPs has been weighted towards functional representation of discrete interests. For example, Wong Kan Seng, the Leader of the House, said in Parliament on 5 April 2002:[44]

Over the years, we have ... improved the selection process by having proposal panels to nominate representatives of functional groups as NMPs. So, in 1997, apart from inviting the general public to submit the names of suitable persons, the Special Select Committee on NMPs wrote to organisations representing three major functional groups: (a) business and industry; (b) labour; and (c) the professions – to propose candidates for this Special Select Committee's consideration. At a sitting on 5th June 1997 ... I also said that the Government would consider further improving the NMP selection process, by expanding the number of functional groups invited to submit nominations.

Garry Rodan has expressed the view that, in effect, the NMP scheme reinforces the PAP's technocratic and elitist view of politics.[45]

In support of the scheme, NMP Paulin Tay Straughan said in Parliament on 26 April 2010 that it neither compromises the democratic process nor perpetuates the dominance of the ruling party, because during elections Singaporeans vote for the political parties that best represent their interests and ideals, and the presence of NMPs in the House does not factor into this choice. In her view, NMPs add value to the discourse taking place in Parliament as they are able to "explore and research the issues from all possible socially significant angles" without constraint from "partisan concerns". She felt personally that she was accountable to all Singaporeans, rather than being unaccountable to anybody.[46] In addition, Ho Khai Leong has opined that the presence of NMPs and their participation in Parliamentary debates have placed pressure on PAP MPs to be less complacent and to be more competent in Parliament.[42]

Suggestions for improvement[编辑]

Non-constituency Member of Parliament Sylvia Lim has stated that it is the Workers' Party's position that the NMP scheme cannot be improved as it goes against the most fundamental democratic ideals of fair representation and elections.[47] Despite such calls to do away entirely with the NMP system,[48] there are also those who believe in the scheme and have raised points for its improvement. NMP Viswa Sadasivan has expressed the view that the scheme serves a function and purpose in the current socio-political climate, though it should not be viewed as a permanent solution for Singapore. The scheme could evolve into a selection–election hybrid, or the selection process itself could become more transparent with clearer criteria on which candidates and selected NMPs alike could be assessed.[49]

It has also been recommended that fringe or minority groups should go through formal, mandatory elections to choose the representatives that will provide them with a voice in Parliament. Thereafter, they may be called "elected representatives". The Government may assist by providing guidelines for the conduct of proper elections. Furthermore, the maximum number of NMPs – nine – is said to be far too small to ensure proper representation of minority groups. Hence, it has been recommended that there should not be any limitation on the number of NMPs.[50]

列表[编辑]

新加坡首兩位官委議員是心臟病學教授朱福兴(Maurice Choo)和公司經理梁志玮(Leong Chee Whye),他們都在1990年11月22日受委,就任官委議員[51]

截至2010年12月,當地只有一位官委議員曾提出成功獲得國會通過,並成為現行公共法案私人條例草案。這位官委議員是當時的新加坡國立大學法律系講師溫長明,他提出的法案《贍養父母法令》[52] 令年滿60歲,並無法籌措足夠資金維持生活的父母有權向仲裁庭申請下令要求他們的子女向他們支付贍養費。溫長明於1994年5月23日在國會提出這項法案,該法案最後在1995年11月2日獲得通過[53]。當地歷來首位女官委議員蘇英也在同年提出《家庭暴力法案》,然而該法案卻不獲國會通過[54]

Following his term as an NMP, Gerard Ee, a Roman Catholic, was invited in November 2002 to join a team of seven parliamentarians of different faiths tasked to refine the Declaration of Religious Harmony, which was presented as the product of interfaith dialogue and understanding.[55] This is an example of how NMPs have influenced soft law and the legal culture in Singapore.

