维基百科:格式手冊/嵌入列表

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嵌入列表(Embedded lists)是包含在條目文字或列於文末,收錄連結、資料或訊息的列表。嵌入列表可能使用表格形式。嵌入列表僅應在合適時使用;有時較之於文段,訊息更適合以列表形式展示。以列表形式提供過多統計資料可能違反方針

段落與列表[编辑]

快捷方式
WP:PROSE
WP:USEPROSE

維基百科將條目分為以列表為主(稱作「列表」或「獨立列表」)和以段落為主(稱作「條目」)兩類。條目旨在主要由段落組成,儘管其中可以包含列表

Prose is preferred in articles as prose allows the presentation of detail and clarification of context, in a way that a simple list may not. Prose flows, like one person speaking to another. It is best suited to articles, because their purpose is to explain. Lists of links, which are most useful for browsing subject areas, should usually have their own entries: see Wikipedia:Stand-alone lists for detail. In an article, significant items should normally be mentioned naturally within the text rather than merely listed. For example:

段落 無內容的列表
紐約市20世紀建築學含有很多建築符號,其以醒目摩天大樓最為知名。在世紀之初,城市成為布雜藝術——以建築師斯坦福·懷特卡爾雷爾和黑斯廷斯為代表——運動的中心。紐約新摩天大樓包括:位於第五大道和百老匯交叉口麥迪遜廣場熨斗大廈(1902年);由卡斯·吉爾巴特設計, 俯瞰市政廳的新哥特式「大教堂商務部」,伍爾沃斯大樓(1913年);裝飾藝術純粹表達的克萊斯勒大廈(1929年);以及帝國大廈(1931年)。現代主義建築師雷蒙德·胡德,和二戰結束後的利華大廈,開始的“玻璃盒子”集群改變了1930年代的經典輪廓線,並以世界貿易中心大樓(1973年)告終。 紐約市20世紀建築學

當您發現不合適或編寫不佳的列表,請在條目頂部掛上清理模板。例如,可以對更適合改寫為段落的嵌入列表使用{{Prose}}模板。其它清理模板列於Wikipedia:模板消息/清理#內容

適用列表之處[编辑]

雖然條目編寫通常首選段落,但有時特定格式列表的可能更為合適。可以考慮這些場合和列表格式:

子項目[编辑]

當內容為前方段落的一系列“子項目”時,可以適當使用列表樣式。Such "children" logically qualify for indentation beneath their parent description. In this case, indenting the paragraphs in list form may make them easier to read, especially if the paragraphs are very short. The following example works both with and without the bullets:

段落 列表
At the beginning of the 20th century, New York City was a center for the Beaux-Arts architectural movement, attracting the talents of such great architects as Stanford White and Carrere and Hastings. As better construction and engineering technology became available as the century progressed, New York became the focal point of the competition for the tallest building in the world.

The city's striking skyline has been composed of numerous and varied skyscrapers, many of which are icons of 20th-century architecture. The Flatiron Building, standing 285 ft (87 meters) high, was one of the tallest buildings in the city upon its completion in 1902, made possible by its steel skeleton. It was one of the first buildings designed with a steel framework, and to achieve this height with other construction methods of that time would have been very difficult. The Woolworth Building, a neo-Gothic "Cathedral of Commerce" overlooking City Hall, was designed by Cass Gilbert. At 792 feet (241 meters), it became the world's tallest building upon its completion in 1913, an honor it retained until 1930, when it was overtaken by 40 Wall Street. That same year, the Chrysler Building took the lead as the tallest building in the world, scraping the sky at 1,046 feet (319 m). More impressive than its height is the building's design, by William Van Alen. Anart deco masterpiece with an exterior crafted of brick, the Chrysler Building continues to be a favorite of New Yorkers to this day.

At the beginning of the 20th century, New York City was a center for the Beaux-Arts architectural movement, attracting the talents of such great architects as Stanford White and Carrere and Hastings. As better construction and engineering technology became available as the century progressed, New York became the focal point of the competition for the tallest building in the world. The city's striking skyline has been composed of numerous and varied skyscrapers, many of which are icons of 20th-century architecture:
  • The Flatiron Building, standing 285 ft (87 meters) high, was one of the tallest buildings in the city upon its completion in 1902, made possible by its steel skeleton. It was one of the first buildings designed with a steel framework, and to achieve this height with other construction methods of that time would have been very difficult.
  • The Woolworth Building, a neo-Gothic "Cathedral of Commerce" overlooking City Hall, was designed by Cass Gilbert. At 792 feet (241 meters), it became the world's tallest building upon its completion in 1913, an honor it retained until 1930, when it was overtaken by 40 Wall Street.
  • That same year, the Chrysler Building took the lead as the tallest building in the world, scraping the sky at 1,046 feet (319 m). More impressive than its height is the building's design, by William Van Alen. An art deco masterpiece with an exterior crafted of brick, the Chrysler Building continues to be a favorite of New Yorkers to this day.

