基督教对酒的观点

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基督教对酒的观点有许多,基督教千余年的历史中,基督教徒酒精饮料作为日常生活中不可缺少的一部分,在圣餐中几乎总是饮用葡萄酒[1][2]依据《圣经》和基督教传统,认为酒是的礼物,可以使到生活更加快乐,但是酗酒所导致的醉酒是一种[3][4]在19世纪中期,出现对酒精消费持着温和主义的教徒外,也出现了回避主义及禁酒主义的新教徒[5]今日,上述三种主义都存在于基督教,但是温和主义仍然占据多数,例如英国国教天主教东正教及相当大一部分的新教

圣经中的酒[编辑]

酒精饮料频繁出现在圣经之中。一方面它可以带来欢乐的神的祝福,另一方面它也可能导致人失去理智或对他人施虐。[6][7][8] 基督教对酒的观点大多基于圣经,以及犹太人基督教传统圣经语言中有数个单词代表酒精饮料,[4][9] 同时尽管一些禁酒主义和回避主义者有不同的看法,[10][11][12][13] 但通常都认为这些单词最初并不是指会使人喝醉的饮料。[4][6][8][14][15][16][17]

在圣经中描绘的日常生活里频繁出现的葡萄酒总有着积极或消极的隐喻意味。[18][19] 从积极的方面来讲,葡萄酒是丰产和圣血的象征[20] 反之,它也是嘲讽者的象征,[21] 满饮一杯烈性葡萄酒有时可能会是上帝的审判或愤怒的象征。[22]

圣经中曾提及葡萄酒会带来欢愉。[23] 旧约中葡萄酒用在祭仪节日庆祝上。[4] 福音书中载耶稣的第一个神迹是在迦拿的婚礼[24],造出了大量的葡萄酒,[25] 当在最后的晚餐上享用圣餐时,[26]他说葡萄酒[27][28] 是“用(他的)血所立的新约”,[29] 不过在这一点的具体所指上还存在争议[30] 在圣经时代,酒也作医疗用途,例如口服麻醉剂、[31] 局部清洁剂[32] 以及助消化。[33]

《诺亚醉酒》,乔凡尼·贝利尼

旧约里的国王和神父在很多时候都不可以饮用葡萄酒,[34] 一些时候连醋、葡萄和葡萄干都不可以享用。[35][36][37] 圣保罗进一步指出了基督教徒对于未成熟的基督教徒们的责任:“若是吃肉和饮葡萄酒会造成你的兄弟们堕落,就不要去做这様的事”。[38]

实际上所有的基督教派都同意圣经确实在很多章中都对醉酒进行了谴责,[39]伊斯顿的圣经词典》中说:

[4] 此外,诺亚[40]罗得[41] 醉酒的后果也被用来警告他人不要酗酒,[42] 而且圣保罗也因科林斯人在圣餐庆典上醉酒而责骂过他们。[43] 对几乎所有的基督教徒来说,醉酒不仅仅是一种令人厌恶的个人和社会陋习,同时也挡住了天堂大门,亵渎了栖居著圣灵的身体以及教会。[3]

圣经时代的葡萄酒酿造[编辑]

巴勒斯坦的气候和土地都很适宜种植葡萄,[44] 当时葡萄酒是一种重要的商品。[45][46] 葡萄园有围墙、篱笆以及瞭望塔守卫,以防强盗及动物的威胁。[47]

古以色列的葡萄酒压榨的地点,右边是压榨葡萄的池子,左边的坑用来收集葡萄汁

葡萄的丰收带来欢乐,[48][49][50] 一些收获的葡萄会被马上吃掉,而其他的则被制成葡萄干以及酿成葡萄酒。[49]

酿造葡萄酒时,在压榨之后就开始进行发酵,并被倒入巨大的陶罐中密封保存。如果需要运输,则倒入葡萄酒囊(一般由鞣制山羊皮制成)中。[44] 数星期后后发酵完毕,被倒入更大容器里贮藏后者直接外售。[49][51] 通常当时的葡萄酒中会加入香料等物质以掩盖其缺陷。[52]

住棚节被描述为葡萄丰收和压榨后紧接而来的节日。[53]