In 2009, the arts community became the first group among the functional groups that NMPs are meant to represent to undertake an open election process to pick the candidates of their choice. It choose Audrey Wong and Loretta Chen, and submitted their names to the authorities. Audrey Wong was selected to become the first "Arts" NMP, and served from 2009 to 2011.[56] In 2011, the arts community underwent the same process and elected Janice Koh as its candidate. She was appointed an NMP in 2012.[57]

On 25 May 2009 during a debate in Parliament, Siew Kum Hong called for a hybrid Parliament in which a limited number of seats would be allocated by way of proportional representation, while the majority would still be filled the way they are now. He felt this would allow for more diverse views in Parliament, adding that it would be "more consistent with democratic principles than a scheme like the Nominated MP scheme". Siew also noted that while the act of voting was key to democracy and political participation, a large number of Singaporeans do not get to vote at each election because walkovers are prevalent.[58]

NMPs are supposed to be non-partisan but after it had been announced on 7 July 2009 that Calvin Cheng would be one of the nine people nominated to be NMPs it was disclosed by Today newspaper that he was a member of Young PAP, the youth wing of the People's Action Party.[59] The following day, Cheng wrote to the newspaper stating that he had formally resigned from Young PAP on 8 July, and that in any case he had been an inactive member, having never collected his membership card or attended any PAP branch activities.[60] This led to a journalist commenting that his attitude had been "cavalier" and "whimsical",[61] and a Young PAP member writing on the Forum page of The Straits Times that his remarks had raised doubts about the Young PAP's credibility.[62] The Constitution does not explicitly bar NMPs from being members of political parties,[63] and Gerard Ee was also a PAP member when he was an NMP. He did not feel he had to resign, as since he was not subject to the party whip he would not be prevented from expressing independent views in Parliament.[64] Despite these initial criticisms, The Straits Times reported that Cheng "left the strongest impression on many elected Members of Parliament", following speeches he made during his maiden budget debate in Parliament in 2010.[65] In his final speech during Budget 2011 before Parliament was dissolved for the general election that year, Cheng argued for the Government to educate the Internet generation instead of regulating the Internet to deal with threats such as "misinformation and disinformation", calling it "pointless". He went on to say that the Internet might be a "wild card" during the general election.[66] Subsequently, the Internet was indeed regarded as having played a crucial role in the election.[67]

新加坡國家博物館展示新加坡國家信約部分內容的動畫放映片段[a]新加坡公民會在宣讀信約時誓言他們會「不分種族、言語、宗教,團結一致。」

官委議員維斯瓦於2009年8月18日在提出動議,要求國會重申「要在國策(特別是經濟政策)的討論過程當中堅守在國家信約中體現到的建國原則。」他把為「不分種族、言語、宗教,團結一致」而奮鬥的需要識別為信約提出的一項原則,並提出新加坡社會有需要 address "apparent contradictions and mixed signals" by unnecessarily emphasizing racial differences的觀點。 He gave examples where this had occurred: the existence of ethnic based self-help groups, Special Assistance Plan schools and cultural elitism; policies concerning Malay-Muslims in the Singapore Armed Forces and maintaining the current racial distribution in the population; and discussions about whether Singapore was ready for an ethnic minority Prime Minister.[68] The next day, Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew refuted what he termed Viswa's 「虛假和有缺陷的」論點,還說他 saying he wanted to "bring the House back to earth" on the issue of racial equality in Singapore. He noted that Articles 152 and 153 of the Constitution, which make it the Government's responsibility to care for racial and religious minorities and to recognize the special position of Malays as the indigenous people of Singapore, explicitly impose a duty on the Government not to treat everyone equally. He felt that the tenet in the Pledge that Viswa had referred to was only an aspiration: "It is not reality, it is not practical, it will lead to grave and irreparable damage if we work on that principle. ... [W]e are trying to reach a position where there is a level playing field for everybody which is going to take decades, if not centuries, and we may never get there." Thus, it was not feasible to dismantle institutions that provided assistance to Singaporeans on an ethnic basis.[69] It was the first time since 2007 that Lee had chosen to speak during a debate in Parliament.[70]

Notes[编辑]

