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坐标26°01′39″N 50°33′00″E / 26.02750°N 50.55000°E / 26.02750; 50.55000

巴林王国
阿拉伯语:مملكة البحرين
Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn
巴林国徽
国徽
国歌:我们的巴林[1]
Bahrainona
巴林王国(绿色部分)在中东的位置
巴林王国(绿色部分)在中东的位置
首都
及最大城市
麦纳麦[2]
官方语言阿拉伯语官方语言[3]
通用英语,少数用波斯语乌尔都语[4]
族群(2010年数据[5][6]
宗教伊斯兰教
政府单一制
议会制[7]
君主立宪制[8]
• 国王
哈迈德·本·伊萨·本·萨勒曼·阿勒哈利法
萨勒曼·本·哈迈德·本·伊萨·阿勒哈利法英语Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
• 首相
哈利法·本·萨勒曼·阿勒哈利法
立法机构国民议会[7]
协商会议英语Consultative Council (Bahrain)
众议院英语Council of Representatives (Bahrain)
独立
• 宣布独立(从英国)
1971年8月14日[9]
1971年8月15日[10]
面积
• 总计
770[11]平方公里(第187位
• 水域率
忽略不计
海岸线:161公里[12]第147位)%
人口
• 2014年估计
1,343,000人[13]第155位
• 2010年普查
1,234,571人[14]
• 密度
1,603.3[參 1]/平方公里(第7位
GDPPPP2015年估计
• 总计
363.93亿国际元[15]第98位
• 人均
29,789国际元[15]第12位
GDP(国际汇率)2015年估计
• 总计
295.98亿美元[15]第93位
• 人均
24,227美元[15]第28位
人类发展指数 0.815[16]
极高(2013年)
错误:HDI值无效 · 第44位
货币巴林第纳尔BHD
时区UTC+3东三区
行驶方位靠右行驶
电话区号+973英语Telephone numbers in Bahrain
ISO 3166码BH
互联网顶级域.bh

巴林王国(阿拉伯语:مملكة البحرين‎,关于这个音频文件 Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn),通称巴林(阿拉伯语:‏البحرين‎,关于这个音频文件 al-Baḥrayn聆聽i/bɑːˈrn/波斯語‏بحرین‎,Bahreyn),是一个位于西亚波斯湾内的岛屿国家,由巴林群岛和侯瓦尔群岛组成,国土总面积为770.34平方公里[11]。巴林岛是全国最大的岛屿,面积有615.56平方公里,占了全国土地面积近8成[17]。巴林四面环海,西部与沙特阿拉伯隔海相邻,并通过法赫德国王大桥相连;北面则与伊朗隔海相距约200公里;东南侧与卡塔尔半岛间隔着巴林湾英语Gulf of Bahrain。2010年,巴林国内总人口为1,234,571人,其中超过一半有666,172人为外籍人口[14]

巴林古代是迪尔穆恩文明英语Dilmun发迹之处[18]巴林堡就曾为该文明首都之所在[19]。公元628年巴林成为最早皈依伊斯兰教的地区之一,在经过一段时期的阿拉伯帝国统治后,葡萄牙人於1521年征服了巴林,而不久后萨非王朝阿拔斯一世大帝於1602年击溃占领当地的葡萄牙人,将巴林纳入版图。1783年一支阿拉伯部落联盟巴尼·欧特拜英语巴尼·欧特拜波斯帝國卡扎尔王朝动乱时期夺取了巴林,其中的阿勒哈利法家族在此建立起了统治,艾哈迈德·本·穆罕默德·本·哈利法成为巴林第一位哈基姆[20]。1820年巴林与英国签订条约成为其保护国,1931年后巴林发现地下蕴藏大量石油,随即成为海湾阿拉伯国家中第一口油井英语First Oil Well, Bahrain所在国,此后伊朗开始与英国争夺巴林归属但一直未果[21]。直到1971年巴林结束与英国的特殊协定,宣布独立建立起酋长国,后于2002年颁布新宪法改称王国。2011年受阿拉伯之春影响,巴林国内爆发了什叶派民众主导的反政府示威活动[22]。受此余波影响,巴林被自由之家评为威权政体不自由国家,截至2014年10月评价仍未改变[23]

巴林系在海湾阿拉伯国家中首个步入后石油经济的国家[24],自20世纪后期开始巴林向国内的银行业旅游业投入巨资以求摆脱经济对石油的单一依赖,2008年巴林被评价为中东最自由和最多元化的经济体,金融业和制造业成为国内最大的产业之一,而石油和天然气产业贡献GDP增长低于20%[25]。也因此巴林拥有较高的人类发展指数,位居世界第44位[16],亦被世界銀行認定為高收入經濟體。2001年美国将巴林定位为主要非北约盟国英语Major non-NATO ally美国海军第五舰队司令部驻扎其首都麦纳麦[26]

国名[编辑]

一幅雅克-尼古拉斯·贝林英语Jacques-Nicolas Bellin於公元1763年绘制的巴林与波斯湾历史区域地图,图中在波斯湾内靠近西南岸的两个小岛中,位处左侧的即是巴林(图中以法语标示)。

阿拉伯语中,“巴林”(‏البحرينBaḥrayn)是“”(البحرBaḥr)的双数形式,“巴林”即为“两个海”之意[27]。不过“巴林”这个词汇的由来及出处至今仍然存疑[28]。因为“巴林”一词在古兰经中出现过五次,都不是指代现在的巴林岛及其人民,而是表示阿拉伯东部区域,确切地说是現今沙特阿拉伯境内的哈萨绿洲盖提夫一带[28]。而且巴林古时期至少在公元8世纪以前在阿拉伯世界中实际上是被称作阿瓦勒英语Awalأوال‏Awal[29]

现今巴林的“两个海”的意义已经被其西北及东南的两个岛屿所切割而成的东西两个海湾所代替[30]

Today, Bahrain's "two seas" are instead generally taken to be the bay east and west of the island, the seas north and south of the island,[31] or the salt and fresh water present above and below the ground.[32] In addition to wells, there are areas of the sea north of Bahrain where fresh water bubbles up in the middle of the salt water as noted by visitors since antiquity.[33] An alternate theory with regard to Bahrain's toponymy is offered by the al-Ahsa region, which suggests that the two seas were the Great Green Ocean and a peaceful lake on the Arabian mainland. Another supposition by al-Jawahari suggests that the more formal name Bahri (lit. "belonging to the sea") would have been misunderstood and so was opted against[需要解释].[32]

Until the late Middle Ages, "Bahrain" referred to the region of Eastern Arabia that included Southern Iraq, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, Qatif and Bahrain. The region stretched from Basra in Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Oman. This was Iqlīm al-Bahrayn's "Bahrayn Province". The exact date at which the term "Bahrain" began to refer solely to the Awal archipelago is unknown.[34] The entire coastal strip of Eastern Arabia was known as "Bahrain" for ten centuries.[35]




历史[编辑]

巴林历史上几经易主,

前伊斯兰时代[编辑]

波斯帝国萨珊王朝霍斯劳二世时期(590年-628年)的统治疆域

巴林的远古时代,也称前伊斯兰时代或蒙昧时代

Bahrain was home to the Dilmun civilization, an important Bronze Age trade centre linking Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley.[36] Bahrain was later ruled by the Assyrians and Babylonians.[37]

Bahrain's pre-Islamic population consisted of Christian Arabs (mostly Abd al-Qays), Persians (Zoroastrians), Jews[38] and Aramaic-speaking agriculturalists.[39][40][41] According to Robert Bertram Serjeant, the Baharna may be the Arabized "descendants of converts from the original population of Christians (Aramaeans), Jews and Persians inhabiting the island and cultivated coastal provinces of Eastern Arabia at the time of the Muslim conquest".[39][42] The sedentary people of pre-Islamic Bahrain were Aramaic speakers and to some degree Persian speakers, while Syriac functioned as a liturgical language.[40]

From the 6th to 3rd century BC, Bahrain was added to the Persian Empire by the Achaemenian dynasty. By about 250 BC, the Parthians brought the Persian Gulf under its control and extended its influence as far as Oman. In order to control trade routes, the Parthians established garrisons along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf.[43]

During the classical era, Bahrain was referred to by the ancient Greeks as Tylos, the centre of pearl trading, when Nearchus came to discover Bahrain serving under Alexander the Great.[44] The Greek admiral Nearchus is believed to have been the first of Alexander's commanders to visit Bahrain, and he found a verdant land that was part of a wide trading network; he recorded: “That in the island of Tylos, situated in the Persian Gulf, are large plantations of cotton tree, from which are manufactured clothes called sindones, a very different degrees of value, some being costly, others less expensive. The use of these is not confined to India, but extends to Arabia.”[45] The Greek historian, Theophrastus, states that much of Bahrain were covered in these cotton trees and that Bahrain was famous for exporting walking canes engraved with emblems that were customarily carried in Babylon.[46]

Alexander had planned to settle in Bahrain with Greek colonists, and although it is not clear that this happened on the scale he envisaged, Bahrain was very much part of the Hellenised world: the language of the upper classes was Greek (although Aramaic was in everyday use), while Zeus was worshipped in the form of the Arabian sun-god Shams.[47] Bahrain even became the site of Greek athletic contests.[48]

The Greek historian Strabo believed the Phoenicians originate from Bahrain.[49] Herodotus also believed that the homeland of the Phoenicians was Bahrain.[50][51] This theory was accepted by the 19th-century German classicist Arnold Heeren who said that: "In the Greek geographers, for instance, we read of two islands, named Tyrus or Tylos, and Arad, Bahrain, which boasted that they were the mother country of the Phoenicians, and exhibited relics of Phoenician temples."[52] The people of Tyre in particular have long maintained Persian Gulf origins, and the similarity in the words "Tylos" and "Tyre" has been commented upon.[53] However, there is little evidence of occupation at all in Bahrain during the time when such migration had supposedly taken place.[54]

The name Tylos is thought to be a Hellenisation of the Semitic, Tilmun (from Dilmun).[55] The term Tylos was commonly used for the islands until Ptolemy’s Geographia when the inhabitants are referred to as 'Thilouanoi'.[56] Some place names in Bahrain go back to the Tylos era, for instance, the residential suburb of Arad in Muharraq, is believed to originate from "Arados", the ancient Greek name for Muharraq.[44]

In the 3rd century AD, Ardashir I, the first ruler of the Sassanid dynasty, marched on Oman and Bahrain, where he defeated Sanatruq the ruler of Bahrain.[57] At this time, Bahrain was known as Mishmahig (which in Middle-Persian/Pahlavi means "ewe-fish").[58]

Bahrain was also the site of worship of a shark deity called Awal. Worshipers built a large statue to Awal in Muharraq, although it has now been lost. For many centuries after Tylos, Bahrian was known as Awal. By the 5th century, Bahrain became the centre for Nestorian Christianity, with the village Samahij[59] as the seat of bishops. In 410, according to the Oriental Syriac Church synodal records, a bishop named Batai was excommunicated from the church in Bahrain.[56] As a sect, the Nestorians were often persecuted as heretics by the Byzantine Empire, but Bahrain was outside the Empire's control offering some safety. The names of several Muharraq villages today reflect Bahrain's Christian legacy, with Al Dair meaning “the monastery”.