基督教历史和传统中的酒精[编辑]

基督之前[编辑]

基督之前希伯来人认为葡萄酒是神创造的这个世界的一部分,因此虽然过度饮酒会带来危害,但它“必然本来就是好的”。[54] 犹太人也更强调快乐而不是节欲[55]

直到巴比伦之囚(大约公元前537年左右)后和旧约结束时,葡萄酒一直都是“各年龄段和各阶层中的常见饮品、营养的重要来源、节日中最重要的成分、一种被广泛认可的药物、任何要塞的供应品以及重要的商品”,被当做“希伯来人生活中不可少的一个元素”。[56] 安息日的终节仪式上、割礼、逾越节和婚礼上也会用到葡萄酒。[57]

有些人认为在圣经中葡萄酒常是被用水稀释来减弱其效力的,[13] 但是一般观点是圣经中的葡萄酒虽有时混合香料来提味,但不常用水稀释,[58][59][60] 并且掺水的葡萄酒在旧约中是腐败的隐喻。[61] 但是希腊人却常在酒中加水以减弱其效力并改善口感。[62]马加比二书(约公元前二到一世纪)的时代,亚历山大大帝征服了巴勒斯坦,犹太人也很大程度上接受了一些希腊文化,[59][63] 并将之带入新约时代的犹太人祭仪中。[64][65]

古罗马时期,庞培再次征服巴勒斯坦,并设犹太行省,当地人也成为罗马公民,按规定每个普通成年公民每天可以喝大约1升葡萄酒,[66] 不过那时相对葡萄酒来说,啤酒则更为常见。[67]

基督教早期[编辑]

使徒教父们很少提及葡萄酒,[68] 但是基督教早期教父明确提及早期基督教在圣餐上会使用葡萄酒,并依据流行风俗兑水。[69][70]在《提摩太前书》中保罗有建议身体不适的提摩太可以喝一点酒。十二使徒遗训中有命令基督教徒们分出一部分的葡萄酒以支持一位真正的先知,如果他们没有先知的话则分给穷人。[71]

亚历山太的革利免(死于约215年)曾写道,他很赞赏那些生活作风严肃,能节制饮酒的人,并建议年轻人要节制饮酒以免点燃他们的“野性激情”,但是并不排斥用酒做药,在一天的工作后小酌两口也是可以接受的。[72][73]

居普良(死于258年)认为像诺斯底主义信徒那样在圣餐中以水代酒违背了“福音派和使徒的准则”,不过他也反对醉酒。[74]

约翰一世(死于407年)强调饮酒适度,并驳斥了一些异教徒和基督教徒认为不应有葡萄酒存在的观点,他说

[75][76]

因此,节制这一观点从希腊哲学中逐渐渗入基督教伦理学,并成为安波罗修[77]希波的奥古斯丁[78][79]所推崇的四枢德之一。相反,醉酒则被认为属于七宗罪之一的贪食[80]

中世纪[编辑]

僧侣管窖人正在从酒桶中取酒出来品尝,这幅画来自于一份13世纪的泥金写本

罗马帝国的衰落使得西欧中欧葡萄酒的生产和消费大受影响,不过教会(特别是在拜占庭)依旧保存下了葡萄栽培葡萄酒酿制的技术。[81]

中世纪的僧侣是成功的啤酒和葡萄酒酿造人之一,[82] 同时他们每天被允许可以喝5升啤酒,并且斋戒期间也可以饮用啤酒。[83][84] 圣本笃(死于547年)创立的圣本笃会规中偏向认为僧侣每日应无葡萄酒,同时也相信戒酒是抑制物欲的通途。[85] 但是他本人也曾指出这是令人不愉快的。故而圣本笃做了让步,认为每日可以饮用四分之一升(或半升)的葡萄酒,[86] 特殊情况下可以更多,[87] 同时禁酒也成为了一项惩罚措施。[88]

托马斯·阿奎那(死于1274年)认为适度饮酒不影响被救赎,但是特定的某些人需要完全戒酒。[89] 他认为圣餐上一定要有葡萄酒,同时未发酵的葡萄汁也被当做是葡萄酒——因为它可以自然转变成后者。[90]