  1. ^ Wee Kim Wee (President), "President's Address", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1989-01-09), vol. 52, col. 15.
  2. ^ Goh Chok Tong (First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Defence), speech during the Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1989-11-29), vol. 54, cols. 695–705.
  3. ^ Goh Chok Tong, Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, cols. 696–697.
  4. ^ Goh Chok Tong, Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, col. 695.
  5. ^ Goh Chok Tong, Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, col. 700.
  6. ^ Goh Chok Tong, Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, col. 701.
  7. ^ Goh Chok Tong, Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, col. 702. The list of countries was published at cols. 773–780.
  8. ^ Goh Chok Tong, speech during the Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1989-11-30), vol. 54, col. 845.
  9. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill 1989 (No. B41 of 1989).
  10. ^ Template:Singapore legislation.
  11. ^ Goh Chok Tong, speech during the First Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1989-10-06), vol. 54, cols. 637–638.
  12. ^ Goh Chok Tong, Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, cols. 852–854.
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Report of the Select Committee on the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill (Bill No. 41/89) [Parl. 4 of 1990], Singapore: Government of Singapore, 1990, OCLC 35566184 .
  14. ^ Template:Singapore legislation.
  15. ^ Speech during the Third Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1990-03-29), vol. 55, col. 1050.
  16. ^ Template:Singapore legislation, in force on 1 September 1997.
  17. ^ Wong Kan Seng (Minister for Home Affairs), speech during the Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1997-07-31), vol. 67, cols. 1497–1499.
  18. ^ Template:Singapore legislation.
  19. ^ Constitution, Art. 65(4): "Parliament, unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for 5 years from the date of its first sitting and shall then stand dissolved.".
  20. ^ Lee Hsien Loong (Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Finance), speech during the Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2002-08-27), vol. 75, col. 796.
  21. ^ NMPs now permanent feature, Today, 27 April 2010 .
  22. ^ Constitution, 4th Sch., para. 1(1), repealed by Template:Singapore legislation, in force on 1 July 2010.
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 Lee Hsien Loong, "President's address: Debate on the address", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2009-05-27), vol. 86, col. 493ff.
  24. ^ Constitution, 4th Sch., para. 1(3).
  25. ^ Constitution, 4th Sch., para. 3(1).
  26. ^ 26.0 26.1 26.2 Constitution, 4th Sch., para. 3(2).
  27. ^ Constitution, 4th Sch., para. 2(1).
  28. ^ Michael Palmer, NMPs appointed on their merits, no matter who nominated them [letter], Today, 15 February 2012: 21, (原始内容存档于16 February 2012) .
  29. ^ Constitution, 4th Sch., para. 1(4).
  30. ^ Constitution, Art. 46(2B).
  31. ^ Constitution, Arts. 46(1) and (2).
  32. ^ The term money bill is defined in the Constitution, Art. 68.
  33. ^ Constitution, Art. 39(2).
  34. ^ Arthur Beng Kian Lam (Fengshan), speech during the Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1989-11-29), vol. 54, cols. 761–762.
  35. ^ 35.0 35.1 Allow PAP MPs to vote according to their conscience on this radical move, The Straits Times, 30 November 1989: 16 .
  36. ^ Tan Cheng Bock (Ayer Rajah), speech during the Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1989-11-29), vol. 54, col. 727; Parliament is no place for Govt to take advice from non-elected representatives, The Straits Times, 30 November 1989: 16 .
  37. ^ Dixie Tan (Ulu Pandan), speech during the Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1989-11-29), vol. 54, cols. 765–766; What group will NMPs represent?, The Straits Times, 30 November 1989: 16 .
  38. ^ Aline K. Wong (Tampines GRC), speech during the Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1989-11-29), vol. 54, cols. 741; Notion deviates from basic principle of democracy, The Straits Times, 30 November 1989: 16 .
  39. ^ See also Tey Tsun Hang, Singapore's Electoral System: Government by the People?, Legal Studies, December 2008, 28 (4): 610–628 at 621–623, doi:10.1111/j.1748-121X.2008.00106.x .