穆罕默德时代[编辑]

主条目:穆罕默德远征列表英语List of expeditions of Muhammad
Facsimile of a letter sent by Muhammad to Munzir ibn-Sawa al-Tamimi, governor of Bahrain in 628 AD

Muhammad's first interaction with the people of Bahrain was the Al Kudr Invasion. Muhammad ordered a surprise attack on the Banu Salim tribe for allegedly plotting to attack Medina. He had gotten news that some tribes were amassing an army on march from Bahrain. But the tribesmen retreated when they learnt Muhammad was leading an army to face them.[60][61]

Traditional Islamic accounts state that Al-ʿAlāʾ Al-Haḍrami was sent as an envoy during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Hisma)[62][63] to the Bahrain region by the prophet Muhammad in 628 AD and that Munzir ibn-Sawa al-Tamimi, the local ruler, responded to his mission and converted the entire area.[64][65]

伊斯兰时代[编辑]

In 899 AD, the Qarmatians, a millenarian Ismaili Muslim sect seized Bahrain, seeking to create a utopian society based on reason and redistribution of property among initiates. Thereafter, the Qarmatians demanded tribute from the caliph in Baghdad, and in 930 AD sacked Mecca and Medina, bringing the sacred Black Stone back to their base in Ahsa, in medieval Bahrain, for ransom. According to historian Al-Juwayni, the stone was returned 22 years later in 951 under mysterious circumstances. Wrapped in a sack, it was thrown into the Great Mosque of Kufa in Iraq, accompanied by a note saying "By command we took it, and by command we have brought it back." The theft and removal of the Black Stone caused it to break into seven pieces.[66][67][68]

Following a 976 AD defeat by the Abbasids,[69] the Qarmations were overthrown by the Arab Uyunid dynasty of al-Hasa, who took over the entire Bahrain region in 1076.[70] The Uyunids controlled Bahrain until 1235, when the archipelago was briefly occupied by the Persian ruler of Fars. In 1253, the Bedouin Usfurids brought down the Uyunid dynasty, thereby gaining control over eastern Arabia, including the islands of Bahrain. In 1330, the archipelago became a tributary state of the rulers of Hormuz,[34] though locally the islands were controlled by the Shi'ite Jarwanid dynasty of Qatif.[71] In the mid-15th century, the archipelago came under the rule of the Jabrids, a Bedouin dynasty also based in Al-Ahsa that ruled most of eastern Arabia.

葡萄牙统治时期[编辑]

15世纪巴林人用以抵御外敌入侵在穆哈拉格岛上建造的阿拉德古堡英语Arad Fort

In 1521, the Portuguese allied with Hormuz and seized Bahrain from the Jabrid ruler Migrin ibn Zamil, who was killed during the takeover. Portuguese rule lasted for around 80 years, during which time they depended mainly on Sunni Persian governors.[34] The Portuguese were expelled from the islands in 1602 by Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty of Persia,[72] which gave impetus to Shia Islam.[73] For the next two centuries, Persian rulers retained control of the archipelago, interrupted by the 1717 and 1738 invasions of the Ibadhis of Oman.[66] During most of this period, they resorted to governing Bahrain indirectly, either through the city of Bushehr or through immigrant Sunni Arab clans. The latter were tribes returning to the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf from Persian territories in the north who were known as Huwala (literally: those that have changed or moved).[34][74][75] In 1753, the Huwala clan of Nasr Al-Madhkur invaded Bahrain on behalf of the Iranian Zand leader Karim Khan Zand and restored direct Iranian rule.[75]

1783年动乱时期[编辑]

In 1783, Nasr Al-Madhkur, ruler of Bahrain and Bushire, lost the islands of Bahrain following his defeat by the Bani Utbah tribe at the 1782 Battle of Zubarah. Bahrain was not new territory to the Bani Utbah; they had been a presence there since the 17th century.[76] During that time, they started purchasing date palm gardens in Bahrain; a document shows that 81 years before arrival of the Al-Khalifa, one of the shaikhs of the Al Bin Ali tribe (an offshoot of the Bani Utbah) had bought a palm garden from Mariam bint Ahmed Al Sindi in Sitra island.[77]

The Al Bin Ali were the dominant group controlling the town of Zubarah on the Qatar peninsula,[78][79] originally the center of power of the Bani Utbah. After the Bani Utbah gained control of Bahrain, the Al Bin Ali had a practically independent status there as a self-governing tribe. They used a flag with four red and three white stripes, called the Al-Sulami flag[80] in Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, and the Eastern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Later, different Arab family clans and tribes from Qatar moved to Bahrain to settle after the fall of Nasr Al-Madhkur of Bushehr. These families included the Al Khalifa, Al-Ma'awdah, Al-Fadhil, Al-Mannai, Al-Noaimi, Al-Sulaiti, Al-Sadah, Al-Thawadi and other families and tribes.[81]

The Al Khalifa family moved to Bahrain in 1797. Originally, they lived in Umm Qasr where they preyed on the caravans of Basra and pirated ships in the Shatt al-Arab waterway until Turks expelled them to Kuwait where they remained until 1766.[82] In the early 19th century, Bahrain was invaded by both the Omanis and the Al Sauds. In 1802 it was governed by a twelve-year-old child, when the Omani ruler Sayyid Sultan installed his son, Salim, as Governor in the Arad Fort.[83] In 1820, the Al Khalifa tribe were recognised by Great Britain as the rulers ("Al-Hakim" in Arabic) of Bahrain after signing a treaty relationship.[84] However, ten years later they were forced to pay yearly tributes to Egypt despite seeking Persian and British protection.[85]

1870年巴林麦纳麦的一处港口

In 1860, the Al Khalifas used the same tactic when the British tried to overpower Bahrain. Writing letters to the Persians and Ottomans, Al Khalifas agreed to place Bahrain under the latter's protection in March due to offering better conditions. Eventually the Government of British India overpowered Bahrain when the Persians refused to protect it. Colonel Pelly signed a new treaty with Al Khalifas placing Bahrain under British rule and protection.[85]

Following the Qatari–Bahraini War in 1868, British representatives signed another agreement with the Al Khalifas. It specified that the ruler could not dispose of any of his territory except to the United Kingdom and could not enter into relationships with any foreign government without British consent.[86][87] In return the British promised to protect Bahrain from all aggression by sea and to lend support in case of land attack.[87] More importantly the British promised to support the rule of the Al Khalifa in Bahrain, securing its unstable position as rulers of the country. Other agreements in 1880 and 1892 sealed the protectorate status of Bahrain to the British.[87]

Unrest amongst the people of Bahrain began when Britain officially established complete dominance over the territory in 1892. The first revolt and widespread uprising took place in March 1895 against Sheikh Issa bin Ali, then ruler of Bahrain.[88] Sheikh Issa was the first of the Al Khalifa to rule without Persian relations. Sir Arnold Wilson, Britain's representative in the Persian Gulf and author of The Persian Gulf, arrived in Bahrain from Muscat at this time.[88] The uprising developed further with some protesters killed by British forces.[88]

19世纪繁荣时期[编辑]

Peace and trade brought a new prosperity. Bahrain was no longer dependent upon pearling, and by the mid-19th century, it became the pre-eminent trading centre in the Persian Gulf, overtaking rivals Basra, Kuwait and finally in the 1870s, Muscat.[89] At the same time, Bahrain's socio-economic development began to diverge from the rest of the Persian Gulf: it transformed itself from a trading centre into a modern state.[90] This process was spurred by the attraction of large numbers of Persian, Huwala, and Indian merchant families who set up businesses on the island, making it the nexus of a vast web of trade routes across the Persian Gulf, Persia and the Indian sub-continent. A contemporary account of Manama in 1862 found:

Palgrave's description of Manama's coffee houses in the mid-19th century portrays them as cosmopolitan venues in contrast to what he describes as the 'closely knit and bigoted universe of central Arabia'.[92] Palgrave describes a people with an open – even urbane – outlook: "Of religious controversy I have never heard one word. In short, instead of Zelators and fanatics, camel-drivers and Bedouins, we have at Bahrain [Manama] something like 'men of the world, who know the world like men' a great relief to the mind; certainly it was so to mine."[93]

The great trading families that emerged during this period have been compared to the Borgias and Medicis[94] and their great wealth gave them extensive power, and among the most prominent were the Persian Al Safar family, who held the position of Native Agents of Britain in 19th Century.[95] The Al Safar enjoyed an 'exceptionally close'[96] relationship with the Al Khalifa clan from 1869, although the al-Khalifa never intermarried with them – it has been speculated that this could be related to political reasons (to limit the Safars' influence with the ruling family) and possibly for religious reasons (because the Safars were Shia).

As a result of Bahrain's trade with India, the cultural influence of the subcontinent grew dramatically, with styles of dress, cuisine, and education showing a marked Indian influence. According to Exeter University's James Onley "In these and countless other ways, Eastern Arabia's ports and people were as much a part of the Indian Ocean world as they were a part of the Arab world."[97]

20世纪早期[编辑]

In 1911, a group of Bahraini merchants demanded restrictions on the British influence in the country. The group's leaders were subsequently arrested and exiled to India. In 1923, the British introduced administrative reforms and replaced Sheikh Issa bin Ali with his son. Some clerical opponents and families such as al Dossari left or were exiled to Saudi Arabia and Iran.[98] Three years later the British placed the country under the de facto rule of Charles Belgrave who operated as an adviser to the ruler until 1957.[99][100] Belgrave brought a number of reforms such as establishment of the country's first modern school in 1919, the Persian Gulf's first girls school in 1928[101] and the abolition of slavery in 1937.[102] At the same time, the pearl diving industry developed at a rapid pace.

In 1927, Rezā Shāh, then Shah of Iran, demanded sovereignty over Bahrain in a letter to the League of Nations. A move that prompted Belgrave to undertake harsh measures including encouraging conflicts between Shia and Sunni Muslims in order to bring down the uprisings and limit the Iranian influence.[103] Belgrave even went further by suggesting to rename the Persian Gulf to the "Arabian Gulf"; however, the proposal was refused by the British government.[99] Britain's interest in Bahrain's development was motivated by concerns over Saudi and Iranian ambitions in the region.