1319年,贝尔纳多·托洛梅伊最初坚持比本笃会更严格的禁欲规则。其追随者是“狂热的完全禁欲者”,甚至摧毁了他们自己的葡萄园,但这相关规章不久便被修改了。[91]

因为天主教圣餐饮用的需要,[92]除了一些酒精过敏的僧侣,[93]传教士们将葡萄种植技术带到了几乎所有他们能抵达的地方,以生产葡萄酒并用以进行弥撒[82] 天主教有许多早期和中世纪圣人都与酒有关,例如啤酒的主保圣人圣艾德里安酿酒者酒保以及葡萄酒商人的主保圣人圣阿曼德都尔的玛尔定以及葡萄酒商的主保圣人圣文森特[82]

东正教,除去圣餐之外,其他一些仪式也需要用到葡萄酒。在圣餐之后,信徒们会饮用一杯温葡萄酒。不过在大多是斋日东正教图都是不可以喝葡萄酒的,圣特立冯是葡萄园工人的主保圣人。在塞尔维亚东正教会中,葡萄就会被用在庆祝一个叫做Slava的节日。[94]

宗教改革[编辑]

宗教改革中,从马丁·路德约翰·加尔文慈运理约翰·诺克斯都支持在仪式中使用葡萄酒,[95] 加尔文本人在日内瓦的年薪中就包括几桶葡萄酒。[96] 路德会协和信条(1576年)、[97] 卫理公会教纲(1784年)[98]再洗礼派[99][100][101][102] 也都支持使用葡萄酒。在英国清教徒也支持饮用葡萄酒和麦芽酒[103]

美洲殖民地[编辑]

最初前往美洲的移民几乎每人都带着一定数量的酒,[104] 并将之用于几乎任何领域,包括神职授任、葬礼等等。[105] 美洲殖民地牧师、哈佛大学校长英克里斯·马瑟在一次布道时说:[106]

卫理公会[编辑]

约翰·卫斯理认为烈酒,例如白兰地威士忌不应用于除医疗外的其他地方,并且说不加选择地将蒸馏器卖给他人甚于神谴的毒药和谋杀。[107] 1744年,卫斯理给卫理公会下的一些组织的指示中要求他们“不品尝任何含酒精的液体...除非有医师许可”。[108] 1780年,在巴尔的摩的一场卫斯理工会会议上,教徒们公开反对烈酒生产并决定与不愿放弃生产烈酒的人脱离关系。[109]第一波美国禁酒运动之后,他们将戒酒的范围扩展到了除烈酒之外的其他酒精饮料。[109][110]

卫斯理的宗教会规在1784年被美国的美以美会接受了,承认葡萄酒可用于圣餐并且任何人都可以享用。[111]

禁酒运动[编辑]

很多大规模的禁酒运动都是在19世纪之后发起的,而它们又多数只是反烈酒,[112] 在反对者看来烈酒更便宜也更容易使人醉酒,同时也并不都反对适当饮用其他的酒精饮料。然而随着美洲大陆第二次大觉醒的发生,禁酒运动也逐渐开始排斥一切酒精饮料了。[113][114][115]

最终的结果是酒开始被厌弃,以至于开始从圣餐等宗教仪式中逐渐减少了。[113][116] 然而在许多教会中葡萄酒这样的葡萄酿造的酒还是很受欢迎的,而一些教会则宣称需要在圣餐中使用“未发酵的酒”,[117] 因此一些禁酒者开始用浓缩葡萄汁取代葡萄酒。[118] 1869年,托马斯·布拉姆韦尔·韦尔奇[119] 找到了利用巴士德消毒法保存葡萄汁的方法,这样教会就可以方便地在圣餐中使用葡萄汁而不必担忧其腐败问题了。

