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墨西哥
主要語言Mexican Spanish英语Mexican Spanish
原住民語言納瓦特爾語, 猶加敦馬雅語, 萨波特克语, 米斯特克語英语Mixtec language, 馬約語英语Mayo language, 亞基語英语Yaqui language, 澤塔爾語, 佐齊爾瑪雅語英语Tzotzil language, 喬爾語, 托托納克語英语Totonacan languages, 普雷佩查语, 歐托米語英语Otomi language, 馬薩瓦語英语Mazahua language, 馬薩特克語英语Mazatecan languages, 奇南特克語英语Chinantecan languages, 米赫語英语Mixe languages, Zoque language英语Zoque language, 波波洛坎語英语Popolocan languages , Popoloca language英语Popoloca language, Tlapanec language英语Tlapanec language, Huichol language英语Huichol language, Cora language英语Cora language, Huave language英语Huave language, Pame language英语Pame language, Huastec language英语Huastec language, Kickapoo language英语Kickapoo language, Kiliwa language英语Kiliwa language, Paipai language英语Paipai language, Cucapá language英语Cucapá language, Amuzgo language英语Amuzgo language, 特里基语, Lacandon language英语Lacandon language, Mam language英语Mam language, Jakaltek language英语Jakaltek language, Matlatzinca language英语Matlatzinca language, Tepehua language英语Tepehua language, Chichimeca Jonaz language英语Chichimeca Jonaz language, Pima Bajo language英语Pima Bajo language, Chochotec英语Chochotec, Ixcatec language英语Ixcatec language, 阿亚帕涅科语, 瓦斯特克語 etc.
少數語言加泰罗尼亚语, 門諾低地德語, Chipilo Venetian dialect英语Chipilo Venetian dialect, 罗姆语
主要外语德语, 希腊语, 意大利语, 阿拉伯语, 法语, 葡萄牙語, 官话, 日语, 英语
手語Mexican Sign Language英语Mexican Sign Language
Yucatan Sign Language英语Yucatan Sign Language
平原印第安人手语
美國手語
常见键盘布局
QWERTY鍵盤
KB Latin American.svg

Many different 語言 are spoken in 墨西哥, though Spanish is the most widespread. The indigenous languages are from eleven distinct language families, including four isolates and one that immigrated from the United States. The Mexican government recognizes 68 national languages, 63 of which are indigenous, including around 350 dialects of those languages. The large majority of the population is monolingual in Spanish. Some immigrant and indigenous英语Indigenous peoples of Mexico populations are bilingual, while some indigenous people are monolingual in their languages. Mexican Sign Language英语Mexican Sign Language is spoken by much of the deaf population, and there are one or two indigenous sign languages as well.

The government of Mexico uses Spanish for most official purposes, but in terms of legislation, its status is not that of an official primary language. The Law of Linguistic Rights establishes Spanish as one of the country's national languages, along with 63 distinct indigenous languages (from seven large families, plus four counted as 孤立语言s). The law, promulgated in 2003, requires the state to offer all of its services to its indigenous citizens in their mother tongues, but in practice this is not yet the case. Note that, as defined by 相互理解性, the number of spoken languages in Mexico is much greater than the 63 national languages, because National Institute of Indigenous Languages (INALI) counts distinct ethnic groups for the purposes of political classification. For instance, the 米斯特克人 are a single ethnicity and therefore count as a single language for governmental/legal purposes, but there are a dozen distinct Mixtec dialect regions, each of which includes at least one variety that is not mutually intelligible with those of the other dialect regions (Josserand, 1983), and Ethnologue counts 52 varieties of Mixtec that require separate literature. Ethnologue currently counts 282 indigenous languages currently spoken in Mexico, plus a number of immigrant languages (Lewis et al. 2018).

Due to the long history of marginalization of indigenous groups, most indigenous languages are endangered, with some languages expected to become extinct within years or decades, and others simply having populations that grow slower than the national average. According to the Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples英语National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (CDI) and National Institute of Indigenous Languages (INALI), while 10–14% of the population identifies as belonging to an indigenous group, around 6% speak an indigenous language.