The Bahrain Petroleum Company (Bapco), a subsidiary of the Standard Oil Company of California (Socal),[104] discovered oil in 1931 and production began the following year. This was to bring rapid modernisation to Bahrain. Relations with the United Kingdom became closer, as evidenced by the British Royal Navy moving its entire Middle Eastern command from Bushehr in Iran to Bahrain in 1935.[105][自述来源]

In the early 1930s Bahrain Airport was developed. Imperial Airways flew there, including with the Handley Page HP42 aircraft. Later in the same decade the Bahrain Maritime Airport was established, for flying-boats and seaplanes.[106]

Bahrain participated in the Second World War on the Allied side, joining on 10 September 1939. On 19 October 1940, four Italian SM.82s bombers bombed Bahrain alongside Dhahran oilfields in Saudi Arabia,[107] targeting Allied-operated oil refineries.[108] Although minimal damage was caused in both locations, the attack forced the Allies to upgrade Bahrain's defences, an action which further stretched Allied military resources.[108]

After World War II, increasing anti-British sentiment spread throughout the Arab World and led to riots in Bahrain. The riots focused on the Jewish community.[109] In 1948, following rising hostilities and looting,[110] most members of Bahrain's Jewish community abandoned their properties and evacuated to Bombay, later settling in Israel (Pardes Hanna-Karkur) and the United Kingdom. As of 2008, 37 Jews remained in the country.[110] In the 1950s, the National Union Committee, formed by reformists following sectarian clashes, demanded an elected popular assembly, removal of Belgrave and carried out a number of protests and general strikes. In 1965 a month-long uprising broke out after hundreds of workers at the Bahrain Petroleum Company were laid off.[111]

独立建国[编辑]

On 15 August 1971,[112][113] Bahrain declared independence and signed a new treaty of friendship with the United Kingdom. Bahrain joined the United Nations and the Arab League later in the year.[114] The oil boom of the 1970s benefited Bahrain greatly, although the subsequent downturn hurt the economy. The country had already begun diversification of its economy and benefited further from Lebanese Civil War in the 1970s and 1980s, when Bahrain replaced Beirut as the Middle East's financial hub after Lebanon's large banking sector was driven out of the country by the war.[58]

Following the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, in 1981 Bahraini Shī'a fundamentalists orchestrated a failed coup attempt under the auspices of a front organisation, the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain. The coup would have installed a Shī'a cleric exiled in Iran, Hujjatu l-Islām Hādī al-Mudarrisī, as supreme leader heading a theocratic government.[115] In December 1994, a group of youths threw stones at female runners during an international marathon for running bare-legged. The resulting clash with police soon grew into civil unrest.[116][117]

A popular uprising occurred between 1994 and 2000 in which leftists, liberals and Islamists joined forces.[118] The event resulted in approximately forty deaths and ended after Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa became the Emir of Bahrain in 1999.[119] A referendum on 14–15 February 2001 massively supported the National Action Charter.[120] He instituted elections for parliament, gave women the right to vote, and released all political prisoners.[121] As part of the adoption of the National Action Charter on 14 February 2002, Bahrain changed its formal name from the State (dawla) of Bahrain to the Kingdom of Bahrain.[122]


The country participated in military action against the Taliban in October 2001 by deploying a frigate in the Arabian Sea for rescue and humanitarian operations.[123] As a result, in November of that year, US president George W. Bush's administration designated Bahrain as a "major non-NATO ally".[123] Bahrain opposed the invasion of Iraq and had offered Saddam Hussein asylum in the days prior to the invasion.[123] Relations improved with neighbouring Qatar after the border dispute over the Hawar Islands was resolved by the International Court of Justice in The Hague in 2001. Following the political liberalisation of the country, Bahrain negotiated a free trade agreement with the United States in 2004.[124]

2011年反政府示威[编辑]

2011年巴林反政府示威爆发后示威者首次聚集在珍珠广场

Inspired by the regional Arab Spring, Bahrain's Shia majority started large protests against its Sunni rulers in early 2011.[125][126]:162–3 The government initially allowed protests following a pre-dawn raid on protesters camped in Pearl Roundabout.[126]:73–4, 88 A month later it requested security assistance from Saudi Arabia and other GCC countries and declared a three-month state of emergency.[126]:132–9 The government then launched a crackdown on the opposition that included conducting thousands of arrests and systematic torture.[127][128][129][130][131] Almost daily clashes between protesters and security forces led to dozens of deaths.[132] Protests, sometimes staged by opposition parties, are ongoing.[133][134][135][136][137] More than 80 civilians and 13 policemen were killed as of March 2014.[138] The lack of coverage by Arab media in the Persian Gulf[139] as compared to other Arab Spring uprisings has sparked several controversies.



地理[编辑]

参见:巴林岛屿列表英语List of islands of Bahrain
2014年的巴林地图

Bahrain is a generally flat and arid archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia. It consists of a low desert plain rising gently to a low central escarpment with the highest point the 134米(440英尺) Mountain of Smoke (Jabal ad Dukhan).[140][141] Bahrain had a total area of 665 km2(257 sq mi) but due to land reclamation, the area increased to 780 km2(300 sq mi), which is slightly larger than the Isle of Man.[141]

Often described as an archipelago of 33 islands,[142] extensive land reclamation projects have changed this; by August 2008 the number of islands and island groups had increased to 84.[143] Bahrain does not share a land boundary with another country but does have a 161 km(100 mi) coastline. The country also claims a further 22 km(12 nmi) of territorial sea and a 44 km(24 nmi) contiguous zone. Bahrain's largest islands are Bahrain Island, Hawar, Muharraq Island, Umm an Nasan, and Sitrah. Bahrain has mild winters and very hot, humid summers. The country's natural resources include large quantities of oil and natural gas as well as fish in the offshore waters. Arable land constitutes only 2.82%[144] of the total area.

穆哈拉格岛上的一处海滩

92% of Bahrain is desert with periodic droughts and dust storms the main natural hazards for Bahrainis. Environmental issues facing Bahrain include desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, distribution stations, and illegal land reclamation at places such as Tubli Bay. The agricultural and domestic sectors' over-utilisation of the Dammam Aquifer, the principal aquifer in Bahrain, has led to its salinisation by adjacent brackish and saline water bodies. A hydrochemical study identified the locations of the sources of aquifer salinisation and delineated their areas of influence. The investigation indicates that the aquifer water quality is significantly modified as groundwater flows from the northwestern parts of Bahrain, where the aquifer receives its water by lateral underflow from eastern Saudi Arabia, to the southern and southeastern parts. Four types of salinisation of the aquifer are identified: brackish-water up-flow from the underlying brackish-water zones in north-central, western, and eastern regions; seawater intrusion in the eastern region; intrusion of sabkha water in the southwestern region; and irrigation return flow in a local area in the western region. Four alternatives for the management of groundwater quality that are available to the water authorities in Bahrain are discussed and their priority areas are proposed, based on the type and extent of each salinisation source, in addition to groundwater use in that area.[145]

气候[编辑]

The Zagros Mountains across the Persian Gulf in Iran cause low level winds to be directed toward Bahrain. Dust storms from Iraq and Saudi Arabia transported by northwesterly winds, locally called Shamal wind, cause reduced visibility in the months of June and July.[146]

Summers are very hot. The seas around Bahrain are very shallow, heating up quickly in the summer to produce high humidity, especially at night. Summer temperatures may reach up to 50 °C(122 °F) under the right conditions.[147] Rainfall in Bahrain is minimal and irregular. Rainfalls mostly occur in winter, with a recorded maximum of 71.8 mm(2.83英寸).[148]

麦纳麦
月份 1月 2月 3月 4月 5月 6月 7月 8月 9月 10月 11月 12月 全年
平均高温 °C(°F) 20.0
(68.0)
21.2
(70.2)
24.7
(76.5)
29.2
(84.6)
34.1
(93.4)
36.4
(97.5)
37.9
(100.2)
38.0
(100.4)
36.5
(97.7)
33.1
(91.6)
27.8
(82.0)
22.3
(72.1)
30.1
(86.2)
平均低温 °C(°F) 14.1
(57.4)
14.9
(58.8)
17.8
(64.0)
21.5
(70.7)
26.0
(78.8)
28.8
(83.8)
30.4
(86.7)
30.5
(86.9)
28.6
(83.5)
25.5
(77.9)
21.2
(70.2)
16.2
(61.2)
23.0
(73.4)
平均降水量 mm(英寸) 14.6
(0.57)
16.0
(0.63)
13.9
(0.55)
10.0
(0.39)
1.1
(0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.5
(0.02)
3.8
(0.15)
10.9
(0.43)
70.8
(2.79)
平均降水天数 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.4 0.2 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.7 1.7 9.9
数据来源:世界气象组织联合国[149]

生物多样性[编辑]

主条目:巴林哺乳动物列表英语List of mammals of Bahrain巴林鸟类列表英语List of birds of Bahrain
巴林的原生鸟类大红鹳是体型最大的火烈鸟

More than 330 species of birds were recorded in the Bahrain archipelago, 26 species of which breed in the country. Millions of migratory birds pass through the Persian Gulf region in the winter and autumn months.[150] One globally endangered species, Chlamydotis undulata, is a regular migrant in the autumn.[150] The many islands and shallow seas of Bahrain are globally important for the breeding of the Phalacrocorax nigrogularis species of bird, up to 100,000 pairs of these birds were recorded over the Hawar islands.[150] Only 18 species of mammals are found in Bahrain, animals such as Gazelles, desert rabbits and hedgehogs are common in the wild but the Arabian Oryx was hunted to extinction on the island.[150] 25 species of amphibians and reptiles were recorded as well as 21 species of butterflies and 307 species of flora.[150] The marine biotopes are diverse and include extensive sea grass beds and mudflats, patchy coral reefs as well as offshore islands. Sea grass beds are important foraging grounds for some threatened species such as dugongs and the green turtle.[151] In 2003, Bahrain banned the capture of sea cows, marine turtles and dolphins within its territorial waters.[150]

The Hawar Islands Protected Area provides valuable feeding and breeding grounds for a variety of migratory seabirds, it is an internationally recognised site for bird migration. The breeding colony of Socotra Cormorant on Hawar Islands is the largest in the world, and the dugongs foraging around the archipelago form the second largest dugong aggregation after Australia.[151]

Bahrain has five designated protected areas, four of which are marine environments.[150] They are:



政治[编辑]

主条目:巴林政治英语Politics of Bahrain
巴林王国现任国王哈迈德·本·伊萨·本·萨勒曼·阿勒哈利法(左),其父伊萨·本·萨勒曼·阿勒哈利法(右)是巴林国首任埃米尔


经国民议会的所有立法必须由国王才能成为法律批准

Bahrain under the Al-Khalifa regime claims to be a constitutional monarchy headed by the King, Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa; however, given its dictatorial oppression, lack of parliamentary power and lack of an independent judiciary, most observers assert that Bahrain is an absolute monarchy. King Hamad enjoys wide executive authorities which include appointing the Prime Minister and his ministers, commanding the army, chairing the Higher Judicial Council, appointing the parliament's upper half and dissolving its elected lower half.[126](p. 15) The head of government is the unelected Prime Minister, Shaikh Khalīfa bin Salman Al Khalifa, the uncle of the current king who has served in this position since 1971, making him the longest serving prime minister in the world.[152] In 2010, about half of the government was composed of Al Khalifa family.[153]

Bahrain has a bicameral National Assembly (al-Jam'iyyah al-Watani) consisting of the Shura Council (Majlis Al-Shura) with 40 seats and the Council of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nuwab) with 40 seats. The 40 members of the Shura are appointed by the king. In the Council of Representatives, 40 members are elected by absolute majority vote in single-member constituencies to serve 4-year terms.[154] The appointed council "exercises a de facto veto" over the elected, because draft acts must be approved by it in order they pass into law. After that the king may ratify and issue the act or return it within six months to the National Assembly where it may only pass into law if approved by two thirds of both councils.[126](p. 15)

In 1973, the country held its first parliamentary elections; however, two years later, the late emir dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution after it rejected the State Security Law.[111] The period between 2002 and 2010 saw three parliamentary elections. The first, held in 2002 was boycotted by the opposition, Al Wefaq, which won a majority in the second in 2006 and third in 2010.[155] The 2011 by-election was held to replace 18 members of Al Wefaq who resigned in protest against government crackdown.[156][157]

The opening up of politics saw big gains for both Shīa and Sunnī Islamists in elections, which gave them a parliamentary platform to pursue their policies.[158] It gave a new prominence to clerics within the political system, with the most senior Shia religious leader, Sheikh Isa Qassim, playing a vital role.[159] This was especially evident when in 2005 the government called off the Shia branch of the "Family law" after over 100,000 Shia took to the streets. Islamists opposed the law because "neither elected MPs nor the government has the authority to change the law because these institutions could misinterpret the word of God". The law was supported by women activists who said they were "suffering in silence". They managed to organise a rally attended by 500 participants.[160][161][162] Ghada Jamsheer, a leading woman activist[163] said the government was using the law as a "bargaining tool with opposition Islamic groups".[164]

