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{{Automatic taxobox|taxon=Incilius|authority=Cope, 1863|image=Incillius_coniferus.jpg|image caption=Incilius coniferus is the type species of genus Incilius|image_caption=Incilius coniferus is the type species of genus Incilius|type species=Bufo coniferus|type_species=Bufo coniferus|type species authority=Cope, 1862|type_species_authority=Cope, 1862|synonyms ref=引用错误:没有找到与<ref>对应的</ref>标签 They are sometimes known as the Central American toads or Middle American toads and are found in southern USA, Mexico, Central America, and northern Pacific South America (Colombia and Ecuador). They are an ecologically and biogeographically diverse group of toads, including micro-endemic species such as Incilius spiculatus that are restricted to undisturbed cloud forests, and widespread lowland species such as Incilius valliceps that predominantly occur in disturbed habitats.[1]

Taxonomy and systematics[编辑]

Taxonomy and systematics of Incilius has seen many recent changes. Current delineation of the genus was achieved by 2011 when both Cranopsis/Ollotis and Crepidius/Crepidophryne had been brought into synonymy with Incilius. However, the monophyly of Incilius is threatened by Incilius bocourti, which might be the sister taxon of Anaxyrus.

Another discussion has been the taxonomic level at which the genus is recognized. Incilius did not see wide recognition before the large-scale revision of amphibian systematics by Darrel Frost and colleagues in 2006,[2] then under the name Cranopsis, including the former "Bufo valliceps group" and some related species. However, others have argued that Incilius should be treated as a subgenus of Bufo.[3]


There are at present 39 species:

The AmphibiaWeb recognizes Incilius intermedius (Günther, 1858) as a valid species, whereas the Amphibian Species of the World considers it a synonym of Incilius occidentalis (Camerano, 1879).


  1. ^ Mendelson, J. R. III; D. G. Mulcahy; T. S. Williams; J. W. Sites, Jr. A phylogeny and evolutionary natural history of mesoamerican toads (Anura: Bufonidae: Incilius) based on morphology, life history, and molecular data (PDF). Zootaxa. 2011, 3138: 1–34.  |author=|last=只需其一 (帮助)|author=|last=只需其一 (帮助)
  2. ^ Frost, D. R.; Grant, T.; Faivovich, J. N.; Bain, R. H.; Haas, A.; Haddad, C. L. F. B.; De Sá, R. O.; Channing, A.; Wilkinson, M. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 2006, 297: 1–291. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006)297[0001:TATOL]2.0.CO;2. 
  3. ^ Pauly, Greg B.; Hillis, David M.; Cannatella, David C. Taxonomic freedom and the role of official lists of species names (PDF). Herpetologica. 2009, 65 (2): 115–128. doi:10.1655/08-031R1.1. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于July 26, 2011).  |author=|last=只需其一 (帮助)|author=|last=只需其一 (帮助)