Many different 語言 are spoken in 墨西哥, though Spanish is the most widespread. The indigenous languages are from eleven distinct language families, including four isolates and one that immigrated from the United States. The Mexican government recognizes 68 national languages, 63 of which are indigenous, including around 350 dialects of those languages. The large majority of the population is monolingual in Spanish. Some immigrant and indigenous populations are bilingual, while some indigenous people are monolingual in their languages. Mexican Sign Language is spoken by much of the deaf population, and there are one or two indigenous sign languages as well.
The government of Mexico uses Spanish for most official purposes, but in terms of legislation, its status is not that of an official primary language. The Law of Linguistic Rights establishes Spanish as one of the country's national languages, along with 63 distinct indigenous languages (from seven large families, plus four counted as 孤立语言s). The law, promulgated in 2003, requires the state to offer all of its services to its indigenous citizens in their mother tongues, but in practice this is not yet the case. Note that, as defined by 相互理解性, the number of spoken languages in Mexico is much greater than the 63 national languages, because National Institute of Indigenous Languages (INALI) counts distinct ethnic groups for the purposes of political classification. For instance, the 米斯特克人 are a single ethnicity and therefore count as a single language for governmental/legal purposes, but there are a dozen distinct Mixtec dialect regions, each of which includes at least one variety that is not mutually intelligible with those of the other dialect regions (Josserand, 1983), and Ethnologue counts 52 varieties of Mixtec that require separate literature. Ethnologue currently counts 282 indigenous languages currently spoken in Mexico, plus a number of immigrant languages (Lewis et al. 2018).
Due to the long history of marginalization of indigenous groups, most indigenous languages are endangered, with some languages expected to become extinct within years or decades, and others simply having populations that grow slower than the national average. According to the Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (CDI) and National Institute of Indigenous Languages (INALI), while 10–14% of the population identifies as belonging to an indigenous group, around 6% speak an indigenous language.
From the arrival of the first Franciscan missionaries, Spanish, Latin, and indigenous languages played parts in the evangelization of Mexico. Many sixteenth-century churchmen studied indigenous languages in order to instruct native peoples in Christian doctrine. The same men also found Castilian and Latin appropriate in certain contexts. All told, there existed a kind of "linguistic coexistence" from the beginning of the colonial period.
Some monks and priests attempted to describe and classify indigenous languages with Spanish. 腓力二世 (西班牙) decreed in 1570 that Nahuatl become the official language of the colonies of 新西班牙 in order to facilitate communication between the natives of the colonies.
In 1696 Charles II reversed that policy and banned the use of any languages other than Spanish throughout 新西班牙. Beginning in the 18th century, decrees ordering the Hispanization of indigenous populations became more numerous and Mexican colonizers no longer learned the indigenous languages.
After the independence the government initiated an educational system with the primary aim of Hispanization of the native populations. This policy was based on the idea that this would help the indigenous peoples become a more integrated part of the new Mexican nation.
In 1889, Antonio García Cubas estimated that 38% of Mexicans spoke an indigenous language, down from 60% in 1820. By the end of the 20th century, this figure had fallen to 6%.
For most of the 20th century successive governments denied native tongues the status of valid languages. Indigenous students were forbidden to speak their native languages in school and were often punished for doing so.
In 2002, Mexico's constitution was amended to reinforce the nation's pluricultural nature by giving the State the obligation to protect and nurture the expressions of this diversity. On June 14, 1999, the Council of Writers in Indigenous Languages presented Congress with a document entitled "Suggested legal initiatives towards linguistic rights of indigenous peoples and communities", with the goal of beginning to protect the linguistic rights of indigenous communities. The Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas was passed in March 2003, establishing a framework for the conservation, nurturing and development of indigenous languages. Critics claim that the law's complexity makes enforcement difficult.
Spanish is the De facto national language spoken by the vast majority of Mexicans, though it is not defined as an official language in legislation. The second article of the 1917 Constitution defines the country as multicultural, recognizes the right of the 原住民 to "preserve and enrich their languages" and promotes "bilingual and intercultural education".
In 2003, the 联邦议会 (墨西哥) approved the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples, which is a law that is recognizes that Mexico's history makes its indigenous languages, "national languages". Accordingly, they "have the same validity [as Spanish] in their territory, location and context". At the same time, legislators made no specific provisions for the official or legal status of the Spanish language. This law means that indigenous peoples can use their native language in communicating with government officials and request official documents in that language. The Mexican state supports the preservation and promotion of the use of the national languages through the activities of the National Institute of Indigenous Languages.
Mexico has about six million citizens who speak indigenous languages. That is the second-largest group in the 美洲 after 秘鲁. However, a relatively small percentage of Mexico's population speaks an indigenous language compared to other countries in the Americas, such as 危地马拉 (42.8%), 秘鲁 (35%), and even 厄瓜多尔 (9.4%), 巴拿马 (8.3%), 巴拉圭 and 玻利維亞.