Analysts of democratisation in the Middle East cite the Islamists' references to respect for human rights in their justification for these programmes as evidence that these groups can serve as a progressive force in the region.[165] Some Islamist parties have been particularly critical of the government's readiness to sign international treaties such as the United Nations' International Convention on Civil and Political Rights. At a parliamentary session in June 2006 to discuss ratification of the Convention, Sheikh Adel Mouwda, the former leader of salafist party, Asalah, explained the party's objections: "The convention has been tailored by our enemies, God kill them all, to serve their needs and protect their interests rather than ours. This why we have eyes from the American Embassy watching us during our sessions, to ensure things are swinging their way".[166]

人权[编辑]

主条目:巴林人权英语Human rights in Bahrain
2011年2月巴林反政府示威活动中被武装安全部队击毙的示威者

The period between 1975 and 1999 known as the "State Security Law Era", saw wide range of human rights violations including arbitrary arrests, detention without trial, torture and forced exile.[167][168] After the Emir Hamad Al Khalifa (now king) succeeded his father Isa Al Khalifa in 1999, he introduced wide reforms and human rights improved significantly.[169] These moves were described by Amnesty International as representing a "historic period of human rights".[121]

Human rights conditions started to decline by 2007 when torture began to be employed again.[170] In 2011, Human Rights Watch described the country's human rights situation as "dismal".[171] Due to this, Bahrain lost some of the high International rankings it had gained before.[172][173][174][175][176]

In 2011, Bahrain was criticised for its crackdown on the Arab spring uprising. In September, a government appointed commission confirmed reports of grave human rights violations including systematic torture. The government promised to introduce reforms and avoid repeating the "painful events".[177] However, reports by human rights organisations Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch issued in April 2012 said the same violations were still happening.[178][179]

The documentary TV film "Bahrain: Shouting in the Dark" which was produced by the Qatari channel "Al Jazeera", talks about the Bahraini protests during 2011. This TV film showed all the violations that have been taken against the rights of Bahraini citizens during the uprising. It also caused some problems between the Bahraini and the Qatari governments.[180][181] Relations between Bahrain and Qatar improved following a meeting of the Gulf Cooperation Council in November 2014 in which it was announced Bahrain diplomats would return to Qatar.[182]

妇女[编辑]

主条目:巴林妇女巴林妇女权利英语Women's rights in Bahrain
四位身着传统黑袍的巴林妇女

巴林妇女权利英语Women's rights in Bahrain与其周边的海湾阿拉伯国家相比

巴林宪法保障女性公民享有与男性公民同样参与公共事务及投票选举的权利[183]


Women's political rights in Bahrain saw an important step forward when women were granted the right to vote and stand in national elections for the first time in the 2002 election.[184] However, no women were elected to office in that year's polls. Instead, Shī'a and Sunnī Islamists dominated the election, collectively winning a majority of seats.[185] In response to the failure of women candidates, six were appointed to the Shura Council, which also includes representatives of the Kingdom's indigenous Jewish and Christian communities.[186] Dr. Nada Haffadh became the country's first female cabinet minister on her appointment as Minister of Health in 2004. The quasi-governmental women's group, the Supreme Council for Women, trained female candidates to take part in the 2006 general election. When Bahrain was elected to head the United Nations General Assembly in 2006 it appointed lawyer and women's rights activist Haya bint Rashid Al Khalifa President of the United Nations General Assembly, only the third woman in history to head the world body.[187] Female activist Ghada Jamsheer said "The government used women's rights as a decorative tool on the international level." She referred to the reforms as "artificial and marginal" and accused the government of "hinder[ing] non-governmental women societies".[164]

In 2006, Lateefa Al Gaood became the first female MP after winning by default.[188] The number rose to four after the 2011 by-elections.[189] In 2008, Houda Nonoo was appointed ambassador to the United States making her the first Jewish ambassador of any Arab country.[190] In 2011, Alice Samaan, a Christian woman was appointed ambassador to the UK.[191]

媒体[编辑]

Bahraini journalists risk prosecution for offences which include "undermining" the government and religion. Self-censorship is widespread. Journalists were targeted by officials during anti-government protests in 2011. Three editors from opposition daily Al-Wasat (Bahraini newspaper) were sacked and later fined for publishing "false" news. Several foreign correspondents were expelled.[192]

Most domestic broadcasters are state-run. An independent commission, set up to look into the unrest, found that state media coverage was at times inflammatory. It said opposition groups suffered from lack of access to mainstream media, and recommended that the government "consider relaxing censorship". Bahrain will host the Saudi-financed Alarab News Channel, expected to launch in December 2012. It will be based at a planned "Media City". An opposition satellite station, Lualua TV, operates from London but has found its signals blocked.[192]

By June 2012, Bahrain had 961,000 internet users.[193] The platform "provides a welcome free space for journalists, although one that is increasingly monitored", according to Reporters Without Borders. Rigorous filtering targets political, human rights, religious material and content deemed obscene. Bloggers and other netizens were among those detained during protests in 2011.[192]

军事[编辑]

主条目:巴林国防军英语Bahrain Defence Force巴林海军英语Royal Bahrain Naval Force巴林空军英语Royal Bahraini Air Force巴林陆军英语Royal Bahraini Army巴林皇家医疗团英语Bahrain Royal Medical Services
参见:半岛之盾部队英语Peninsula Shield Force巴林海军支援设施英语Naval Support Activity Bahrain
巴林海军一艘由美国赠送的佩里级护卫舰萨巴号RBNS Sabha (FFG-90))正参与海上多边演习,该舰原为美国海军杰克·威廉斯号USS Jack Williams (FFG-24)

巴林国防军英语Bahrain Defence Force是一支规模很小但装备精良的武装部队,2001年服役人数约11,000人,到了2012年时已有约13,000人。

巴林国防军的最高统帅(Supreme Commander)由现任国王[[哈迈德·本·伊萨·阿勒哈利法兼任[194]。其长子萨勒曼·本·哈迈德·阿勒哈利法英语Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa于1999年起就任王储后一直兼任国防军总司令职务[195],直到2008年他被国王任命为国防军最高副统帅后[196]。国防军总司令职务交由哈利法·本·艾哈迈德·阿勒哈利法阿拉伯语خليفة بن أحمد آل خليفة接替[197]


The kingdom has a small but well equipped military called the Bahrain Defence Force (BDF), numbering around 13,000 personnel.[198]

The BDF is primarily equipped with United States equipment, such as the F16 Fighting Falcon, F5 Freedom Fighter, UH60 Blackhawk, M60A3 tanks, and the ex-Template:USS, an Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate renamed the RBNS Sabha.[199][200]

The Government of Bahrain has close relations with the United States, having signed a cooperative agreement with the United States Military and has provided the United States a base in Juffair since the early 1990s, although a US naval presence existed since 1948.[201] This is the home of the headquarters for Commander, United States Naval Forces Central Command (COMUSNAVCENT) / United States Fifth Fleet (COMFIFTHFLT),[202] and around 6,000 United States military personnel.[203]

外交[编辑]

主条目:巴林外交英语Foreign relations of Bahrain
2013年6月6日,巴林王储英语Line of succession to the Bahraini throne萨勒曼英语Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa(左)与美国国务卿克里(右)於华府进行会晤

[204]


Bahrain established bilateral relations with 190 countries worldwide.[205] As of 2012, Bahrain maintains a network of 25 embassies, 3 consulates and 4 permanent missions to the Arab League, United Nations and European Union respectively.[206] Bahrain also hosts 36 embassies. Bahrain plays a modest, moderating role in regional politics and adheres to the views of the Arab League on Middle East peace and Palestinian rights by supporting the two state solution.[207] Bahrain is also one of the founding members of the Gulf Cooperation Council.[208] Relations with Iran tend to be tense as a result of a failed coup in 1981 which Bahrain blames Iran for and occasional claims of Iranian sovereignty over Bahrain by ultra-conservative elements in the Iranian public.[209][210]

行政区划[编辑]

The first municipality in Bahrain was the 8-member Manama municipality which was established in July 1919.[211] Members of the municipality were elected annually; the municipality was said to have been the first municipality to be established in the Arab world.[211] The municipality was in charge of cleaning roads and renting buildings to tenants and shops. By 1929, it undertook road expansions as well as opening markets and slaughterhouses.[211] In 1958, the municipality started water purification projects.[211] In 1960, Bahrain comprised four municipalities including Manama, Hidd, Al Muharraq, and Riffa.[212] Over the next 30 years, the 4 municipalities were divided into 12 municipalities as settlements such as Hamad Town and Isa Town grew.[212] These municipalities were administered from Manama under a central municipal council whose members are appointed by the king.[213]

The first municipal elections to be held in Bahrain after independence in 1971, was in 2002.[214] The most recent was in 2010. The municipalities are listed below:


[215]:s1


[215]:s2

[215]:s3

巴林国基层行政区图(2002年以前)
地图 序号 基层行政区 面积(km2)
2001年
人口(人)
2001年
Municipality Map of bahrain 2002.png
1. 哈德
الحد
10.87 11,637
2. 麦纳麦
المنامة
27.48 153,395
3. 西部区英语Western Region, Bahrain
المنطقة الغربية
157.20 26,149
4. 中部区英语Central Region, Bahrain
المنطقة الوسطى
35.42 49,969
5. 北部区英语Northern Region, Bahrain
المنطقة الشمالية
37.40 43,691
6. 穆哈拉格
المحرق
23.11 91,939
7. 里法和南部区英语Rifa and Southern Region, Bahrain
الرفاع والمنطقة الجنوبية
292.39 79,985
8. 吉德哈夫斯英语Jidhafs
جد حفص
24.30 52,450
9. 哈马德
مدينة حمد
13.12 52,718
10. 伊萨
مدينة عيسى
12.43 36,833
11. 侯瓦尔
جزر حوار
52.09 3,875
12. 锡特拉英语Sitra
سترة
30.04 43,910
合计 巴林国 715.85 650,604[參 2]
资料来源:面积数据(2001年)[216];人口数据(2001年)[217]

2002年7月3日,巴林国王哈迈德颁令将全国划分为五个[218]。并向每个省都派驻了由国王任命并向内政部长英语Ministry of Interior (Bahrain)负责的省长进行行政管理[219]。2002年划分后的行政区划如下:

巴林王国行政区划图[218](2002年-2014年)
地图 序号 省名 面积(km2)
2013年
人口(人)
2010年
Governorates of Bahrain.svg
1. 首都省
محافظة العاصمة
38.60 329,510
2. 中央省
محافظة الوسطى
85.15 326,305
3. 穆哈拉格省
محافظة المحرق
64.23 189,114
4. 北方省
المحافظة الشمالية
143.25 276,949
5. 南方省
المحافظة الجنوبية
38.60 101,456
合计 巴林王国 770.34 1,234,571[參 3]
资料来源:面积数据(2013年)[220];人口数据(2010年)[221]


2014年9月22日,巴林国王哈迈德突然颁布皇家法令英语Royal decree撤销了中央省之建制,并将其辖土选区拆分后分别归入北方省南方省首都省[222][223]

