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穆斯林征服埃及 发生于正统哈里发国所在的639至646间。 结果了罗马人自公元前30年在埃及的统治。 在 618–629年间萨珊帝国 征服埃及之后,罗马帝国对于埃及的统治基础被动摇, 直到希拉克略将其收复为止. 哈里发国利用拜占庭人国力衰退之机,在希拉克略重新征服埃及的十年后占领了埃及。

在七世纪三十年代之间, 拜占庭已丧失了黎凡特地区和阿拉伯地区的加萨尼盟友.失去富庶的埃及和拜占庭军队的决定性失败进一步削弱了帝国的实力,导致在未来的几个世纪中进一步丧失领土。[1]

哈里发国入侵埃及[编辑]

跨过埃及的边界[编辑]

Pyramids of Giza

639年12月, 阿穆尔·伊本·阿斯 带着4000兵马前往埃及.大多数士兵属于阿拉伯的阿克部落, 但是肯迪提到其实有三分之一的士兵来自于阿拉伯的加菲克部族。同样阿拉伯人的部队中也有新皈依的罗马人和波斯人。然而,穆斯林哈里发欧麦尔重新考虑了他对阿穆尔的命令,认为指望用区区4000名士兵来征服埃及这样一片大型地区的想法是愚蠢的。因此,他给阿穆尔写了一封信,命令他回来。[2]

信使乌克巴·伊本·阿穆尔, 在离埃及很近的拉法追上了阿穆尔。阿穆尔猜到信中可能的内容, 于是便要求军队加快脚步,并告诉乌克巴在今日军队的行程结束之后再从他手中接收这封信。乌克巴不知道信的内容,他同意了,并与军队一起行进。军队在阿里什地区的小山谷的沙耶拉廷(Shajratein)地区驻留一晚, 阿穆尔很清楚他们已经深入埃及。[3] 阿穆尔随后接收并阅读了欧麦尔的信,并继续与他的同伴们协商应采取的行动方案。大家一致认为,由于他们是在埃及的土地上收到这封信的,所以他们有权利继续行动。

当欧麦尔收到答复时,他决定观察进一步的发展,并开始在麦地那集合新的部队,作为增援部队前往埃及。在古尔邦节那天,穆斯林军队从沙耶拉廷前往缺少守军的小城镇阿里什,[2] 。该城于是没有进行任何抵抗,市民们一如往常一样向穆斯林方面效忠,而穆斯林军队于是在那里庆祝开斋节。

征服培琉西姆和菲勒贝斯[编辑]

639年12月或640年1月初,穆斯林的部队到达有驻军的埃及东部门户城市培琉西姆。对该城的围攻持续了两个月。640年2月,由胡扎法·伊本·瓦拉(Huzaifah ibn Wala)率领的敢死队成功占领了该堡垒和城市。[4][5][6][7][8][9] 埃及总督及默尔基特牧首居鲁士英语Cyrus of Alexandria的女儿,阿尔嫚努撒,在培琉西姆激烈抵抗穆斯林军队后,落入阿穆尔手中,但最后被送到其父所在的巴比伦要塞.[10]

穆斯林军队的损失因贝都因人的加入而得到恢复,他们主动加入了征服埃及的行列。[11]这些贝都因人属于拉希达和拉赫姆部落.[12]

培琉西姆如此轻易地落入穆斯林之手,并在长达一个月的围攻中缺乏拜占庭的增援,要归咎于居鲁士的背叛, 这是因为他是一位信仰一性论亚历山大牧首.[11][13]

培琉西姆沦陷后,穆斯林军队向距离孟菲斯65 km (40 mi)的菲勒贝斯, 进发并进行围攻. 菲勒贝斯是拜占庭人在埃及第一个对阿拉伯人表现出某种程度抵抗的地方。两名基督教僧侣在亚历山大的居鲁士和著名的罗马将军阿雷提翁的陪同下,出来与阿穆尔·伊本·阿斯进行谈判。阿雷提翁曾经是耶路撒冷总督,当该城落入穆斯林之手时,他逃到了埃及。阿穆尔给了他们三个选择:皈依伊斯兰教,支付吉兹亚税,或者刀兵相见。拜占庭人要求三天来考虑,而根据 塔巴里的说法,拜占庭人之后又要了额外的两天进行讨论。