There are other languages not native to Mexico that are spoken in the country. Besides Spanish, the most populous are probably English, German (門諾低地德語), Arabic, Chinese and Japanese.

Language history[编辑]

A page of the 佛罗伦萨手抄本 written in romanized Nahuatl (Nahuatl is not known to have been a written language prior to its romanization).
Grammar of Mexican language by Carochi

From the arrival of the first Franciscan missionaries, Spanish, Latin, and indigenous languages played parts in the evangelization of Mexico. Many sixteenth-century churchmen studied indigenous languages in order to instruct native peoples in Christian doctrine. The same men also found Castilian and Latin appropriate in certain contexts. All told, there existed a kind of "linguistic coexistence" from the beginning of the colonial period.[1]

Some monks and priests attempted to describe and classify indigenous languages with Spanish. 腓力二世 (西班牙) decreed in 1570 that Nahuatl become the official language of the colonies of 新西班牙 in order to facilitate communication between the natives of the colonies.[2]

In 1696 Charles II reversed that policy and banned the use of any languages other than Spanish throughout 新西班牙.[2] Beginning in the 18th century, decrees ordering the Hispanization of indigenous populations became more numerous and Mexican colonizers no longer learned the indigenous languages.

After the independence the government initiated an educational system with the primary aim of Hispanization of the native populations. This policy was based on the idea that this would help the indigenous peoples become a more integrated part of the new Mexican nation.[3][4]

Except for the 墨西哥第二帝國, led by the 哈布斯堡王朝 Maximilian I, no Mexican government tried to prevent the loss of indigenous languages during the 19th century.[3]

In 1889, Antonio García Cubas estimated that 38% of Mexicans spoke an indigenous language, down from 60% in 1820. By the end of the 20th century, this figure had fallen to 6%.

For most of the 20th century successive governments denied native tongues the status of valid languages. Indigenous students were forbidden to speak their native languages in school and were often punished for doing so.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

In 2002, Mexico's constitution was amended to reinforce the nation's pluricultural nature by giving the State the obligation to protect and nurture the expressions of this diversity. On June 14, 1999, the Council of Writers in Indigenous Languages presented Congress with a document entitled "Suggested legal initiatives towards linguistic rights of indigenous peoples and communities", with the goal of beginning to protect the linguistic rights of indigenous communities. The Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas英语Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas was passed in March 2003, establishing a framework for the conservation, nurturing and development of indigenous languages. Critics claim that the law's complexity makes enforcement difficult.[9][10][11][12][13]

Indigenous languages[编辑]

Mexico is home to some of the world's oldest writing systems such as 瑪雅文字. Maya writing uses 语素文字s complemented by a set of 字母系統ical or syllabic 字形s and character英语Character (symbol)s, similar in function to modern 日文文字.


Spanish is the De facto national language spoken by the vast majority of Mexicans, though it is not defined as an official language in legislation. The second article of the 1917 Constitution英语1917 Constitution of Mexico defines the country as multicultural, recognizes the right of the 原住民 to "preserve and enrich their languages" and promotes "bilingual and intercultural education".

In 2003, the 联邦议会 (墨西哥) approved the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples英语Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas, which is a law that is recognizes that Mexico's history makes its indigenous languages, "national languages".[14] Accordingly, they "have the same validity [as Spanish] in their territory, location and context". At the same time, legislators made no specific provisions for the official or legal status of the Spanish language. This law means that indigenous peoples can use their native language in communicating with government officials and request official documents in that language. The Mexican state supports the preservation and promotion of the use of the national languages through the activities of the National Institute of Indigenous Languages英语National Institute of Indigenous Languages.[15][16][17]

Mexico has about six million citizens who speak indigenous languages. That is the second-largest group in the 美洲 after 秘鲁. However, a relatively small percentage of Mexico's population speaks an indigenous language compared to other countries in the Americas, such as 危地马拉 (42.8%), 秘鲁 (35%), and even 厄瓜多尔 (9.4%), 巴拿马 (8.3%),[18] 巴拉圭 and 玻利維亞.