巴林王国行政区划图[222](2014年-现在)
地图 序号 省名 选区数
2014年
街区数
2014年
1. 首都省
محافظة العاصمة
10 121
2. 穆哈拉格省
محافظة المحرق
8 74
3. 北方省
المحافظة الشمالية
12
4. 南方省
المحافظة الجنوبية
10
合计 巴林王国 40
资料来源:选区及街区数据(2014年)[223]

经济[编辑]


According to a January 2006 report by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, Bahrain has the fastest growing economy in the Arab world.[224] Bahrain also has the freest economy in the Middle East and is twelfth freest overall in the world based on the 2011 Index of Economic Freedom published by the Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal.[225]

In 2008, Bahrain was named the world's fastest growing financial center by the City of London's Global Financial Centres Index.[226][227] Bahrain's banking and financial services sector, particularly Islamic banking, have benefited from the regional boom driven by demand for oil.[228] Petroleum production and processing is Bahrain's most exported product, accounting for 60% of export receipts, 70% of government revenues, and 11% of GDP.[144] Aluminium production is the second most exported product, followed by finance and construction materials.[144]

Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing price of oil since 1985, for example during and following the Persian Gulf crisis of 1990–91. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to a number of multinational firms and construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. A large share of exports consist of petroleum products made from imported crude oil, which accounted for 51% of the country's imports in 2007.[229] Bahrain depends heavily on food imports to feed its growing population; it relies heavily on meat imports from Australia and also imports 75% of its total fruit consumption needs.[230][231] Since only 2.9% of the country's land is arable, agriculture contributes to 0.5% of Bahrain's GDP.[231] In 2004, Bahrain signed the US-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, which will reduce certain trade barriers between the two nations.[226] Due to the combination of the global financial crisis and the recent unrest, the growth rate decreased to 2.2% which is the lowest growth rate since 1994.[232]

Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems. In 2008, the jobless figure was at 4%,[233] with women over represented at 85% of the total.[234] In 2007 Bahrain became the first Arab country to institute unemployment benefits as part of a series of labour reforms instigated under Minister of Labour, Dr. Majeed Al Alawi.[235]

麦纳麦天际线
2007年时的麦纳麦

Tourism[编辑]

2005年时,巴林故都穆哈拉格(前景)与现首都麦纳麦(背景)的城市群俯瞰景象

As a tourist destination, Bahrain received over eight million visitors in 2008 though the exact number varies yearly.[236] Most of these are from the surrounding Arab states although an increasing number hail from outside the region due to growing awareness of the kingdom's heritage and its higher profile as a result of the Bahrain International F1 Circuit.

The kingdom combines modern Arab culture and the archaeological legacy of five thousand years of civilisation. The island is home to forts including Qalat Al Bahrain which has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The Bahrain National Museum has artefacts from the country's history dating back to the island's first human inhabitants some 9000 years ago and the Beit Al Quran (Arabic: بيت القرآن, meaning: the House of Qur'an) is a museum that holds Islamic artefacts of the Qur'an. Some of the popular historical tourist attractions in the kingdom are the Al Khamis Mosque, which is the one of the oldest mosques in the region, the Arad fort in Muharraq, Barbar temple, which is an ancient temple from the Dilmunite period of Bahrain, as well as the A'ali Burial Mounds and the Saar temple.[237] The Tree of Life, a 400 year-old tree that grows in the Sakhir desert with no nearby water, is also a popular tourist attraction.[238]

Bird watching (primarily in the Hawar Islands), scuba diving and horse riding are popular tourist activities in Bahrain. Many tourists from nearby Saudi Arabia and across the region visit Manama primarily for the shopping malls in the capital Manama, such as the Bahrain City Centre and Seef Mall in the Seef district of Manama. The Manama Souq and Gold Souq in the old district of Manama are also popular with tourists.[239]

Since 2005, Bahrain annually hosts a festival in March, titled Spring of Culture, which features internationally renowned musicians and artists performing in concerts.[240] Manama was named the Arab Capital of Culture for 2012 and Capital of Arab Tourism for 2013 by the Arab League. The 2012 festival featured concerts starring Andrea Bocelli, Julio Iglesias and other musicians.[241]

基础设施[编辑]

Bahrain has one main international airport, the Bahrain International Airport (BIA) which is located on the island of Muharraq, in the north-east. The airport handled more than 100,000 flights and more than 8 million passengers in 2010.[242] Bahrain's national carrier, Gulf Air operates and bases itself in the BIA.

The King Fahd Causeway as seen from space

Bahrain has a well-developed road network, particularly in Manama. The discovery of oil in the early 1930s accelerated the creation of multiple roads and highways in Bahrain, connecting several isolated villages, such as Budaiya, to Manama.[243]

To the east, a bridge connected Manama to Muharraq since 1929, a new causeway was built in 1941 which replaced the old wooden bridge.[243] Currently there are three modern bridges connecting the two locations.[244] Transits between the two islands peaked after the construction of the Bahrain International Airport in 1932.[243] Ring roads and highways were later built to connect Manama to the villages of the Northern Governorate and towards towns in central and southern Bahrain.

The four main islands and all the towns and villages are linked by well-constructed roads. There were 3,164 km(1,966 mi) of roadways in 2002, of which 2,433 km(1,512 mi) were paved. A causeway stretching over 2.8 km(2 mi), connect Manama with Muharraq Island, and another bridge joins Sitra to the main island. The King Fahd Causeway, measuring 24 km(15 mi), links Bahrain with the Saudi Arabian mainland via the island of Umm an-Nasan. It was completed in December 1986, and financed by Saudi Arabia. In 2008, there were 17,743,495 passengers transiting through the causeway.[245]

Bahrain's port of Mina Salman is the main seaport of the country and consists of 15 berths.[246] In 2001, Bahrain had a merchant fleet of eight ships of 1,000 GRT or over, totaling 270,784 GRT.[247] Private vehicles and taxis are the primary means of transportation in the city.[248]

Telecommunications[编辑]

巴林国内人口有88%为互联网用户[249]


The telecommunications sector in Bahrain officially started in 1981 with the establishment of Bahrain's first telecommunications company, Batelco and until 2004, it monopolised the sector. In 1981, there were more than 45,000 telephones in use in the country. By 1999, Batelco had more than 100,000 mobile contracts.[250] In 2002, under pressure from international bodies, Bahrain implemented its telecommunications law which included the establishment of an independent Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA).[250] In 2004, Zain (a rebranded version of MTC Vodafone) started operations in Bahrain and in 2010 VIVA (owned by STC Group) became the third company to provide mobile services.[251]

Bahrain has been connected to the internet since 1995 with the country's domain suffix is '.bh'. The country's connectivity score (a statistic which measures both Internet access and fixed and mobile telephone lines) is 210.4 percent per person, while the regional average in Arab States of the Persian Gulf is 135.37 percent.[252] The number of Bahraini internet users has risen from 40,000 in 2000[253] to 250,000 in 2008,[254] or from 5.95 to 33 percent of the population. As of August 2013, the TRA has licensed 22 Internet Service Providers.[255]



人口[编辑]

主条目:巴林人口英语Demographics of Bahrain

巴林人口英语Demographics of Bahrain在2010年人口普查时为1,234,571人,其中本籍人口仅568,399人不及一半,而外籍人口则大大超过本籍人口达666,172人[14]。相比2007年时巴林人口刚超过一百万人时[參 4],三年内巴林人口增长了二十多万人[256],其人口增长速度极高,这也有赖于其国内相对中东诸国而言较为稳定的政治环境,足以吸引大量中东移民。




It had risen from 1.05 million (517,368 non-nationals) in 2007, the year when Bahrain's population crossed the one million mark.[257]


Though a majority of the population is Middle Eastern, a sizeable number of people from South Asia live in the country. In 2008, approximately 290,000 Indian nationals lived in Bahrain, making them the single largest expatriate community in the country.[258][259] Bahrain is the fourth most densely populated sovereign state in the world with a population density of 1,646 people per km2 in 2010.[260] The only sovereign states with larger population densities are city states. Much of this population is concentrated in the north of the country with the Southern Governorate being the least densely populated part.[260] The north of the country is so urbanised that it is considered by some to be one large metropolitan area.[261]

族群[编辑]

巴林国内居民各族群人口比重表英语Demographics of Bahrain(2010年数据)
族群 比重
巴林人
  
46.0%
亚洲人
  
45.5%
其他阿拉伯人
  
4.7%
非洲人英语Ethnic groups in Africa
  
1.6%
欧洲人
  
1.0%
其他族群[參 5]
  
1.2%
资料来源(2010年)[5]

Bahraini people are ethnically diverse. There are at least 8–9 different ethnic groups of Bahraini citizens. Shia Bahraini citizens are divided into two main ethnic groups: Bahrani and Ajam. Most Shia Bahrainis are ethnic Baharna. The Baharna are descendants of the original pre-Islamic inhabitants of Bahrain. The pre-Islamic population of Bahrain consisted of Christianized Arabs (mostly Abd al-Qays), Aramean Christians, Persian-speaking Zoroastrians[262] and Jewish agriculturalists.[40][263] According to Robert Bertram Serjeant, the Baharna may be the Arabized "descendants of converts from the original population of Christians (Aramaeans), Jews and ancient Persians inhabiting the island and cultivated coastal provinces of Eastern Arabia at the time of the Arab conquest".[35][42] The sedentary people of pre-Islamic Bahrain were mainly Aramaic speakers and to some degree Persian speakers while Syriac functioned as a liturgical language.[40][264]

The Ajam are ethnic Persian Shias. Unlike the Baharna, Ajam are not ethnic Arabs. Shia Persians form large communities in Manama and Muharraq. Bahraini Persians maintain a distinct culture and language, but have long since assimilated into Bahraini culture; they tend to identify themselves as Persian Bahrainis than Iranians. 22% of Bahraini citizens are ethnic Persian Shias.[265] A tiny minority of Shia Bahraini citizens are ethnic Hasawis from Al-Hasa.

Among Sunni Bahraini citizens, there are also many different ethnic groups. Sunni Bahrainis are mainly divided into two main ethnic groups: urban Arabs (al Arab) and Huwala. The urban Arabs are mostly descendants of Sunni Arabs from central Arabia who were traditionally pearl-divers, merchants, sailors, traders and fishermen in the pre-oil era. The urban Arabs are the most influential ethnic group in Bahrain, they hold most government positions and the Bahraini monarchy are ethnic urban Arabs. Urban Arabs have traditionally lived in areas such as Zallaq, Muharraq, Riffa and Hawar islands. The Huwala are descendants of Sunni Iranians; some of them are ethnic Persians,[266][267] and a tiny minority of them are ethnic Sunni Arabs who intermingled with the Persians.[268][269] Many Huwala originally lived in Awadhiya and Hoora. The Huwala form a significant part of Bahrain's elite and merchant class.

In addition to these ethnic groups, there are also Balochs, Afro-Arabs, Indians and ethnic tribal people. The Bahraini Baloch are descendants of the Iranian Baloch. Most Bahrainis of African origin come from east Africa and have traditionally lived on Muharraq Island and in Riffa.[270] A portion of Indian Bahrainis are descendants of wealthy Indian merchants from the pre-oil era, known as the Bania. A smaller group of Sunni Bahraini citizens are descendants of naturalized Palestinian refugees and other Levant Arab immigrants.