五天结束后,两位僧侣和阿雷提翁决定拒绝皈依伊斯兰教和支付吉兹亚税的选项,决定与穆斯林决战,从而违背了居鲁士的意愿,他想投降并支付吉兹亚。居鲁士于是前往巴比伦要塞.这场战斗穆斯林取得了胜利,在战斗中阿雷提翁被杀。阿穆尔·伊本·阿斯随后试图以阿拉伯人祖先的夏甲与埃及人的祖上渊源来说服当地的埃及人帮助阿拉伯人并劝降该城。[14] 当埃及人拒绝时,穆斯林恢复对此城的围攻,直到640年3月底左右该城沦陷为止。[13] 现在,阿拉伯人离尼罗河三角洲的首府孟菲斯,只有一天的路程了。

围攻巴比伦[编辑]

穆斯林入侵埃及的详细路线

阿穆尔曾以为埃及兵力虚弱,不堪一击,但很快他的想法就被证明是错误的。即使是培琉西姆和贝尔贝斯的菲勒贝斯的前哨战,穆斯林也遇到了激烈的抵抗, 两座城市分别被围困了两个月和一个月. 由于巴比伦靠近孟菲斯,即现在的开罗,是一个更大、更重要的城市,阿穆尔预计会有更大规模的抵抗。[2] 阿穆尔的部队之后在640年5月的某个时候抵达巴比伦。[15]

巴比伦是一座坚固的城市,罗马人确实为围攻它做了准备。在城外挖了一条壕沟英语ditch (fortification) 并在壕沟和城墙之间的区域部署了大量部队。穆斯林尝试围攻这个守军多达4000人的,高达18米(59英尺),墙超过2米(6.6英尺)厚的,布满塔楼碉堡的巨大要塞。早期的穆斯林资料显示,拜占庭在巴比伦的兵力大约是穆斯林部队的六倍。在接下来的两个月里,战斗仍然没有结果,拜占庭人击退了穆斯林的每一次进攻。[15]

Later the same month, 'Amr sent a detachment to raid the city of 法尤姆. The Byzantines had anticipated that and so had strongly guarded the roads that led to the city and had fortified their garrison in the nearby town of 拉罕. When the Muslims realised that Fayoum was too strong for them to take, they headed towards the 西部沙漠, where they looted all the cattle and animals that they could. They subsequently headed to Oxyrhynchus (Per-Medjed), which was defeated. The Arabs then returned to Lower Egypt英语Lower Egypt down the River Nile.[16]

来自麦地那的增援[编辑]

In July, 'Amr wrote to 'Umar requesting reinforcements, but before the letter reached him, the caliph had already dispatched 4,000 men, mostly veterans of the Syrian campaigns英语Muslim conquest of Syria, to bolster Amr's strength. Even with the reinforcements, 'Amr was unsuccessful and so, by August, 'Umar had assembled another 4,000-strong force, consisting of four columns, each of 1,000 elite men. Zubair ibn al-Awam英语Zubair ibn al-Awam, a renowned warrior and commander, veteran of the Battle of Yarmouk and once a part of Khalid ibn Walid's elite mobile guard英语mobile guard, was appointed the supreme commander of the army.

'Umar had also offered Zubair the chief command and governorship of Egypt, but Zubair had declined. The column commanders included Miqdad ibn al-Aswad英语Miqdad bin Al-Aswad, Ubaidah ibn as-Samit英语Ubaida bin As-Samit and Kharijah ibn Huzaifah英语Kharija bin Huzafa. The reinforcements arrived at Babylon sometime in September 640, bringing the total strength of the Muslim force to 12,000, still quite modest.[3]

Battle of Heliopolis[编辑]

The Muslim army reached Heliopolis, 15 km (10 mi) from Babylon,[15] in July 640.[17] The city boasted the Sun Temple of the Pharaohs and grandiose monuments and learning institutions.[18] There was the danger that forces from Heliopolis could attack the Muslims from the flank while they were engaged with the Roman army at Babylon.

