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User:MusicMath/前奏曲 (德布西)

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前奏曲》(法語:Préludes)是法國作曲家阿希爾-克勞德·德布西創作的一系列鋼琴前奏曲。全部共24首,分成第一冊及第二冊,每冊各12首。與先前其他音樂家所創作的前奏曲(例如巴哈平均律鍵盤曲集蕭邦24首前奏曲)不太一樣的是,德布西並未遵守嚴謹的格式及調號

兩冊前奏曲都各只花了數個月的時間即完成,這個創作速度以德布西來說算是很快的。第一冊寫於1909年12月至1910年2月,而第二冊則是寫於1912年底至1913年4月初。

Pieces[编辑]

第一冊[编辑]

編號 標題、作品音檔及內容簡介 譯註
1
黛爾菲的舞姬們
Danseuses de Delphes
2

Voiles
[註 1]
3
吹過原野的風
Le vent dans la plaine
4
聲音與馨香在暮靄中迴盪著
Les sons et les parfums tournent dans l'air du soir
[註 2]
5
阿納卡普里之丘
Les collines d'Anacapri
6
雪上足跡
Des pas sur la neige
7
西風所見之事
Ce qu'a vu le vent d'ouest
8
棕髮少女
La fille aux cheveux de lin
為德布西前奏曲中最有名的一首。本首的單簧管-弦樂改編版為Windows 7的其中一首範例音樂。
9
中斷的小夜曲
La sérénade interrompue
10
沉沒的大教堂
La cathédrale engloutie
[註 3]
11
帕克之舞
La danse de Puck
本曲描繪莎士比亞作品《仲夏夜之夢》當中的一名小精靈帕克。
12
遊唱詩人
Minstrels
  1. ^ 法文中的 "voile" 若作陽性名詞解釋,則其義為女性服飾的「紗」(le voile);若作陰性名詞解釋,則其義為船的「帆」(la voile)。德布西在原標題中未加上定冠詞,現多譯為「帆」。
  2. ^ 亦有譯為「飄散在暮色中的聲音與香味」。由於此曲標題出自詩中(見簡介),故選用更加詩意的譯法,試圖還原原詩的美感。"Tournent" 英譯為 "turn",中文譯為「迴盪」除了與原文較相近,更增添其詩意。
  3. ^ "Cathédrale":主教座堂,多譯為「大教堂」。


第二冊[编辑]

編號 標題、作品音檔及內容簡介 譯註
1

Brouillards
2
枯葉
Feuilles mortes
3
ヴィーノの門
La Puerta del Vino
4
仙子是出色的舞者
Les Fées sont d'exquises danseuses
5
石楠
Bruyères
[註 1]
6
古怪的拉威奴將軍
Général Lavine - excentrique
7
月光下露臺的觀眾
La terrasse des audiences du clair de lune
[註 2]
8
水妖
Ondine
9
皮克威克卿禮讚
Hommage à S. Pickwick Esq. P.P.M.P.C.
10
カノープ
Canope
11
三度交替
Les tierces alternées
12
煙火
Feux d'artifice
  1. ^ 亦有譯為「石楠叢生的荒地」、「歐石楠」。「石南叢生的荒地」雖美感十足,但或有超譯之嫌疑;而「歐石楠」為石楠的一個種類,但原文之 "bruyères" 之義僅為石楠的統稱。
  2. ^ 亦有譯為「月色滿庭台」、「月光下的謁見陽台」。若將 "audience" 一詞作「謁見」解釋,可能是為配合 "terrasse"(城堡裡舉行加冕典禮的大陽台/露臺) 之意境。

Two of the titles were set in quotation marks by Debussy because they are, in fact, quotations: «Les sons et les parfums tournent dans l'air du soir» is from Charles Baudelaire's poem Harmonie du soir ("Evening Harmony"). «Les fées sont d'exquises danseuses» is from J. M. Barrie's book Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, which Debussy's daughter had received as a gift.

Performance practice[编辑]

There is no proof that Debussy necessarily intended the preludes to be performed as a cycle, although the musical language throughout each book is so consistent that performers often do so.

An important precedent was set on 3 May 1911 by the pianist Jane Mortier (to whom works were dedicated by Bohuslav Martinů[1] and Erik Satie[2]) who played the entire first book of preludes at the Salle Pleyel in Paris.[3] The German-English pianist Walter Morse Rummel, a student of Leopold Godowsky, gave the premiere of the entire second book of preludes in 1913 in London.[3]

Initially, Debussy and other pianists who gave early performances of the works (including Ricardo Viñes) played them in groups of three or four preludes, which remains a popular approach today. This allows performers to choose preludes with which they have the strongest affinity, or those to which their individual interpretive gifts are most suited.

There is a strong tonal relationship between the preludes that suggests that the published order of the preludes is not arbitrary.[4] For example, the first three preludes in the first book (Danseuses de Delphes, Voiles, and Le Vent dans la Plaine) revolve around the key of B.[4] In these first three preludes, allusions to the key of B disappear and reappear, yet a strong sense of fluidity and connection between the preludes is still maintained.

However, the order of the preludes is not considered imperative, as is the case with Chopin's preludes, for example. Several pianists have performed the set out of order, and at least one recording, by Ivan Ilić, changes the order of the set entirely.[5]

The titles[编辑]

The titles of the preludes are highly significant, both in terms of their descriptive quality, and in the way they were placed in the written score. The titles are written at the end of each work,[6] allowing the performer to experience each individual sound world with fresh ears, without being influenced by Debussy's titles beforehand.

At least one of the titles is poetically vague: the exact meaning of Voiles, the title of the second prelude of the first book, is impossible to determine for certain, since the noun's gender is unknown (in French, voiles can mean either "veils" or "sails" depending on the gender).[7]

Orchestrations[编辑]

Various orchestrations have been made of the various preludes, mostly of La fille aux cheveux de lin and La cathédrale engloutie. Complete orchestrations of all 24 preludes include versions by Peter Breiner, Luc Brewaeys, Hans Henkemans, and Colin Matthews. Sean Osborn has orchestrated the first book.

Sources[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Bohuslav Martinu : catalogue des oeuvres ...::: numéro 101-200 :::. Patachonf.free.fr. [2012-06-05]. 
  2. ^ Embryons desséchés - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. En.wikipedia.org. [2012-06-05]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Claude Debussy - Biographie : 1910 - 1914 - Centre de documentation Claude Debussy. Debussy.fr. [2012-06-05]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Roberts, Paul. IMAGES The Piano Music of Claude Debussy. Portland, OR: AMADEUS PRESS, 1996. Print.
  5. ^ Classical Music :: The Classical Source :: Debussy’s Préludes – Ivan Ilić :: Classical Music. The Classical Source. [2012-06-05]. 
  6. ^ Préludes (Book 1) (Debussy, Claude) - IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library: Free Public Domain Sheet Music. Imslp.org. [2012-06-05]. 
  7. ^ Claude Debussy: Voiles. Toddtarantino.com. [2012-06-05]. 

Further reading[编辑]

  • Guido, Gatti M., Frederick H. Martens, and Claude Debussy. "The Piano Works of Claude Debussy." The Musical Quarterly 7.3 (1921): 418-60. Print.

External links[编辑]


Template:Debussy preludes Template:Claude Debussy Template:Impressionist music