According to the Law of Linguistic Rights, Mexico recognizes sixty-two indigenous languages as co-official National languages.  With Spanish being the dominant language, Mexico has become a site for 瀕危語言s. "Indigenous people’s disadvantaged socioeconomic status and the pressure of assimilation into mestizo or Ladino society have been influential on indigenous language loss." The result of the conflict between indigenous languages and Spanish has been a 语言转移 in Mexico from indigenous languages being spoken to more people using Spanish in every domain. Due to this situation there have been many different 語言復興 strategies implemented in order to create a language shift to try to reverse this language shift. Literature projects done with the Nahua people  include "Keeping the fire alive: a decade of language revitalization in Mexico" showing the experiences of language revitalization in South Mexico.
|納瓦特爾語 (Nahuatl, Nahuat, Nahual, Macehualtlahtol, Melatahtol)||1,740,026|
|猶加敦馬雅語 (Maaya t'aan)||792,000|
|米斯特克語 (Tu'un sávi)||480,216|
|澤塔爾語 (K'op o winik atel)||445,856|
|佐齊爾瑪雅語 (Batsil k'op)||404,704|
|歐托米語 (Hñä hñü)||290,000|
|馬薩特克語 (Ha shuta enima)||220,000|
|Huastec language (Téenek)||161,120|
|奇南特克語 (Tsa jujmí)||125,153|
|Tlapanec language (Me'phaa)||120,000|
|Tarahumara language (Rarámuri)||85,018|
|Amuzgo language (Tzañcue)||51,761|
|Chatino language (Cha'cña)||45,791|
|Tojolabal language (Tojolwinik otik)||51,733|
|Chontal Maya language (Yokot t'an)||43,850|
|Huichol language (Wixárika)||44,800|
|Tepehuán language (O'otham and Ódami)||39,681|
|Cora language (Naáyarite)||20,100|
|Huave language (Ikoods)||18,900|
|奎卡特克语 (Nduudu yu)||13,610|
|亞基語 (Yoem Noki or Hiak Nokpo)||17,546|
|Tepehua language (Hamasipini)||36,000|
|Pame language (Xigüe)||11,768|
|Mam language (Qyool)||9,739|
|瓊塔爾語 (Slijuala sihanuk)||5,534|
|Tacuate (Tu'un Va'a)||2,067|
|Chichimeca Jonaz language (Úza)||2,287|
|Guarijio language (Warihó)||2,136|
|Chochotec (Runixa ngiigua)||1,078|
|Pima Bajo language (Oob No'ok)||836|
|Q'eqchi' language (Q'eqchí)||835|
|Lacandon language (Hach t'an)||731|
|Jakaltek language (Abxubal)||584|
|Matlatzinca language (Tlahuica)||522|
|Seri language (Cmiique iitom)||518|
|Paipai language (Jaspuy pai)||221|
|Cocopah language (Kuapá)||206|
|Cochimí language (Laymón, mti'pá)||96|
|Kiliwa language (Ko'lew)||4|
|Only includes population 5 and older. Source: INEGI (2005)|
The following is a classification of the 65 indigenous languages grouped by family:
Language families with members north of Mexico
- 阿尔冈昆语族: Kickapoo people
- Yuman–Cochimí languages: Paipai language, Kiliwa language, Cocopa, Cochimi and Kumiai
Language families with all known members in Mexico
- Oto-pamean branch: Northern Pame language, Southern Pame language, Chichimeca Jonaz language, 歐托米語, 馬薩瓦語, Matlatzinca language and Ocuiltec.
- 波波洛坎語 branch: 波波洛坎語 , Chochotec, Ixcatec language*, 馬薩特克語
- Tlapanec–Subtiaban branch: Tlapanec language
- Amuzgoan branch: Amuzgo language de Guerrero, Amuzgo language de Oaxaca
- Mixtecan branch: 米斯特克語, 奎卡特克语 and 特里基语.
- Zapotecan branch: Chatino language (and its dialects), 萨波特克语s.
- Chinantec branch: 奇南特克語 (and its dialects)
- Chiapaneca–Mangue branch: Chiapaneco*
- Mixe–Zoquean languages:
Language family with members south of Mexico
- Huastecan branch: Wastek language,
- Yucatecan branch: 猶加敦馬雅語, Lacandon language,
- Cholan branch: 喬爾語, Chontal Maya language, 澤塔爾語, 佐齊爾瑪雅語,
- Qanjobalan–Chujean branch: 祖赫語, Tojolabal language, 根祖巴語, Jakaltek language, Mocho' language, Akatek language
- Quichean–Mamean branch: Mam language, Tektitek language, Ixil language, 基切語, 喀克其奎語 and Q'eqchi' language.
*In danger of extinction.
The non-indigenous languages spoken in Mexico include English (by English-speaking as well as by the residents of border states). One example of this group is of the American Mormon colony of Nueva Casas Grandes in Chihuahua, which settled in the late 19th century. German (spoken mainly in 墨西哥城 and Puebla), Greek (spoken mainly in 墨西哥城, 瓜达拉哈拉 (墨西哥) and especially in 錫那羅亞州 state), Arabic, Venetian (in Chipilo), Italian, French, Occitan, Catalan, Basque, Galician, Asturian, Filipino, Polish, Hebrew, Korean, Ladino, 門諾低地德語, Armenian, Japanese, Chinese and other languages are spoken by smaller numbers. Some of these languages (Venetian and Plautdietsch) are spoken in isolated communities or villages. The rest are spoken by immigrants or their descendants who tend to live in the larger cities and towns.
As far as second languages go, many educated Mexicans (and those with little education who have immigrated to the US and returned) have different degrees of fluency in English. Many Mexicans working in the tourist industry can speak some English.
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- "¿Qué lengua hablas?", a portal that contains multimedia files of phrases spoken in some of the national indigenous languages
- National Institute of Indigenous Languages / in Spanish
- Ethnologue report for Mexico
- General Law of Linguistic Rights of Indigenous Peoples (in Spanish)