There was a cavalry clash near the current neighbourhood of Abbaseya. The engagement was not decisive, but it resulted in the occupation of the fortress located between the current neighborhoods of Abdyn and Azbakeya英语Azbakeya. The defeated Byzantine soldiers retreated to either the Babylon Fortress or the fortress of Nikiû.[19] Zubair and some of his handpicked soldiers scaled the Heliopolis city wall at an unguarded point and, after overpowering the guards, opened the gates for the army to enter the city. After the capture of Heliopolis, 'Amr and Zubair returned to Babylon.

Conquering of Fayoum and Babylon[编辑]

When news of the Muslims' victory at Heliopolis reached Fayoum, its Byzantine garrison, under the command of Domentianus, evacuated the city during the night and fled to Abuit and then down the Nile to Nikiu without informing the people of Fayoum and Abuit that they were abandoning their cities to the enemy. When news reached 'Amr, he sent troops across the Nile to invade Fayoum and Abuit, capturing the entire province of Fayoum without any resistance.[20]

The Byzantine garrison at Babylon had grown bolder than ever before and had begun to sally forth across the ditch but with little success. The stalemate was broken when the Muslim commanders devised an ingenious strategy, inflicting heavy casualties on the Byzantine forces by encircling them from three sides during one of their sallies. The Byzantines were able to retreat back to the fort, but were left too weak for any further offensive action, forcing them to negotiate. The Byzantine general, Theodorus, shifted his headquarters to the Isle of Rauda, and Cyrus of Alexandria, popularly known as Muqawqis in Muslim history, entered into fruitless negotiations with the Muslims.

Emissaries were also exchanged between Theodorus and 'Amr, leading to 'Amr meeting Theodorus in person. Then, with negotiations stalled, during the night of 20 December, a company of handpicked warriors, led by Zubair, managed to scale the wall, kill the guards, and open the gates for the Muslim army to enter. The city was captured by the Muslims the following morning with tactics similar to those that had been used by Khalid ibn Walid at Damascus. However, Theodorus and his army managed to slip away to the island of Rauda during the night.[21]

Surrender of Thebaid (Southeastern Egypt)[编辑]

On 22 December, Cyrus of Alexandria entered a treaty with the Muslims,[22] recognizing Muslim sovereignty over the whole of Egypt and effectively over Thebaid英语Thebaid, and agreeing to pay Jizya at the rate of 2 diners per male adult.[15] The treaty was subject to the approval of the emperor Heraclius, but Cyrus stipulated that even if the emperor repudiated the treaty, he and the Copts, of whom he was the High Priest, would honour its terms.[23] Cyrus asked Heraclius to ratify the treaty and offered an argument in support. 'Amr submitted a detailed report to Umar recommending ratification.[15] He desired that as soon as the reactions of Heraclius were known, he should be informed so that further necessary instructions could be issued promptly.[22]

Heraclius rejected the treaty, stripping Cyrus of the viceroyship although he remained head of the Coptic Church. Heraclius sent strict orders to the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine forces in Egypt that the Muslims should be driven out of Egypt. Cyrus, in reporting Heraclius' response to 'Amr, reassured him that the Copts would honor the treaty regardless. It is recorded that Cyrus requested three favours from the Muslims:

  1. Do not break your treaty with the Copts.
  2. If the Byzantines after the repudiation ask for peace, do not make peace with them, but treat them as captives and slaves; and
  3. When I am dead, allow me to be buried in the Church of St. John英语John the Merciful at Alexandria.[3][需要完整来源][24]

As the Copts were native Egyptians, the treaty provided a strategic advantage to the Muslims. 'Umar, upon learning of these developments, made preparations for a pre-emptive strike against the Byzantines in Alexandria.[來源請求]

March to Alexandria[编辑]

Ancient Roman theaters in Alexandria

The Byzantine commanders, knowing full well that the Muslims' next target was Alexandria, set out to repel the Muslims through continued sallies from the fort or, at least, to exhaust them and erode their morale in a campaign of attrition.[22] In February 641, 'Amr set off for Alexandria from Babylon with his army, encountering defending regiments all along the route. On the third day of their march the Muslims' advance guard encountered a Byzantine detachment at Tarnut on the west bank of the Nile.[15] The Byzantines failed to inflict heavy losses but were able to delay the advance by a full day. The Muslim commanders decided to halt the main army at Tarnut and send an advance guard of cavalry forward to clear the path.