長序列[编辑]

有時,對於句子中的长序列,列表樣式可能更為合適,試比較:

段落 列表
Philosophers discuss the meaning, function, and possibility of offering definitions. It is typical (e.g., in college logic texts) to distinguish a number of different kinds and techniques of definition, including dictionary or lexical definition, intensional definition, extensional definition, ostensive definition, stipulative definition, operational definition, theoretical definition, persuasive definition, anddefinition by genus and difference. Philosophers discuss the meaning, function, and possibility of offering definitions. It is typical (e.g., in college logic texts) to distinguish a number of different kinds and techniques of definition, including:

定義列表[编辑]

一系列的定義應使用定義列表的正確格式。定義列表雖佔用較多空間,但更便於讀者閱讀。正確的定義列表格式對螢幕閱讀器讀者更有親和力,並在相關HTML檢驗、瀏覽器相容性和未來自動應用格式變更上有各種技術優勢。 請勿在列表項目之間留空行。

最典型的用法是詞彙的定義列表,相較於其他格式,這時定義列表是最好的。對於包含多個段落的大型定義或項目列表,使用其他格式應該更好。定義列表偶作其他用途,如細分大段(如很長的外部連結擴展閱讀章節)。

段落 列表

A disease is any abnormal condition that impairs normal function, especially infectious diseases, which are clinically evident diseases that result from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents. Illness or sickness are usually synonyms for disease, except when used to refer specifically to the patient's personal experience of their disease. Medical condition is a broad term that includes all diseases and disorders, but can also include injuries and normal health situations, such as pregnancy, that might affect a person's health, benefit from medical assistance, or have implications for medical treatments.

Disease 
Any abnormal condition that impairs normal function, especially infectious diseases, which are clinically evident diseases that result from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents.
Illness or sickness 
Synonyms for disease, except when used to refer specifically to the patient's personal experience of their disease.
Medical condition 
A broad term that includes all diseases and disorders, but can also include injuries and normal health situations, such as pregnancy, that might affect a person's health, benefit from medical assistance, or have implications for medical treatments.

作品列表與時間軸[编辑]

個人或團體的作品列表,如書目列表、唱片列表、電影作品列表、個人專輯和唱片曲目列表,以及時間軸或年表,通常以簡單列表形式表示——雖然可以想到的這些信息要點已經在條目段落中介紹。如果列表冗長,則會依據概要風格拆分為獨立列表。列表內容需遵守比重原則等內容方針,對於人物列表,如同對象收錄在條目中一樣,收錄文字必需具有同樣的重要性,須遵從同樣的方針與指引(包括瑣碎章節)。演員名單盡可能以段落方式表示。年表标准給出了關於時間軸的具體建議。

表格[编辑]

表格通常為以行和列展示連結、資料或信息的方式。它們比列表形式複雜。表格可以用來展示數學資料,如乘法表、數字對比或成績分佈。表格還可以展示兩種或多種語言間的等效詞,以種類和年歸類列出獎項,以及複雜的唱片分類目錄等。可考慮通過折疊表格將內容併入段落

相關主題(導航列表)[编辑]

參見列表和相關主題列表是協助使用者搜索相關維基百科條目的有用導航工具。再決定為特定條目加入什麼條目或條目列表時,試著站在讀者的角度去考慮:自問讀者在閱畢條目後可能想做什麼。理想情況下,該章節的連結應該融入條目中。該章節通常包括三類連結:

見:Wikipedia:版面指南#附錄Wikipedia:導航模板

關於條目中應放置的條目連結和列表連結數,這存在一些爭議。一些人會將「條目連結」(置於「參見」章節)從「列表連結」(置於「相關主題」章節)中分立出來,然而除非歸於一個章節會有太多連結,否則不必如此。一些人認為條目中列表連結的數量應該是一兩個(或更少),但另一些人認為全面的連結列表相當有用。一般而言,就像我們決定在參見章節列出什麼條目一樣,我們也應以同樣標準來選擇所列的列表。我們要將自己融入讀者的心境,並自問「閱畢條目後我想去看什麼?」。

參考資料與外部連結[编辑]

參考資料列表列出了維基百科以外的信息來源。這包括兩大類:

  • “網頁超連結”,列出指向維基百科外站點的連結,置於「外部連結」標題下;
  • “參考文獻”-列出學術期刊或書籍,置於「參考文獻」標題下。

將網頁連結列表與書籍、期刊文章列表結合相當常見,這時標題可以為「外部連結與參考文獻」「外部資料」「其它參考資料」或「其它來源」。關於更多參考資料列表的信息,請見Wikipedia:版面指南

維基百科不是連結收集處,條目也不應只有外部連結。然而引用網際網路上更詳細的材料則是合適的,特別是網站作為信息的重要來源的情況下。

網頁親和力[编辑]

請勿在列表項目之中留空行分隔,即使是無序或定義列表。

大小[编辑]

鑒於嵌入列表與表格的用途和適用範圍,應控制他們盡可能短:嵌入列表的內容應和條目主題有關,並除去不必要的細節;據方針,統計資料應控制在最短。

有些內容可能不適合削減或使用摘要格式概括。可考慮保持主條目的全部嵌入內容,或將其全部拆分為子條目,然後留一個{{參見}}模板。

對於“知名人物”或“校友”等內容,或需要閱讀背景,或只需掃讀內容,這時視大小,可以選擇章節引言總起並詳述、無序列表或文段等格式。如果列表過長無法概括且不適合分割,則章節總起後接描述與無序列表多勝過長段文字。

無序列表與有序列表[编辑]

  • 如果普通的段落即易讀,則請勿使用列表。
  • 使用適當的維基語法或基於模板的列表代碼。(見WP:格式手冊/列表Help:列表
  • 請勿在無序或有序列表中留空行,除非有理由如此,因為維基軟體會視此為開始新列表。
  • 僅在以下情況以有序列表代替無序列表:
    • 需要涉及元素的升序排列;
    • 項目順序至關重要;
    • 序號有獨立意義,如音樂曲目列表。
  • 為列表匯總全部元素使用相同格式的語法,並請勿將句子和句片段共同當作元素。
    • 若元素為整句,則句子以句號結尾。
    • 若元素為句子片段,則列表通常以引導片段起頭,並以冒號結尾。列表中個元素須以分號結尾,最後一個元素則使用句號。否則(特別是作品列表或元素很短),所有列表元素都不需要結尾標點符號。