  40. ^ Chiam See Tong (Potong Pasir), speech during the Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1989-11-29), vol. 54, col. 735.
  41. ^ Thio Li-ann, The Post-colonial Constitutional Evolution of the Singapore Legislature: A Case Study, Singapore Journal of Legal Studies, 1993: 80–122 at 101, SSRN 965257 .
  42. ^ 42.0 42.1 Ho Khai Leong, Legitimation, Legislature and Legislators in Policy-making, Shared Responsibilities, Unshared Power: The Politics of Policy-Making in Singapore, Singapore: Eastern Universities Press: 170–215 at 191, 2003, ISBN 978-981-210-218-8 .
  43. ^ Chua Beng Huat, Building the political middle ground, Communitarian Ideology and Democracy in Singapore, London; New York, N.Y.: Routledge: 169–183 at 176, 1995, ISBN 978-0-415-12054-8 .
  44. ^ Wong Kan Seng (Leader of the House), "Nominated Members of Parliament", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2002-04-05), vol. 74, cols. 571–572.
  45. ^ Garry Rodan, State–Society Relations and Political Opposition in Singapore, (编) Garry Rodan, ed., Political Oppositions in Industrialising Asia, London: Routledge: 95–127 at 104, 1996, ISBN 978-0-415-14864-1 , cited in Tey, "Singapore's Electoral System", p. 622.
  46. ^ Paulin Tay Straughan (NMP), speech during the Second Reading of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Bill, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2010-04-26), vol. 87, col. 53ff.
  47. ^ Sylvia Lim (NCMP), "President's address: Debate on the address", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2009-05-28), vol. 86, cols. 683–684.
  48. ^ See also Wong Wee Nam, The Need for a Multi-party System, Sgpolitics.net, 4 December 2008 [2 December 2010], (原始内容存档于2 December 2010) ; Wong Wee Nam, The Real Political Change that Singapore Needs, Sgpolitics.net, 29 May 2009 [2 December 2010], (原始内容存档于2 December 2010) .
  49. ^ Gangasudhan; Ravi Philemon, Talking Point(s) with NMP Viswa Sadasivan, The Online Citizen, 9 November 2009 [2 December 2010], (原始内容存档于2 December 2010) .
  50. ^ Kelvin Teo, Reforming the NMP Scheme, The Online Citizen, 11 December 2009 [4 December 2010], (原始内容存档于4 December 2010) .
  51. ^ 51.0 51.1 Nominated MPs to be sworn-in today at Parliament sitting. The Straits Times. 1990-12-20: 3. 
  52. ^ Template:Singapore legislation
  53. ^ Govt gives backing to Parents Bill. The Straits Times. 1994-07-27: 1. ; Parents maintenance bill passed. The Straits Times. 1995-11-03: 1. Legislative history was made yesterday when the House approved the Maintenance of Parents Bill, the first piece of law to be made at the initiative of a backbencher since independence. The Bill initiated by Nominated MP Walter Woon was passed without debate at its third reading ... .
  54. ^ Kumaralingam Amirthalingam. A Feminist Critique of Domestic Violence Laws in Singapore and Malaysia [Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 6] (PDF). Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore: 17. July 2003. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于22 May 2008). .
  55. ^ Multi-religious team to draft harmony code, The Straits Times, 2 November 2002: 6 . For commentary on the Declaration of Religious Harmony, see Thio Li-ann, Constitutional 'Soft' Law and the Management of Religious Liberty and Order: The 2003 Declaration on Religious Harmony, Singapore Journal of Legal Studies, December 2004: 414–443, SSRN 953599 .
  56. ^ Mayo Martin, Arts NMP! Audrey Wong's foot! A post-mortem!, Today, 16 June 2011, (原始内容存档于30 April 2014) ; Adeline Chia, I'm no rabble-rouser (PDF), The Straits Times (reproduced on the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy website), 30 June 2011, (原始内容 (PDF)存档于30 April 2014) .
  57. ^ Mayo Martin, Arts community search for next Arts NMP, Today, 28 April 2014, (原始内容存档于30 April 2014) .
  58. ^ Siew Kum Hong (NMP), "President's address: debate on the address", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2009-05-25), vol. 86, col. 97ff.; Zakir Hussain. NMP Siew Kum Hong calls for a 'hybrid system' for Parliament. The Straits Times. 2009-06-26: 8. .
  59. ^ Esther Ng, A question of party: One of the nine new names is a Young PAP member, Today, 8 July 2009: 6 .
  60. ^ Calvin Cheng, I've quit Young PAP [letter], Today, 9 July 2009: 22 . See also Esther Ng, NMP-designate quits Young PAP, Today, 9 July 2009: 8 .
  61. ^ P.N. Balji, My, my ... Mr Cheng: What does joining Young PAP out of curiosity say about the NMP aspirant?, Today, 11 July 2009: 14 . See also Loh Chee Kong, I'm staying in the kitchen: Under-fire NMP Calvin Cheng says he can take the heat, Today, 18 July 2009: 16 .