Now 30 km(19 mi) from Tarnut, the Byzantine detachment that had withdrawn from Tarnut the day before joined another that was already at Shareek, and both attacked and routed the Muslim cavalry. The next day, before the Byzantines could annihilate the Muslim advance guard completely, the main Muslim army arrived, prompting the Byzantines to withdraw. The following day, the whole army marched forward without an advance guard. The Muslims reached Sulteis, where they encountered another Byzantine detachment. Hard fighting followed, but the Byzantine resistance soon broke down and they withdrew to Alexandria.

The Muslims halted at Sulteis for a day, still two days' march from Alexandria. After another day's march, the Muslim forces arrived at Kirayun, 20 km(12 mi) from Alexandria. There, the Muslim advance to Alexandria was blocked by a Byzantine force about 20,000 strong. The resulting action remained indecisive for ten days.[3] However, on the tenth day, the Muslims launched a vigorous assault, forcing the defeated Byzantines to retreat to Alexandria. With the way to Alexandria clear, the Muslims reached the capital's outskirts in March.

Conquest of Alexandria and fall of Egypt[编辑]

The Muslims laid siege to Alexandria in March 641.[23] The city was heavily fortified and provisioned: there were walls within walls and forts within forts. The city also had direct access to the sea by which men and supplies from Constantinople could come at any time.

As 'Amr surveyed the military situation, he felt that the conquest of Alexandria would be difficult.[22] The Byzantines had high stakes in Alexandria and were determined to offer stiff resistance to the Muslims. They mounted catapults on the walls of the city, and the engines effectively pounded the Muslims with boulders, prompting 'Amr to withdraw out of range. The ensuing battle see-sawed:[3] when the Muslims approached the city, they were pelted with missiles, and, when the Byzantines sallied from the fort, they were invariably beaten back by the Muslims.

It is said[誰說的?] that Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor, collected a large army at Constantinople, intending to lead it personally to Alexandria. However, before he could finalize the arrangements, he died. The troops mustered at Constantinople dispersed, and no help came to Alexandria, which further demoralied the defenders. The siege dragged on for six months, and in Madinah, 'Umar, got impatient. In a letter addressed to 'Amr, the caliph, concerned at the inordinate delay, appointed 'Ubaidah as field commander to assault the fort. 'Ubaidah's assault was successful, and Alexandria was captured英语Siege of Alexandria (641) by the Muslims in September. Thousands of Byzantine soldiers were killed or taken captive, and others managed to flee to Constantinople on ships that had been anchored in the port. Some wealthy traders also left.[15]

On behalf of the Egyptians, Cyrus of Alexandria sued for peace, and his request was granted. After the conquest of Egypt, 'Amr is reported[誰說的?] to have written to 'Umar, "We have conquered Alexandria. In this city there are 4,000 palaces, 400 places of entertainment, and untold wealth."

On the twentieth of Maskaram (approximately September 18 according to the Julian calendar), the Byzantine general, Theodorus, and all of his troops proceeded to the island of Cyprus, abandoning Alexandria to 'Amr. The conquest represented a huge loss of food and money to Byzantium and, coupled with the conquest of Syria英语Syria (region) and the later invasion of the Exarchate of Africa英语Umayyad invasion of North Africa, meant that the Mediterranean, long referred to as the "Roman lake", was now contested between the Muslim Caliphate and the Byzantine Empire. The latter, although sorely tested, would be able to hold on to Anatolia, while the walls of Constantinople would withstand two great Muslim sieges, saving the Byzantines from the fate of the Persian Empire.[25]

Invasion of Nubia[编辑]

In the summer of 642, 'Amr ibn al-'As sent an expedition to the Christian kingdom of Nubia, which bordered Egypt to the south, under the command of his cousin 'Uqbah ibn Nafi as a pre-emptive raid to announce the arrival of new rulers in Egypt.[26] 'Uqbah ibn Nafi, who later made a great name for himself as the conqueror of Africa and led his horse to the Atlantic, had an unhappy experience in Nubia. No pitched battle was fought, but there were only skirmishes and haphazard engagements, the type of warfare in which the Nubians excelled. They were skilful archers and subjected the Muslims to a merciless barrage of arrows, resulting in 250 Muslims losing their eyes in the engagement.