The only single indigenous language spoken by more than a million people in Mexico is the 納瓦特爾語; the other Native American language with a large population of native speakers include 猶加敦馬雅語.

Language endangerment[编辑]

According to the Law of Linguistic Rights, Mexico recognizes sixty-two indigenous languages as co-official National languages. [19] With Spanish being the dominant language, Mexico has become a site for 瀕危語言s. "Indigenous people’s disadvantaged socioeconomic status and the pressure of assimilation into mestizo英语Mestizos in Mexico or Ladino society have been influential on indigenous language loss."[20] The result of the conflict between indigenous languages and Spanish has been a 语言转移 in Mexico from indigenous languages being spoken to more people using Spanish in every domain. Due to this situation there have been many different 語言復興 strategies implemented in order to create a language shift to try to reverse this language shift. Literature projects done with the Nahua people [21] include "Keeping the fire alive: a decade of language revitalization in Mexico" showing the experiences of language revitalization in South Mexico.[22]

Language tables[编辑]

Indigenous languages of Mexico
Language Speakers
納瓦特爾語 (Nahuatl, Nahuat, Nahual, Macehualtlahtol, Melatahtol) 1,740,026
猶加敦馬雅語 (Maaya t'aan) 792,000
米斯特克語英语Mixtecan languages (Tu'un sávi) 480,216
萨波特克语 (Diidxaza) 450,000
澤塔爾語 (K'op o winik atel) 445,856
佐齊爾瑪雅語英语Tzotzil language (Batsil k'op) 404,704
歐托米語英语Otomi language (Hñä hñü) 290,000
托托納克語英语Totonacan languages (Tachihuiin) 240,000
馬薩特克語英语Mazatecan languages (Ha shuta enima) 220,000
喬爾語 (Winik) 212,117
Huastec language英语Huastec language (Téenek) 161,120
馬薩瓦語英语Mazahua language (Jñatho) 140,840
奇南特克語英语Chinantecan languages (Tsa jujmí) 125,153
米赫語英语Mixe languages(Ayüük) 133,482
普雷佩查语 (P'urhépecha) 124,494
Tlapanec language英语Tlapanec language (Me'phaa) 120,000
Tarahumara language英语Tarahumara language (Rarámuri) 85,018
Amuzgo language英语Amuzgo language (Tzañcue) 51,761
Chatino language英语Chatino language (Cha'cña) 45,791
Tojolabal language英语Tojolabal language (Tojolwinik otik) 51,733
索特阿帕內克語英语Sierra Popoluca (Tuncápxe) 54,004
Chontal Maya language英语Chontal Maya language (Yokot t'an) 43,850
Huichol language英语Huichol language (Wixárika) 44,800
馬約語英语Mayo language (Yoreme) 32,702
Tepehuán language英语Tepehuán language (O'otham and Ódami) 39,681
特里基语 (Tinujéi) 26,491
Cora language英语Cora language (Naáyarite) 20,100
Popolocan languages英语Popolocan languages 18,926
Huave language英语Huave language (Ikoods) 18,900
奎卡特克语 (Nduudu yu) 13,610
亞基語英语Yaqui language (Yoem Noki or Hiak Nokpo) 17,546
根祖巴語 10,833
Tepehua language英语Tepehua language (Hamasipini) 36,000
Pame language英语Pame language (Xigüe) 11,768
Mam language英语Mam language (Qyool) 9,739
瓊塔爾語 (Slijuala sihanuk) 5,534
祖赫語 3,143
Tacuate英语Mixtecan languages (Tu'un Va'a) 2,067
Chichimeca Jonaz language英语Chichimeca Jonaz language (Úza) 2,287
Guarijio language英语Guarijio language (Warihó) 2,136
Chochotec英语Chochotec (Runixa ngiigua) 1,078
Pima Bajo language英语Pima Bajo language (Oob No'ok) 836
Q'eqchi' language英语Q'eqchi' language (Q'eqchí) 835
Lacandon language英语Lacandon language (Hach t'an) 731
Jakaltek language英语Jakaltek language (Abxubal) 584
Matlatzinca language英语Matlatzinca language (Tlahuica) 522
Seri language英语Seri language (Cmiique iitom) 518
Ixcatec language英语Ixcatec language 406
基切語 286
喀克其奎語 230
Paipai language英语Paipai language (Jaspuy pai) 221
Cocopah language英语Cocopah language (Kuapá) 206
Mototzintleco英语Mocho' language (Qatok) 186
Kumiai英语Kumeyaay language (Ti'pai) 185
Pápago英语O'Odham language (O'odham) 153
Kikapú英语Fox language (Kikapoa) 144
Ixil language英语Ixil language 108
Cochimí language英语Cochimí language (Laymón, mti'pá) 96
Kiliwa language英语Kiliwa language (Ko'lew) 4
Aguacatec英语Awakatek language 27
Other languages1 337