  62. ^ Elaina Olivia Chong, Don't write us off: NMP's comments were 'unfair' to Young PAP [letter], Today, 21 July 2009: 20  and Elaina Olivia Chong, Nominated MP wrong to knock Young PAP [letter], The Straits Times, 21 July 2009: 20 ; Calvin Cheng, NMP sorry for remarks on Young PAP [letter], The Straits Times, 24 July 2009: 20 . See also Debbie Yong, New NMP comments on flak he has drawn, The Straits Times, 2 August 2009: 13 .
  63. ^ Though the Special Select Committee nominating NMPs for appointment is required to "have regard to the need for nominated Members to reflect as wide a range of independent and non-partisan views as possible": Constitution, 4th Sch., para. 3(2).
  64. ^ Clarissa Oon, Lift veil over NMP selection, The Straits Times, 28 July 2009 .
  65. ^ Nur Dianah Suhaimi, 'Lonesome, single' NMP makes biggest impression, The Straits Times, 16 March 2010 .
  66. ^ Educate the Internet generation: Nominated MP Calvin Cheng says regulating the Net is pointless, The Straits Times, 11 March 2011 .
  67. ^ Kate Hodal, Singapore elections marked by online buzz of discontent, The Guardian (London), 6 May 2011 ; Seth Mydans, Opposition makes inroads in Singapore, The New York Times, 7 May 2011, [O]nline campaigns gave new voice to public discontent over the P.A.P.'s monopoly on power. .
  68. ^ Viswa Sadasivan (NMP), "Nation building tenets", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2009-08-18), vol. 86, col. 1007ff..
  69. ^ Lee Kuan Yew (Minister Mentor), "Nation building tenets", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2009-08-19), vol. 86, col. 1145ff..
  70. ^ Clarissa Oon, MM rebuts NMP's notion of race equality: Constitution requires Government to give Malays special position, he says in House debate, The Straits Times (reproduced on the website of the Prime Minister's Office), 20 August 2009, (原始内容存档于7 December 2010) .
  71. ^ Tan Soo Khoon (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1990-12-20), vol. 56, col. 669; Members of Parliament (7th Parliament), Parliament of Singapore, 22 March 2006, (原始内容存档于13 July 2007) .
  72. ^ Tan Soo Khoon (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1992-09-14), vol. 60, col. 175; NMPs take oath of allegiance and then jump straight into the fray of things, The Straits Times, 15 September 1992: 24 .
  73. ^ Tan Soo Khoon (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1994-10-31), vol. 63, col. 598; Wang Hui Ling, Four new faces among six NMPs in new term, The Straits Times, 2 September 1994: 1 ; Tan Soo Khoon (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1996-10-01), vol. 66, col. 562; Current NMPs to start new terms on Sept 7, The Straits Times, 30 August 1996: 3 .
  74. ^ Tan Soo Khoon (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1997-10-07), vol. 67, col. 1674.
  75. ^ Tan Soo Khoon (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (1999-10-11), vol. 71, col. 62.
  76. ^ Tan Soo Khoon (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2001-10-05), vol. 73, cols. 2122–2123.
  77. ^ Abdullah Tarmugi (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2002-07-08), vol. 75, cols. 8–9; Abdullah Tarmugi (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2004-06-15), vol. 78, col. 8.
  78. ^ Abdullah Tarmugi (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2005-01-17), vol. 79, col. 85.
  79. ^ Abdullah Tarmugi (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2007-01-22), vol. 82, col. 922.
  80. ^ Abdullah Tarmugi (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2009-07-20), vol. 86, col. 798; Clarissa Oon; Jeremy Au Yong, Panel submits names of nine new NMPs, The Straits Times, 7 July 2009: A1, A4 ; Loh Chee Kong; Ong Dai Lin, A brand new slate: A unionist, a vocal sociologist, a former swim queen among the names unveiled, Today, 7 July 2009: 1, 4, (原始内容存档于15 July 2009) .
  81. ^ Michael Palmer (Speaker), "Nominated Members of Parliament (Announcement by Mr Speaker)", Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (2012-02-14), vol. 88, cols. 5–6; NMPs take oath in maiden Parliament appearance. The Straits Times. 2012-02-15: B5. .
  82. ^ Press Statement: Nominated Members of Parliament (PDF), Parliament of Singapore, 11 August 2014, (原始内容存档于13 August 2014) ; Charissa Yong, Disabled lawyer among 9 new NMPs, The Straits Times, 12 August 2014: A1 ; Alfred Chua, All-new slate of NMPs named, Today, 12 August 2014: 1–2, (原始内容存档于13 August 2014) .