The Nubian cavalry displayed remarkable speed,[13] even more so than the Muslim cavalry. The Nubians would strike hard and then vanish before the Muslims could recover and counterattack. The hit-and-run raids took their toll on the Muslim expedition. 'Uqbah reported that to 'Amr,[22] who ordered 'Uqbah to withdraw from Nubia, terminating the expedition.

Conquest of North Africa[编辑]

After the expedition to Nubia, 'Amr opted to secure the western borders of Egypt and clear the regions of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan of Byzantine influence. In September 642, 'Amr led his troops west. After one month of marching the Muslim forces reached the cities of the Pentapolis. From Burqa, he sent 'Uqbah bin Nafi at the head of a column to undertake a campaign against Fezzan, in present-day northwestern Libya. 'Uqbah marched to Zaweela, the capital; the entire district then submitted to the Muslims without resistance. 'Uqbah then returned to Burqa. Soon after the Muslim army marched westward from there, arriving at Tripoli in the spring of 643. The city fell after a siege of one month. From there, 'Amr sent a detachment to Sabratha, 65 kilometres (40 mi) away. The city put up feeble resistance, and soon surrendered and agreed to pay Jizya. From Tripoli, 'Amr is reportedTemplate:According to whom to have reported to the caliph, "We have conquered Burqa, Tripoli and Sabratha. The way to the west is clear, and if the Commander of the Faithful wishes to conquer more lands, we could do so with the grace of God."

'Umar, whose armies were already engaged in conquering the Sassanid Empire, did not want to commit his forces further in North Africa while Muslim rule in Egypt was still insecure. The caliph accordingly ordered 'Amr to consolidate the Muslims' position in Egypt and that there should be no further campaigning. 'Amr obeyed, abandoning Tripoli and Burqa and returning to Fustat towards the close of 643.[27]

Taxation under Muslim rule[编辑]

Those who refused to convert to Islam were taxed in the form of money and food for the occupying troops, and in exchange, the taxpayers were excused from military service and left free in the observance of their religion and the administration of their affairs. The system was a new institution, a religious mandate, but carried over from previous poll tax systems in the ancient Middle East.[來源請求] Indeed, the Egyptians had been subject to it, as non-Romans, during Roman rule before the adoption of Christianity by the Roman state.[來源請求] Then, all non-Christian subjects of the Roman Empire had to pay it, including non-Christian Egyptians.[來源請求] The Persians also had a similar poll tax system.[來源請求]

John of Nikiu英语John of Nikiu a Coptic bishop wrote a Chronicle which provides one of the few non-Muslim accounts of the conquest written by a native of Egypt who was also a near contemporary of the events. He writes of Muslim rule: "And the yoke they laid on the Egyptians was heavier than the yoke which had been laid on Israel by Pharaoh".[28] Regarding taxation he writes that after the conquest taxes on the native Christians were increased "to the extent of twenty-two batr of gold till all the people hid themselves owing to the greatness of the tribulation, and could not find the wherewithal to pay." [29] Writing particularly as regards the taxation of the people of Alexandria, he notes:

And none could recount the mourning and lamentation which took place in that city: they even gave their children in exchange for the great sums which they had to pay monthly. And they had none to help them, and God destroyed their hopes, and delivered the Christians into the hands of their enemies.[30]

Egypt under Muslim rule[编辑]

Rashidun Empire at its peak under third Rashidun Caliph, Uthman- 654
  Strongholds of Rashidun Caliphate

Muslims gained control over Egypt by a variety of factors, including internal Byzantine politics, religious zeal and the difficulty of maintaining a large empire. The Byzantines attempted to regain Alexandria, but it was retaken by 'Amr in 646. In 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repelled. No serious effort was then made by the Byzantines to regain possession of Egypt.