宗教[编辑]

主条目:巴林宗教巴林的宗教信仰自由英语Freedom of religion in Bahrain
参见:巴林伊斯兰教巴林印度教英语Hinduism in Bahrain巴林天主教英语Roman Catholicism in Bahrain巴林基督教英语Christianity in Bahrain巴林佛教英语Buddhism in Bahrain
巴林国内居民各宗教人口比重表(2010年数据)
宗教 人口比重
伊斯兰教国教
  
70.3%
印度教英语Hinduism in Bahrain
  
9.8%
天主教英语Roman Catholicism in Bahrain
  
9.0%
基督教英语Christianity in Bahrain
  
5.5%
佛教英语Buddhism in Bahrain
  
2.5%
无宗教
  
1.9%
犹太教
  
0.6%
传统宗教
  
0.2%
其它
  
0.2%
资料来源(2010年)[271][272]
巴林首都麦纳麦的古代比亚英语Gudaibiya清真寺

巴林的国教伊斯兰教[3],但巴林宪法也规定保障公民享有宗教信仰自由的权利[273]

伊斯兰教在巴林传播的历史十分悠久,其国内居住人口中约七成为穆斯林,而本籍巴林人中有99.8%为穆斯林[274]。虽然王室属于逊尼派,但其本籍国民的穆斯林人口中接近六到七成的多数却是什叶派[275][276],这也是国内什叶派活动家常年不断的示威活动爆发的根本原因[277]。而巴林政府则曾从巴基斯坦叙利亚引进逊尼穆斯林以增加逊尼派在该国的人口比重[278]

本籍的巴林人中亦有少数的基督教徒,他们组建了本地的基督徒社团英语Christianity in Bahrain,人数约有一千[279][280]。其中中多数人属于东正教徒,他们拥有的最大的教堂属于希腊正教会所有。而实际上国内居住人口中基督教徒大部分是外籍人口,但他们在巴林的社会生活是自由的,事实上即使在巴林政府内部也有一些基督教的工作人员,比如曾在协商会议英语Consultative Council (Bahrain)任职的现任巴林驻英国大使亚里斯·萨曼英语Alees Samaan[281],她就是一个出生於麦纳麦,且拥有巴林国籍的基督教徒,而她的父母则是来自叙利亚的基督教徒英语Christianity in Syria[282]

犹太教在巴林也有极少数信仰者,其多为移民而来已拥有国籍的居民,全国人数只有约四十人,犹太教徒在巴林的生存有赖于巴林政府对其极高的宽容程度,相对其他海湾阿拉伯国家而言其显得相当独特之高。甚至国王亦曾任命过犹太妇女进入议会任职。[283][280]








There is a native Christian community in Bahrain. Christian Bahraini citizens number 1,000 people.引用错误:没有找到与<ref>对应的</ref>标签 Various sources cite Bahrain's native Jewish community as being from 36 to 50 people,[284] Bahraini Jews are active in politics. A Jewish businessman, Ebrahim Daoud Nonoo, was appointed to the upper house of parliament (Shura Council). In 2008, the Jewish Bahraini politician Houda Nonoo was named Bahrain's ambassador to the United States.[285] Bahrain also has a native Bahá'í community. Baha'is constitute approximately 1% of Bahrain's total population.[286]


Due to an influx of immigrants and guest workers from Southern Asian countries, such as India, Philippines and Sri Lanka, the overall percentage of Muslims in the country has declined in recent years.[287] According to the 2001 census, 81.2% of Bahrain's population was Muslim, 10% were Christian, and 9.8% practised Hinduism or other religions.[144] The 2010 census records that the Muslim proportion had fallen to 70.2% (the 2010 census did not differentiate between the non-Muslim religions).[260] Bahrain government officials rejected reports from Bahraini opposition that the administration was trying to alter the country's demographics by naturalizing Sunni Syrians.[288]

语言[编辑]

主条目:阿拉伯语巴林阿拉伯语英语Bahrani Arabic

巴林官方语言阿拉伯语[3]。本籍人口使用的巴林阿拉伯语英语Bahrani Arabic阿拉伯东部英语Eastern Arabia使用十分广泛的阿拉伯语方言,属于半岛阿拉伯语的分支,与标准阿拉伯语有些许差异 。阿拉伯语在巴林的政治生活中占据重要地位,巴林宪法英语Constitution of Bahrain第五十七款第三条规定,通过选举产生的众议院英语Council of Representatives (Bahrain)议员的阿拉伯语必须要达到阅读熟练,书写流利的水平。


。而民间众多外籍人口之间的交流则通用英语,许多路牌都是阿英双语标识Many commercial institutions and road signs are bilingual, displaying both English and Arabic.[289]


另外巴林人与国内的外籍人士之间也有少数使用波斯语乌尔都语[4]




[290]





。Among the Bahraini and non-Bahraini population, many people speak Persian, the official language of Iran, or Urdu, the official language of Pakistan.[290]

Malayalam and Nepali are also widely spoken in the Nepalese workers and Gurkha Soldiers community. Hindi is spoken among significant Indian communities.[290] 


教育[编辑]

主条目:巴林教育英语Education in Bahrain
参见:巴林大学列表英语List of universities in Bahrain
一些巴林大学英语University of Bahrain的女学生穿着传统的黑色长袍



巴林拥有数座教学质量较高的大学英语List of universities in Bahrain,1986年设立的巴林大学英语University of Bahrain是巴林最大的公立大学


巴林的教育体制英语Education in Bahrain阿拉伯半岛历史最悠久的公立教育体制,其实行免费教育和普及九年一贯制的中等教育制度。[291]

巴林教育部为学生提供免费的教科书

海湾阿拉伯国家中是属于名列前茅的,其国民成人识字率为94.6%,青少年识字率为98.2%[292];国民平均受教育年限为9.4年[293]



巴林教育开支占GDP比重为2.9%[294]


6到14岁的儿童必须接受义务教育。


Education is compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 14.[295] Education is free for Bahraini citizens in public schools, with the Bahraini Ministry of Education providing free textbooks. Coeducation is not used in public schools, with boys and girls segregated into separate schools.[296]

At the beginning of the 20th century, Qur'anic schools (Kuttab) were the only form of education in Bahrain.[297] They were traditional schools aimed at teaching children and youth the reading of the Qur'an. After World War I, Bahrain became open to western influences, and a demand for modern educational institutions appeared. 1919 marked the beginning of modern public school system in Bahrain when the Al-Hidaya Al-Khalifia School for boys opened in Muharraq.[297] In 1926, the Education Committee opened the second public school for boys in Manama, and in 1928 the first public school for girls was opened in Muharraq.[297] As of 2011, there are a total of 126,981 students studying in public schools.[298]

In 2004, King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa introduced the "King Hamad Schools of Future" project that uses Information Communication Technology to support K–12 education in Bahrain.[299] The project's objective is to connect all schools within the kingdom with the Internet.[300] In addition to British intermediate schools, the island is served by the Bahrain School (BS). The BS is a United States Department of Defense school that provides a K-12 curriculum including International Baccalaureate offerings. There are also private schools that offer either the IB Diploma Programme or United Kingdom's A-Levels.

Bahrain also encourages institutions of higher learning, drawing on expatriate talent and the increasing pool of Bahrain nationals returning from abroad with advanced degrees. The University of Bahrain was established for standard undergraduate and graduate study, and the King Abdulaziz University College of Health Sciences, operating under the direction of the Ministry of Health, trains physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and paramedics. The 2001 National Action Charter paved the way for the formation of private universities such as the Ahlia University in Manama and University College of Bahrain in Saar. The Royal University for Women (RUW), established in 2005, was the first private, purpose-built, international University in Bahrain dedicated solely to educating women. The University of London External has appointed MCG (Management Consultancy Group) as the regional representative office in Bahrain for distance learning programmes.[301] MCG is one of the oldest private institutes in the country. Institutes have also opened which educate South Asian students, such as the Pakistan Urdu School, Bahrain and the Indian School, Bahrain. A few prominent institutions are DePaul University, Bentley University, the Ernst & Young Training Institute, NYIT and the Birla Institute of Technology International Centre. In 2004, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) set up a constituent medical university in the country. In addition to the Arabian Gulf University, AMA International University and the College of Health Sciences, these are the only medical schools in Bahrain.

公共卫生[编辑]

Bahrain has a universal health care system, dating back to 1960.[302] Government-provided health care is free to Bahraini citizens and heavily subsidised for non-Bahrainis. Healthcare expenditure accounted for 4.5% of Bahrain's GDP, according to the World Health Organisation. Bahraini physicians and nurses form a majority of the country's workforce in the health sector, unlike neighbouring Gulf states.[303] The first hospital in Bahrain was the American Mission Hospital, which opened in 1893 as a dispensary.[304] The first public hospital, and also tertiary hospital, to open in Bahrain was the Salmaniya Medical Complex, in the Salmaniya district of Manama, in 1957.[305] Private hospitals are also present throughout the country, such as the International Hospital of Bahrain.

The life expectancy in Bahrain is 73 for males and 76 for females. Compared to many countries in the region, the prevalence of AIDS and HIV is relatively low.[306] Malaria and tuberculosis (TB) do not constitute major problems in Bahrain as neither disease is indigenous to the country. As a result, cases of malaria and TB have declined in recent decades with cases of contractions amongst Bahraini nationals becoming rare.[306] The Ministry of Health sponsors regular vaccination campaigns against TB and other diseases such as hepatitis B.[306][307]

Bahrain is currently suffering from an obesity epidemic as 28.9% of all males and 38.2% of all females are classified as obese.[308] Bahrain also has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes in the world (5th place), with more than 15% of the Bahraini population suffering from the disease, and accounting for 5% of deaths in the country.[309] Cardiovascular diseases account for 32% of all deaths in Bahrain, being the number one cause of death in the country (the second being cancer).[310] Sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemia are prevalent in the country, with a study concluding that 18% of Bahrainis are carriers of sickle cell anaemia while 24% are carriers of thalassaemia.[311]



文化[编辑]

Shia Muslims in Bahrain strike their chests during Muharram in remembrance of Imam Hussain

巴林文化英语Culture of Bahrain

Bahrain is sometimes described as "Middle East lite"[312] due to its combination of modern infrastructure with a Persian Gulf identity. While Islam is the main religion, Bahrainis are known for their tolerance towards the practice of other faiths.[313]

Rules regarding female attire are generally relaxed compared to regional neighbours; the traditional attire of women usually include the hijab or the abaya.[141] Although the traditional male attire is the thobe which also includes traditional headdresses such as the Keffiyeh, Ghutra and Agal, Western clothing is common in the country.[141]

Although Bahrain legalized homosexuality in 1976, including same-sex sodomy, many homosexuals have since been arrested .[314][315][316] Another facet of Bahrain's openness is the country's status as the most prolific book publisher in the Arab world, with 132 books published in 2005 for a population of 700,000. In comparison, the 2005 average for the entire Arab world was seven books published per one million people, according to the United Nations Development Programme.[317]

艺术[编辑]