1 Including: Òpata language英语Òpata language, 萨波特克语, and Papabucan

Only includes population 5 and older. Source: INEGI (2005)

Classification[编辑]

The following is a classification of the 65 indigenous languages grouped by family:

Language families with members north of Mexico

Language families with all known members in Mexico

Language family with members south of Mexico

孤立语言s:

*In danger of extinction.

Other languages[编辑]

The deaf community uses Mexican Sign Language英语Mexican Sign Language, Yucatan Sign Language英语Yucatan Sign Language, and, in northern Baja California, 美國手語.

The non-indigenous languages spoken in Mexico include English (by English-speaking as well as by the residents of border states). One example of this group is of the American Mormon colony英语Mormon colonies in Mexico of Nueva Casas Grandes英语Nueva Casas Grandes in Chihuahua, which settled in the late 19th century. German (spoken mainly in 墨西哥城 and Puebla), Greek (spoken mainly in 墨西哥城, 瓜达拉哈拉 (墨西哥) and especially in 錫那羅亞州 state), Arabic, Venetian (in Chipilo英语Chipilo), Italian, French, Occitan, Catalan, Basque, Galician, Asturian, Filipino, Polish, Hebrew, Korean, Ladino, 門諾低地德語, Armenian, Japanese, Chinese and other languages are spoken by smaller numbers. Some of these languages (Venetian and Plautdietsch) are spoken in isolated communities or villages. The rest are spoken by immigrants or their descendants who tend to live in the larger cities and towns.

As far as second languages go, many educated Mexicans (and those with little education who have immigrated to the US and returned) have different degrees of fluency in English. Many Mexicans working in the tourist industry can speak some English.

Romani is spoken by the Mexican Roma.[23]

See also[编辑]

References[编辑]