In The Great Arab Conquests, Hugh Kennedy writes that Cyrus, the Roman governor, had exiled the Coptic patriarch, Benjamin英语Pope Benjamin I of Alexandria. When 'Amr occupied Alexandria, a Coptic nobleman (duqs) called Sanutius persuaded him to send out a proclamation of safe conduct for Benjamin and an invitation to return to Alexandria. When Benjamin arrived, he was then instructed by the governor to resume control over the Coptic Church. He arranged for the restoration of the monasteries in the Wadi Natrun英语Wadi Natrun, which had been ruined by the Chalcedonean Christians英语Chalcedonean Christians; four of them still survive as functioning monasteries.[31]

On Benjamin's return, the Egyptian population also worked with him.[32] Kennedy wrote, "The pious biographer of Coptic patriarch Benjamin presents us with the striking image of the patriarch prayed for the success of the Muslim commander Amr against the Christians of the Cyrenaica. Benjamin survived for almost twenty years after the fall of Egypt to the Muslims, dying of full years and honour in 661. His body was laid to rest in the monastery of St Macarius英语monastery of St Macarius, where he is still venerated as a saint. There can be no doubt that he played a major role in the survival of the Coptic Church".[31] Benjamin also prayed for 'Amr when he attempted to take Libya.[33]

Kennedy also wrote, "Even more striking is the verdict of John of Nikiu英语John of Nikiu. John was no admirer of Muslim government and was fierce in his denunciation, but he says of Amr: 'He extracted the taxes which had been determined upon but he took none of the property of the churches, and he committed no act of spoliation or plunder, and he preserved them throughout all his days.... Of all the early Muslim conquests, that of Egypt was the swiftest and most complete. Within a space of two years the country had come entirely under Arab rule. Even more remarkably, it has remained under Muslim rule ever since. Seldom in history can so massive a political change have happened so swiftly and been so long lasting."[34]

Uqba ibn Nafi英语Uqba ibn Nafi then used Egypt as a launch pad to move across North Africa, all the way to the Atlantic Ocean.[35] Kennedy wrote that when Uqba reached the Atlantic, he is said to have ridden his horse into the sea until the water was below his chest, and then shouted, 'O Lord, if the sea did not stop me, I would go through lands like Alexander the Great, defending your faith'. Kennedy writes further that the image of a warrior whose conquest in the name of God was stopped only by the ocean remains important in the history of the conquests.[36]

Fustat, the new capital[编辑]

During the Egyptian campaign, Alexandria was the capital of Egypt. When Alexandria was captured by the Muslims, the houses vacated by the Byzantines were occupied by the Muslims, who were impressed and attracted by Alexandria, "the queen of cities". 'Amr wanted Alexandria to remain the capital of Muslim Egypt.[3] He wrote to 'Umar to propose that but 'Umar refused on the basis that Alexandria was a maritime city, and there would always be a danger that the Byzantine Navy would attack.[15] He suggested instead for the capital would be established at a central location further inland, where no mass of water separated it from Arabia.[22] The treaty with Cyrus of Alexandria was followed, and the wealth of the Egyptians in Alexandria was spared and that of Romans and Greeks was taken as booty. Greek citizens were given a choice: return to Greek territories safely without their wealth or stay in Alexandria and pay Jizya. Some chose to stay, and others went to Byzantine lands.

'Amr next proceeded to choose a suitable site for the capital of Egypt, eventually settling on the site where he had pitched his tent at the time of the battle of Babylon, about 400 m (500 yd) northeast of the fort. It is reported that after the battle was over and the army was about to march to Alexandria, the men began to pull down the tent and pack it for the journey, and it was found that a dove had nested on top of the tent and laid eggs. 'Amr ordered that the tent be left standing where it was, where it remained after the army departed. 'Amr took the unusual episode as a sign from Heaven and decided "where the dove laid its nest, let the people build their city".