一座巴林的风塔英语Windcatcher建筑

巴林艺术英语Bahraini art

The modern art movement in the country officially emerged in the 1950s, culminating in the establishment of an art society. Expressionism and surrealism, as well as calligraphic art are the popular forms of art in the country. Abstract expressionism has gained popularity in recent decades.[318] Pottery-making and textile weaving are also popular products that were widely made in Bahraini villages.[318] Arabic calligraphy grew in popularity as the Bahraini government was an active patron in Islamic art, culminating in the establishment of an Islamic museum, Beit Al Quran.[318] The Bahrain national museum houses a permanent contemporary art exhibition.[319] The architecture of Bahrain is similar to that of its neighbours in the Persian Gulf. The wind tower, which generates natural ventilation in a house, is a common sight on old buildings, particularly in the old districts of Manama and Muharraq.[320]

文学[编辑]

Literature retains a strong tradition in the country; most traditional writers and poets write in the classical Arabic style. In recent years, the number of younger poets influenced by western literature are rising, most writing in free verse and often including political or personal content.[321] Ali Al Shargawi, a decorated longtime poet, was described in 2011 by Al Shorfa as the literary icon of Bahrain.[322]

In literature, Bahrain was the site of the ancient land of Dilmun mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Legend also states that it was the location of the Garden of Eden.[323][324]

音乐[编辑]

巴林本土音乐英语Music of Bahrain的风格与周边的阿拉伯国家十分相似。 The music style in Bahrain is similar to that of its neighbours. The Khaliji style of music, which is folk music, is popular in the country. The sawt style of music, which involves a complex form of urban music, performed by an Oud (plucked lute), a violin and mirwas (a drum), is also popular in Bahrain.[325] Ali Bahar was one of the most famous singers in Bahrain. He performed his music with his Band Al-Ekhwa (The Brothers). Bahrain was also the site of the first recording studio amongst the Persian Gulf states.[325]

体育[编辑]

Association football is the most popular sport in Bahrain.[326] Bahrain's national football team has competed multiple times at the Asian Cup, Arab Nations Cup and played in the FIFA World Cup qualifiers, though it has never qualified for the World Cup.[327] Bahrain has its own top-tier domestic professional football league, the Bahraini Premier League. Basketball, Rugby and horse racing are also widely popular in the country.

Bahrain has competed in six Summer Olympics, debuting in the 1984 Los Angeles Summer Olympics.[328] Bahrain has only won one Olympic medal in its history, that being a bronze medal won by Maryam Yusuf Jamal in the women's 1500 metres race at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London.[329] Jamal is the first woman from any Persian Gulf nation to win an Olympic medal.[330] Prior to the 2012 Summer Olympics, the closest attempt to Bahrain winning an Olympic medal was via Rashid Ramzi winning the men's 1,500 metres race at the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. However, his medal was stripped after he failed a drug test the following year.[331] Bahrain has competed in every Summer Olympics since 1984 but has never competed in the Winter Olympics.

The podium ceremony at the 2007 Bahrain Grand Prix

Bahrain has a Formula One race-track, which hosted the inaugural Gulf Air Bahrain Grand Prix on 4 April 2004, the first in an Arab country. This was followed by the Bahrain Grand Prix in 2005. Bahrain hosted the opening Grand Prix of the 2006 season on 12 March of that year. Both the above races were won by Fernando Alonso of Renault. The race has since been hosted annually, except for 2011 when it was cancelled due to ongoing anti-government protests.[332] The 2012 race occurred despite concerns of the safety of the teams and the ongoing protests in the country.[333] The decision to hold the race despite ongoing protests and violence[334] has been described as "controversial" by Al Jazeera English,[335] CNN,[336] AFP[337] and Sky News.[338] The Independent named it "one of the most controversial in the history of the sport".[339]

In 2006, Bahrain also hosted its inaugural Australian V8 Supercar event dubbed the "Desert 400". The V8s returned every November to the Sakhir circuit until 2010, in which it was the second event of the series. The series has not returned since. The Bahrain International Circuit also features a full-length drag strip where the Bahrain Drag Racing Club has organised invitational events featuring some of Europe's top drag racing teams to try to raise the profile of the sport in the Middle East.[340]

In April 2013, two Zimbabwean ex-pats based in Bahrain became the first men to officially circumnavigate the Bahraini mainland and Hawar Islands unassisted in single man kayaks taking six days. Paul Curwen and Chris Bloodworth undertook their expedition to raise funds for locally based and Zimbabwean charities.

节假日[编辑]

巴林节日英语Public holidays in Bahrain类型多样,包括公历节日、穆斯林节日英语Muslim holidays,及纪念日。且巴林属于伊斯兰教国家,国民多为穆斯林,因此穆斯林节日在民间受到相当重视。 2006年9月1日起,巴林王国实施了新的周末休假制度,把法定周休日从每周的周四与周五,改为每周的周五与周六[341]

in order to have a day of the weekend shared with the rest of the world. Notable holidays in the country are listed below

巴林穆哈兰姆月英语Muharram in Bahrain

巴林王国主要节日列表[342]
日期 节日名 描述
1月1日 公历
元旦
رأس السنة الميلادية
公历新年
5月1日
劳动节
يوم العمال
当地称为“Eid Al Oumal”
12月16日
国庆日
اليوم الوطني
巴林国庆节
12月17日
登基日英语Accession Day
يوم الجلوس
巴林首任埃米尔伊萨·本·萨勒曼·阿勒哈利法登基纪念日
穆哈兰姆月一日 伊斯兰历 伊斯兰历新年
رأس السنة الهجرية
伊斯兰历新年,也称作希吉来历新年
穆哈兰姆月九日、十日 阿舒拉节
عاشوراء
纪念与哀悼伊玛目侯赛因的殉教遇难
赖比尔·敖外鲁月十二日 圣纪节
المولد النبوي
先知穆罕默德诞辰日
闪瓦鲁月一日、二日、三日 开斋节
عيد الفطر
庆祝斋戒月英语Ramadan的结束
都尔黑哲月九日 阿拉法特日英语Day of Arafat
يوم عرفة
纪念真主在这一天给人类颁降了最后的启示
都尔黑哲月十日、十一日、十二日 古尔邦节
عيد الأضحى
也称为宰牲节,为纪念先知易卜拉欣忠实执行安拉命令献祭其子,后被安拉以黑羔羊代替的故事




http://www.dt.bh



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相关书籍[编辑]

参见[编辑]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 巴林于2010年人口普查总人口为1,234,571人[14],但2010年时巴林土地面积仅762平方公里[11],因此得出此数据。巴林现在的土地面积是由于不断填海造陆而形成的。
  2. ^ 2001年人口数据中包含4,053名身处国外的本籍巴林人,因此以上12区市之人口总和仍需计上此数值才会等于全国总人口。
  3. ^ 巴林2010年人口普查总人口为1,234,571人[14],但有11,237人在普查中并无说明自己居住所在省,因此该数字并无归入任何省的人口数据内,导致以上五省之人口总和并不等于全国总人口。
  4. ^ 2007年巴林王国确切的总人口数值为1,039,297人。
  5. ^ 其他族群组中包含了海湾阿拉伯人0.70%,北美洲人0.35%,大洋洲人0.10%,南美洲人0.05%。

参考资料[编辑]

书目[编辑]

脚注[编辑]

  1. ^ NATIONAL ANTHEM (The World Factbook). 中央情报局. [2015-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2014-06-25) (英语). National anthem of Bahrain :name: "Bahrainona" (Our Bahrain) , note: adopted 1971; although Mohamed Sudqi AYYASH wrote the original lyrics, they were changed in 2002 following the transformation of Bahrain from an emirate to a kingdom. 
  2. ^ CAPITAL (The World Factbook). 中央情报局. [2015-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2014-09-04) (英语). CAPITAL of Bahrain :name: Manama , geographic coordinates: 26 14 N, 50 34 E . 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 《巴林王国宪法》 2002Chapter I The State : Article 2 [State Religion, Shari'a, Official Language]

    The religion of the State is Islam. The Islamic Shari'a is a principal source for legislation. The official language is Arabic.

  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 LANGUAGES (The World Factbook). 中央情报局. [2015-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2014-08-27) (英语). LANGUAGES of Bahrain :Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 《巴林2010年人口普查结果:总表》 2011,page 5, table 5.

    《Population by Sex, Age Groups and Nationality Groups - 2010 Census》 - Nationality Groups : 1,234,571(Population Total-100%); 568,399(Bahraini-46.0%); 562,040(Asian-45.5%); 58,213(Other Arabs-4.7%); 19,548(African-1.6%); 11,763(European-1.0%); 1,295(Oceanian)+474(South American)+4,149(North American)+8,690(Gulf Co-Operative Countries)(Others-1.2%).

  6. ^ ETHNIC GROUPS(%) (The World Factbook). 中央情报局. [2015-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-22) (英语). ETHNIC GROUPS(%) of Bahrain :Bahraini 46%, Asian 45.5%, other Arabs 4.7%, African 1.6%, European 1%, other 1.2% (includes Gulf Co-operative country nationals, North and South Americans, and Oceanians) (2010 est.) 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 王伟. 巴林议会. 中国人大网. 中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会. 2011-05-23 [2015-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2012-03-23) (中文(简体)). 巴宪法规定,议会由协商会议和众议院组成,协商会议职能为向国家立法、行政工作提供咨询意见和建议;众议院承担立法工作;国王、内阁和众议院拥有法律创设权,协商会议无法律创设权。 
  8. ^ GOVERNMENT TYPE (The World Factbook). 中央情报局. [2015-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2014-10-28) (英语). GOVERNMENT TYPE of Bahrain :Constitutional monarchy 
  9. ^ Bahrain ends special pact [巴林结束特殊协定]. 新加坡: 海峡时报. 1971-08-15: 1 [2015-01-27]. No.1846 (英语). BAHRAIN. Sat. - Bahrain's Ruler, Sheikh Isa bin Sulman Al-Khalifa. announced today that Bahrain was ending its special treaty arrangements with Britain and would become a fully sovereign Arab state tomorrow. 
  10. ^ INDEPENDENCE (The World Factbook). 中央情报局. [2015-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2014-11-14) (英语). INDEPENDENCE of Bahrain :15 August 1971 (from the UK). 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 《Area of the Kingdom of Bahrain in (Km2)(2009-2013)》 [《巴林王国总面积(单位平方公里)(2009年-2013年)》] (PDF). Survey and Land Registration Bureau, Kingdom Of Bahrain [巴林王国土地勘测与登记局]. Central Informatics Organization: 1. 2014 [2015-01-31]. (原始内容 (pdf)存档于2015-01-31) (英语). Land Area (of Bahrain): 770(2013); 770(2012); 767(2011); 762(2010); 760(2009). Sea Area (of Bahrain): 7,499(2013); 7,499(2012); 7,502(2011); 7,507(2010); 7,509(2009). 
  12. ^ COASTLINE(KM)(The World Factbook). 中央情报局. [2015-01-29]. (原始内容存档于2014-12-28) (英语). COASTLINE(KM) of Bahrain :161 KM. 
  13. ^ Population Forecast for Bahrain. International Futures (IFs). [2015-01-28]. (原始内容存档于2014-10-06) (英语). Population of Bahrain (2014): 1.343 Million People 
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 《Census and Demographic Statistics (2011Data)》 (PDF). Central Informatics Organization. Ministry Of Health, Kingdom Of Bahrain[巴林王国卫生部]: 第3页. 2011 [2015-01-28]. (原始内容 (pdf)存档于2015-01-28) (英语). Table 2.1 :《Population by Nationality and Sex in Census Years (2010)》 : Total: 1,234,571; Non-Bahraini: 666,172; Bahraini: 568,399. 
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 World Economic Outlook Database (Bahrain). 国际货币基金组织. [2015-01-29]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-29) (英语). 
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 《2014年人类发展报告》 2014统计附录(章节) :159-163页