參考資料[编辑]

延伸閱讀[编辑]

文章及網站[编辑]

  • Lua, Ee Laine; Sim, Disa Jek Sok; Koh, Christopher Theng Jer, Principles and Practices of Voting: The Singapore Electoral System, Singapore Law Review, 1996, 17: 244–321 at 267–270 .
  • Rodan, Garry, New Modes of Political Participation and Singapore's Nominated Members of Parliament, Government and Opposition, 2009, 44 (4): 438, doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.2009.01297.x .
  • Tan, Eugene; Chan, Gary, The Legislature, The Singapore Legal System, SingaporeLaw.sg, Singapore Academy of Law, 2009-04-13 [2010-12-01], (原始内容存档于2010-12-01) .
  • Winslow, Valentine S., Creating a Utopian Parliament: The Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 1984; the Parliamentary Elections (Amendment) Act 1984, Malaya Law Review, 1984, 28: 268–274 .

書目[编辑]

  • Chan, Helena H[ui-]M[eng], Parliament and Law Making, The Legal System of Singapore, Singapore: Butterworths Asia: 41–68, 1995, ISBN 978-0-409-99789-7 .
  • Report of the Select Committee on the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment No. 2) Bill (Bill No. 41/89) [Parl. 4 of 1990], Singapore: Government of Singapore, 1990, OCLC 35566184 .
  • Tan, Kevin Y[ew] L[ee], Making Law: Parliament, An Introduction to Singapore's Constitution rev., Singapore: Talisman Publishing: 33–60 at 55–56, 2011, ISBN 978-981-08-6456-9 .
  • Tan, Kevin Y[ew] L[ee]; Thio, Li-ann, The Legislature, Constitutional Law in Malaysia and Singapore 3rd, Singapore: LexisNexis: 299–360 at 323–324, 2010, ISBN 978-981-236-795-2 .
  • Thio, Li-ann, The Legislature and the Electoral System, A Treatise on Singapore Constitutional Law, Singapore: Academy Publishing: 285–359 at 308–311, 2012, ISBN 978-981-07-1515-1 .

外部連結[编辑]

筆記[编辑]

  • 第四段併入第一段
  • 列表濫用加粗,讀起來像便覧 (不像百科)。


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