As 'Amr's tent was to be the focal point of the city, the city was called Fustat, meaning in Arabic "the tent". The first structure to be built was the mosque that later became famous as Mosque of 'Amr ibn al-'As英语Mosque of Amr ibn al-As.[37] In the course of time, Fustat extended to include the old town of Babylon to the west, becoming the bustling commercial centre of Egypt.[22]

'Umar's reforms[编辑]

To consolidate his rule in Egypt, 'Umar imposed the jizya on Egyptians. During later Umayyad英语Umayyad rule, higher taxes would be levied. With 'Umar's permission, 'Amr decided to build a canal to join the Nile with the Red Sea to open new markets for Egyptian merchants and an easy route to Arabia and Iraq. The project was presented to 'Umar, who approved it. A canal was dug and, within a few months, was opened for merchants. It was named "Nahar Amir ul-Mu'mineen" (the canal of the Commander of the Faithful), after 'Umar's title.[22]

Amr proposed to dig another canal joining the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea,[23] but Umar rejected the plan on the basis that it would open a way for the Byzantine Navy to enter the Red Sea and pose a threat to Medina itself.[3] The plan would not come to fruition until the Suez Canal was completed 1300 years later. Each year, the caliph earmarked a large amount of jizya, to be used on the building and repairing of canals and bridges.[38] The Arabs remained in control of the country from this point until 1250, when it fell under the control of the Mamluks.

See also[编辑]

References[编辑]

  1. ^ Haykal 1944,chpt. 18
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Haykal 1944,chpt. 19
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Al-Maqrizi, Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar.
  4. ^ Al-Kamil, pp. 451–452
  5. ^ Al-Gawzi, Al-Montazim, pp. 532–534
  6. ^ al-Tabari, History of the Kings, p. 862
  7. ^ Abu Salih the Armenian英语Abu Salih the Armenian, The churches and monasteries of Egypt and some neighbouring countries, tr. B.T.A.Evetts, p. 168
  8. ^ Butler 1902,第234頁
  9. ^ Kamil Salih, Pope Benjamin the First and the Arab invasion of Egypt, p. 65
  10. ^ Al-Maqrizi, Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar, p. 231
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Butler 1902,第213頁
  12. ^ Al-Maqrizi, Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Archived copy. [2005-10-08]. (原始内容存档于2011-02-14). 
  14. ^ Butler 1902,第216頁
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 Butler 1902
  16. ^ Butler 1902,第254–255頁
  17. ^ Raymond, Andre, Cairo, transl. Willard Wood, (Harvard University Press, 2000), p. 10.
  18. ^ Butler 1902,第258頁
  19. ^ Butler 1902,第263頁
  20. ^ Butler 1902,第264頁
  21. ^ Haykal 1944,chpt. 21
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 Haykal 1944,chpt. 22
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 23.2 "Omar (634-644)", The Islamic World to 1600 Multimedia History Tutorials by the Applied History Group, University of Calgary. Last accessed 20 Oct 2006
  24. ^ Haykal 1944,chpt. 23
  25. ^ Kaegli, Walter. Heraclius: Emperor of Byzantium.
  26. ^ Akram, A.I., Muslim Conquest of Egypt and North Africa, ISBN 978-0-19-597712-7
  27. ^ Haykal 1944,chpt. 24
  28. ^ Charles, Robert H. The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu: Translated from Zotenberg's Ethiopic Text, Chapter CXX: paragraph 32. 1913. 
  29. ^ Charles, Robert H. The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu: Translated from Zotenberg's Ethiopic Text, Chapter CXXI: paragraph 4. 1913. 
  30. ^ Charles, Robert H. The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu: Translated from Zotenberg's Ethiopic Text, Chapter CXXI: paragraph 7. 1913. 
  31. ^ 31.0 31.1 Kennedy 2007,第164頁
  32. ^ Kennedy 2007,第167頁
  33. ^ Kennedy 2007,第163頁
  34. ^ Kennedy 2007,第165頁
  35. ^ Kennedy 2007,第212頁
  36. ^ Kennedy 2007,第214頁
  37. ^ http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/nikiu2_chronicle.htm
  38. ^ Haykal 1944,chpt. 25

Bibliography[编辑]

External links[编辑]

Template:Egypt topics


Category:Muslim conquest of Egypt英语Category:Muslim conquest of Egypt Category:640s conflicts英语Category:640s conflicts Category:7th century in Egypt英语Category:7th century in Egypt