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维基百科:官方名称

维基百科,自由的百科全书

人们经常认为,如果维基百科条目的主题存在官方名称,那么这个名称就应该是该条目的正确标题,如果该条目目前是别的标题,那么它就应该被移动。在很多情况下,这违背了维基百科的实践与方针。这是一个非常容易犯,而且十分普遍的错误。在提议或支持名称变更之前,许多页面都会敦促编辑阅读命名常规方针。但由于种种原因,完全基于官方或法定名称的提议才会不断出现!

Wikipedia:命名常规方针的部分内容如下:

所有条目命名都应当首先使用大多数中文用户最容易理解、最不容易混淆的文字,同时尽量确保其他人可以简单且匹配常识地链接到这些条目。

在许多情况下,官方名称是符合这些标准的最佳选择。 然而也存在例外情况。维基百科不一定使用条目主题的“官方”名称作为标题。

有效使用官方名称[编辑]

官方中文名称可以称为一篇条目的候选名字,因为有人可能会使用它。它应该永远有成为条目标题可能性,但只有当它实际上是最常用的名称时才应该成为标题。

仅在其他语言中使用的官方名称往往没有任何相关性。中文用法会覆盖其他语言的用法,因此如果在撰写维基百科条目之前从未有人用中文描述或讨论过这个主题,那么其他语言将主要变得相关;

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Official names used only in other languages often have no relevance at all. English usage overrides usage in other languages, so other languages would chiefly become relevant if the topic had never been described or discussed in English prior to the writing of the Wikipedia article; in which case, we should consider whether the subject is notable enough for an article. (It may well be.) Of course, that's not to say we should slavishly follow English sources either: there are cases where English usage is erratic or hasn't decided on a convention, and going back to a Latin-script original name will simplify things (For example, Les Tuniques Bleues had a video game adaptation that was translated into English as "North and South", but anyone looking for the comic likely wouldn't recognize that name).

There are a few subject areas in which the most common names for the articles are usually ambiguous. (For example, both Henry IV of England and Henry IV of France are commonly called "Henry IV".) In such cases, a systematic use of unambiguous but predictable names has been encouraged. Even the following minor deviations from the use of common names should be done carefully and with limited scope, to avoid controversy

名称变更[编辑]

在官方名称变更的情况下,我们确实会给予变更后发布的二手来源额外的比重,参见WP:命名常规。但这只适用于二手来源,不适用于仅重复名称变更的新闻稿等一手来源。

合理性[编辑]

通用名称的选择避免了官方名称的几个问题:

  • 冷门:除了法律、其他深奥的文件或为戏剧效果外,一些官方名称从未使用过。
  • 竞争的权威:有时同一主题可能有多个竞争的名称,每个名称在某种程度上都是官方的。
  • 更名:一旦权威机构心血来潮,官方名称可能随时修改。通用名称则变化迟缓,以减少使名称准确和广泛接受所需的维护工作。
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Some types of article suffer more from each of these problems than others. Geographical names rarely suffer from frequent changes, but may suffer from several competing authorities, particularly in disputed and/or historically significant territories. Official names of unreleased games may change several times within a week, but there is only one authority, the vendor. Common drugs such as aspirin typically have official names (2-acetyloxybenzoic acid in the case of aspirin) that are sufficiently obscure as to be completely unknown and unrecognizable to the vast majority of their users. Official names of sponsored sports teams, tournaments and venues change whenever a sponsorship agreement begins or ends.

Using common names also reflects the general trend, since the mid-twentieth century, away from Victorian-era linguistic prescription. We use English as we find it. Trying to improve the consistency of English may be a laudable thing (or not), but Wikipedia is not the place to do it.

当条目标题不是官方名称时[编辑]

如果存在无可争议的官方名称时:

  • 应该在条目介绍开始时提供(如序言),在第一次提及时加上粗体。
  • 如果官方名称与条目名称不同,则应该创建从官方名称到条目名称的重定向。

有争议,以前的或历史性的官方名称也应该以重定向体现,并在文章中加入类似介绍,除非有很多名称或名称比较模糊,在这种情况下:

  • 在条目的适当章节提及(通常为第一句)这些名称。
  • 重定向应指向条目这一章节.

所有官方名称的重定向都应以{{R from official name}}模板标记,该模板会自动将其放入适当的分类中。

参见[编辑]