  1. ^ Wasserman-Soler, Daniel. Lengua de los indios, lengua española: Religious Conversion and the Languages of New Spain, ca. 1520–1585. Church History. 2016, 85 (4): 690–723. doi:10.1017/S0009640716000755可免费使用. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Cifuentes, Bárbara (1998): Letras sobre voces. Multilingüismo a través de la historia. Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social – Instituto Nacional Indigenista. Historia de los Pueblos Indígenas de México. México. ISBN 968-496-338-6
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Suaréz, Jorge A. The Mesoamerican Indian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: 劍橋大學出版社. 1983. ISBN 978-0-521-22834-3. OCLC 8034800.  已忽略未知参数|url-access= (帮助)
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Stavenhagen, Rodolfo (1990), "Linguistic Minorities and Language Policy in Latin America: The Case of Mexico", in Florian Coulmas (ed.), Linguistic Minorities and Literacy: Language Policy Issues in Developing Countries, Mouton Publishers, Berlin, pp. 56–62, at pp. 60–61.
  5. ^ G. G. Patthey-Chavez (1994). Language Policy and Planning in Mexico: Indigenous Language Policy. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 14, pp 200–219
  6. ^ Grinevald, Colette. “Endangered Languages of Mexico and Central America”. Language Diversity, Endangered, Matthias Brenzinger. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co, 2007. 50–86.
  7. ^ Is education destroying indigenous languages in Chiapas?. Hist.umn.edu. [2015-12-30]. 
  8. ^ Sánchez, L. (2011), Mexican Indigenous Languages at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century edited by Margarita Hidalgo. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 15: 422–425.
  9. ^ [1] 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期February 5, 2012,.
  10. ^ Margarita Hidalgo (ed.) . Mexican Indigenous Languages at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century (Contributions to the Sociology of Language, 91) . 2006 . Berlin, Germany : Mouton de Gruyter
  11. ^ Hamel, Rainer Enrique. “Indigenous Language Policy and Education in Mexico.” Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Vol. 1: Language Policy and Political Issues in Education. 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2008. 301–313. Gail Virtual Reference Library. Amer. Univ. Bender Library. 5 April 2009.
  12. ^ Hamel, Rainer Enrique and Communities in Mexico. “Bilingual Education for Indigenous Communities in Mexico”. Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Vol. 5: Bilingual Education. 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2008. 311–322. Gail Cambronne 42 Virtual Reference Library. Amer. Univ. Bender Library. 5 April 2009
  13. ^ *Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas [INALI]. Catálogo de las lenguas indígenas nacionales: Variantes lingüísticas de México con sus autodenominaciones y referencias geoestadísticas (PDF online reproduction). Diario Oficial de la Federación英语Diario Oficial de la Federación. 14 January 2008, 652 (9). OCLC 46461036 (西班牙语). 
  14. ^ [2] 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期June 11, 2008,.
  15. ^ LEY GENERAL DE DERECHOS LINGÜÍSTICOS DE LOS PUEBLOS INDÍGENAS (PDF). [February 3, 2006]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于April 27, 2006). 
  16. ^ PROGRAMA DE REVITALIZACIÓN, FORTALECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO DE LAS LENGUAS INDÍGENAS NACIONALES : 2008-2012 : PINALI (PDF). Inali.gob.mx. [2015-12-30]. 
  17. ^ INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE LENGUAS INDIGENAS (PDF). Inali.gob.mx. [2015-12-30]. 
  18. ^ Información estadística. [August 11, 2006]. (原始内容存档于November 10, 2005). 
  19. ^ Terborg, Roland; Landa, Laura García; Moore, Pauline. The Language Situation in Mexico. Current Issues in Language Planning. 2006-11-15, 7 (4): 415–518. ISSN 1466-4208. doi:10.2167/cilp109.0. 
  20. ^ Yoshioka, Hirotoshi. Indigenous Language Usage and Maintenance Patterns Among Indigenous People in the Era of Neoliberal Multiculturalism in Mexico and Guatemala. Latin American Research Review. 2010-01-01, 45 (3): 5–34. JSTOR 40926268. 
  21. ^ Farfán, José Antonio Flores. Keeping the fire alive: a decade of language revitalization in Mexico. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 2011, 2011 (212): 189–209. doi:10.1515/ijsl.2011.052. 
  22. ^ Hernández, Lorena Córdova. Consumo literario en lenguas indígenas: experiencias de revitalización desde el Sur de México. Revista CS. 2016-02-05, 0 (18): 37–61. ISSN 2011-0324. doi:10.18046/recs.i18.2053可免费使用 (西班牙语). 
  23. ^ Mexico's Hidden Romani Heritage
Josserand, Judith K. Mixtec Dialect History, PhD Thesis. 杜蘭大學. 1983. 
Lewis, P. M.; Simons, G. F.; Fennig, C. D. (编). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition). Dallas, TX (http://www.ethnologue.com): SIL國際. 2013. ISBN 978-1556712166. 

External links[编辑]

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