    《2013年人类发展指数国家、区域或地区及其排名》及《表1:人类发展指数及其构成》: 第9-12列

  17. ^ 《Area of Kingdom of Bahrain by Islands - (2009 - 2013)》 [《巴林王国岛屿面积(2009年-2013年)》] (PDF). Survey and Land Registration Bureau, Kingdom Of Bahrain [巴林王国土地勘测与登记局]. Central Informatics Organization: 1. 2014 [2015-01-31]. (原始内容 (pdf)存档于2015-01-31) (英语). Sq. Km (2013): 770.34(Total Area); 52.10(Hawar); 20.47(Umm Nassan); 0.57(Jiddah); 0.18(Umm Sabban); 0.14 (Qaser AlQulaya); 15.82 (Sitra); 1.28 (Nabih Saleh); 64.22(Muarraq + Asry); 615.56(Bahrain). 
  18. ^ John Lawton. 《Oman: The Lost Land》. 《沙特阿美的世界英语Saudi Aramco World》 (沙特阿拉伯国家石油公司). 1983,. 第34卷第3号 (1983年5月/6月刊): 18–19页 [2015-01-29]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-29) (英语).  已忽略未知参数|month=(建议使用|date=) (帮助)
  19. ^ 解冰(主编). 《世界遗产评论》第60期. 《中国文化遗产》 (北京: 中国文物报社中华人民共和国国家文物局). 2011, (2011年第5期): 第110页 [2015-01-29]. ISSN 1672-7819 (中文(简体)). 巴林要塞——迪尔穆恩文明的首都:巴林要塞是一座考古遗址,同样被誉为巴林堡垒。它是迪尔穆恩文明的中心,这里曾是迪尔穆恩文明的首都所在,见证了这座最后由葡萄牙人占领的堡垒的……  已忽略未知参数|month=(建议使用|date=) (帮助)
  20. ^ Christopher Buyers. The Al-Khalifa Dynasty [阿勒哈利法王朝]. The Royal Ark. [2015-02-06] (英语). 
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  22. ^ Glen Carey; Mohammed Hatem. Bahrain Shiites May Rally After Funeral for Protester. 彭博商业周刊. 2011-02-16 [2015-02-01]. (原始内容存档于2015-02-01) (英语). Shiite Majority(章节) : Shiites, who represent as much as 70 percent of Bahrainis, say they face job and housing discrimination from the ruling Al Khalifa family and its supporters. The country experienced clashes between Shiites and police before parliamentary elections in October. 
  23. ^ Freedom in the World 2013 (Bahrain). 自由之家. 2013 [2015-02-06]. (原始内容存档于2014-09-10) (英语). 
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  25. ^ Bahrain's economy praised for diversity and sustainability. Bahrain Economic Development Board [巴林经济发展委员会]. 2008 [2015-02-06]. (原始内容存档于2010-12-28) (英语). 
  26. ^ Bahrain Becomes a 'Major Non-NATO Ally'. 美国之音. 2001-10-26 [2015-02-06]. (原始内容存档于2014-08-01) (英语). 
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  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 Peri Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. (编). al- Baḥrayn. 《伊斯兰百科全书英语Encyclopaedia of Islam》. 第一卷(A-B) 第二版. 布里尔出版社英语Brill Publishers: 第941页. 2007 [2015年02月2日]. ISBN 9789004161214. 
  29. ^ Peri Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. (编). al-Manāma. 《伊斯兰百科全书英语Encyclopaedia of Islam》. 第6卷(Mahk-Mid) 第二版. 布里尔出版社英语Brill Publishers. 2007 [2015年02月2日]. ISBN 9789004161214. 
  30. ^ Adrian Room英语Adrian Room. Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites》 第二版. 麦克法兰公司出版社. 2006 [2015-02-03]. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7 (英语). 
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  40. ^ 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 Tradition and Modernity in Arabic Language And Literature. J R Smart, J. R. Smart. 2013. 
  41. ^ E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 5. M. Th. Houtsma: 98. 1993. 
  42. ^ 42.0 42.1 Robert Bertram Serjeant. Fisher-folk and fish-traps in al-Bahrain. SOAS: 488. 1968. 
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  51. ^ Michael Rice. Bahrain Through The Ages - Archa. : 401–402. 
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  54. ^ Rice, Michael. The Archaeology of the Arabian Gulf. Routledge. 1994: 21. ISBN 978-0-415-03268-1. 
  55. ^ Jean Francois Salles in Traces of Paradise: The Archaeology of Bahrain, 2500BC-300AD in Michael Rice, Harriet Crawford Ed, IB Tauris, 2002 p132
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  58. ^ 58.0 58.1 Yoma 77a and Rosh Hashbanah, 23a 引用错误:带有name属性“autogenerated3”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
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    Article 4 : Each Governorate shall have a Governor who shall manage its affairs. He shall be assisted by a deputy, an administrative body, and a coordination committee that shall be formed and whose powers defined according to the articles stipulated in this law. Article 5 : The Governor and his Deputy shall be appointed and discharged by a decree. Their appointment shall be for a renewable term of four years. The Governor shall answer to the Minister of Interior.

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    Freedom of conscience is absolute. The State guarantees the inviolability of worship, and the freedom to perform religious rites and hold religious parades and meetings in accordance with the customs observed in the country.

  274. ^ 《巴林2010年人口普查结果:总表》 2011,page 6, table 6.

    2010年数据:《Population by Religion, Nationality and Sex - 2010 Census》 - Religion (Muslim) : 866,888(Muslim Total); 1,234,571(Population Total); 567,229(Muslim Bahraini); 568,399(Bahraini Total).

  275. ^ Travel advice by country (Bahrain). 英国外交和联邦事务部. 2012-02-06 [2015-02-01]. (原始内容存档于2013-02-02). People(Bahrain): Arab, Muslim majority, of whom some 33% are Sunni and 66% are Shia 
  276. ^ Amir Taheri. Why Bahrain blew up. 纽约邮报. 2011-02-17 [2015-02-01]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-03) (英语). 第五段:Yet Bahrain suffers from a fundamental weakness: Its ruling family, the Al Khalifa tribe from eastern Arabia, is Sunni Muslims, while almost 70 percent of the population are Shiites. 
  277. ^ Lindsey Hilsum. Bahrain: it may be small, but it matters. 第四台新闻 (英国)英语Channel 4 News. 2011-02-17 [2015-02-01]. (原始内容存档于2014-10-06) (英语). 第三段:And then there's the Saudis, watching and waiting across the border. Many, probably the majority, of demonstrators in Bahrain, are Shi'a Muslims. They make up the majority of the population, probably outnumbering Sunnis two to one. Yet the Royal family is Sunni, and Shi'as face discrimination. They're not trusted to defend the country, for fear they might be close to Shi'a Iran, so the government drafts in Pakistanis and other Sunnis to serve in the army - a cause of huge resentment. 
  278. ^ Issues behind protests in Bahrain [在巴林骚乱背后的问题]. 卫报. 2011-02-18 [2015-02-01] (英语). 第3节:NEW CITIZENS: To try to offset the Shiite majority, the leadership offers citizenship to fellow Sunnis from Arab nations and elsewhere, notably South Asia. Many of the new citizens are given state jobs, including in the security forces. 
  279. ^ 《巴林2010年人口普查结果:总表》 2011,page 6, table 6.

    2010年数据:《Population by Religion, Nationality and Sex - 2010 Census》 - Religion (Bahraini) : 568,399(Total); 567,229(Muslim); 1,170(Others); 表格中巴林人宗教信仰只有穆斯林其他两种数据,其他中包含基督徒、佛教徒、印度教徒等多种宗教信仰,因此合理假设巴林人基督徒总人数不超过其总数1170,而为了表述通顺,记述为约有一千人.

  280. ^ 280.0 280.1 Chana Ya'ar. King of Bahrain Appoints Jewish Woman to Parliament [巴林国王任命了犹太妇女进入议会]. 以色列国家新闻英语Arutz Sheva. 2010-11-28 [2015-02-01]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-09) (英语). The King of Bahrain has appointed a Jewish woman and a Christian woman to the nation’s 40-member lower chamber of parliament. Khadori is one of only 37 Bahraini Jews who originated from Iraq, and one of fewer than 10 families left in the country where Jews have lived since ancient times. Hala Qarrisah, the new Christian female member, took the place of fellow Christian Alice Samaan, who had served as deputy head of the Council. There are approximately 1,000 Christians in Bahrain. 
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  291. ^ 新华网教育
  292. ^ 292.0 292.1 《2014年人类发展报告》 2014统计附录(章节) :192-195页

    《表9:教育》: 第1-2列 ; 2005-2012年均值

    引用错误:带有name属性“2012识字率”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  293. ^ 《2014年人类发展报告》 2014统计附录(章节) :161-163页

    《表1:人类发展指数及其构成》: 第3列 ; 2012年数据

  294. ^ 《2014年人类发展报告》 2014统计附录(章节) :192-195页

    《表9:教育》: 第14列 ; 2005-2012年均值

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  305. ^ SMC admissions (PDF). Ministry of Health, Bahrain. [26 June 2012]. 
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  308. ^ Country Profile- Bahrain (PDF). WHO. [26 June 2012]. 
  309. ^ Diabetes in Bahrain. TimeOut Bahrain. [26 June 2012]. 
  310. ^ Noncommunicable diseases in Bahrain (PDF). World Health Organisation. [26 June 2012]. 
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  329. ^ Bahrain wins first medal in Olympics thanks to Maryam Jamal. Kuwait News Agency. 11 August 2012 [11 August 2012]. 
  330. ^ Female Gulf athletes make their mark in London Olympics. Al Arabiya. 13 August 2012 [15 August 2012]. 
  331. ^ Davis, Toby; Wildey, Alison. Factbox: Doping-Bahrain's Rashid Ramzi. Reuters. 18 November 2009 [7 July 2012]. 
  332. ^ Noble, Jonatha. Bahrain GP2 Asia race cancelled. Autosport. 17 February 2011 [25 March 2012]. 
  333. ^ Pleitgen, Frederik. Bahrain circuit boss: Race not a big risk. CNN. 18 April 2012 [21 April 2012]. 
  334. ^ Press Release: FIA Formula One World Championship – Bahrain Grang Prix. FIA.com. Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. 13 April 2012 [13 April 2012]. [失效連結]
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  336. ^ Pleitgen, Frederik. Bahrain circuit boss: Race not a big risk. CNN. 18 April 2012 [30 June 2012]. 
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  338. ^ Protests As Anger Over Bahrain F1 Race Grows. Sky News Online. 20 April 2012 [21 April 2012]. 
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  341. ^ 巴林将执行新的周末制度. 中华人民共和国驻巴林王国大使馆经济商务参赞处. 2006-08-01 [2015-01-31]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-31) (中文(简体)). 巴林新闻社7月30日消息,巴林将执行新的周末休假制度,即将现在每周的星期四和星期五周休日,改成为每周的星期五和星期六,并自今年9月1日起在全国开始实行。 
  342. ^ 公共假日(巴林概况). 中华人民共和国驻巴林王国大使馆经济商务参赞处. 2011-05-06 [2015-01-31]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-31) (中文(简体)). 
  343. ^ 343.0 343.1 空引用 (帮助)  引用错误:带有name属性“???”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次

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