1838年至1845年,爱尔兰禁酒人士、神父西奥博尔德·马修一共对大约三到四百万人做了禁酒宣传,并和一些美国人形成了许多禁酒团体,但是其影响力却十分有限。1872年,美国基督教完全禁酒联盟联合这些团体成立,1913年其会员达到90,000人,其中不乏青少年和女性,其宗旨是通过说服普通人而不是利用政治手段来达成目的,其行为受到了两任天主教教宗利奥十三世(1878年)和庇护十世(1906年)的赞许。[120] 不过也有相当的反对声音,例如密尔沃基的大主教塞巴斯蒂安·杰拉尔德·梅斯梅尔公开谴责禁酒运动遵循了“绝对错误的准则”并蓄意破坏教会“最神圣的秘密”——即圣餐,并且禁止他主教教区内的神父支持禁酒运动,而建议他们采取温和的态度。[121] 最终,天主教教义并没有受到禁酒运动太大的影响。[122][123]

路德教和英国国教也没有转变它们的中立地位,甚至英国的宗教禁酒团体事实上也不完全主张禁酒。[124] 而其他的教会则频繁出现在禁酒的舞台上,[125][126] 许多卫理公会、浸信会长老会教徒都支持绝对禁酒。[127]

20世纪早期禁酒运动达到高峰,随后便开始衰落。[128] 相对美国来说,不列颠群岛北欧和其他一些地区禁酒运动的影响就更加微弱。[126][129]

现今[编辑]

现在,基督教关于酒的观点大致可分为温和主义、回避主义和禁酒主义。后二者观点有相似之处,其区别在于前者支持利用理智来达成禁酒的目的,而后者则偏向利用法律。[5]

温和主义[编辑]

持该观点的是罗马天主教[130]东正教[131]圣公会[8] 以及诸多新教教派,路德教[132][133]耶和华见证会[134]改革宗也接受这一观点。[135][136][137][138][139]

温和主义认为根据圣经和传统智慧,酒是神赐的礼物,就算有危险性,也应该采取温和和理智的态度而不是完全否定它。[113][140][141] 他们也认为节制比禁欲更符合圣经规范。[142][143]

大体上所有的持温和主义的教派都支持在圣餐中使用葡萄酒,[92][93] 不过由于禁酒主义者的影响和部分人的过敏体质问题,也会提供葡萄汁来代替葡萄酒。[132][136][137][144] 一些基督教徒会按照古代传统在酒中兑水。[145][146]

回避主义[编辑]

持这一观点的教派是浸信会[147]五旬节派[148]、卫理公会[149] 以及其他福音派教会和包括救世军在内的一些新教组织。[150] 回避主义的著名支持者有葛培理[151]约翰·F·麦克阿瑟[152]阿尔伯特·莫勒[153]约翰·派博[154]

回避主义者相信尽管酒精消费本身不是邪恶的,也不需要在任何场合都回避,但它还是一个不明智的,或者不是最谨慎的选择。[155] 尽管他们不需要禁止自己饮酒以保证在教会内的地位,但是高层人士还须注意。[17][154][156]

回避主义者认为圣经中有警告酒会影响人的道德判断立,[157] 如果执意饮酒也可能会造成异见者之间的矛盾从而进一步影响基督教的统一和教徒间的友爱,[158] 同时因为酒会带来不好的影响故而必须要反对,一些回避主义者认为这可以提升自己的品德。[156][157]

此外,他们认为虽然在古代饮酒是更容易接受的,[17][159] 但是现在的环境已然不同了。他们认为在圣经时代的葡萄酒没有现在这么强烈,并且因为会兑水所以更不容易喝醉,[160][161][162] 不过有一些非回避主义者认为这个论据并不十分可靠。[58][59][143] 同时现在的经济和技术都大不一样,故而两者是不能相提并论的。[161][163]

禁酒主义[编辑]

自禁酒运动衰退之后,持禁酒主义的人数便逐渐减少。依旧持该论点的教会和组织有南美浸信会[164][165]基督复临教派[166][167] 救世军的创始人卜威廉就是一位禁酒主义者,[168]不过他所成立的组织现在已经改持回避主义了。[150]

禁酒主义者例如史蒂芬·M·雷诺兹[169][170][171] 和Jack Van Impe[172] 都认为圣经禁止了饮酒,认为圣经中的一个章节[173] 里所提到的用来疗伤的酒实际上是未发酵的葡萄汁,[12] 且实际上圣经中提及的所谓的酒精饮料实际上真实性还待定。[11][171] 一些禁酒主义者认为圣经中翻译的相关词汇存在偏差。[12][171]

后期圣徒运动中最大的团体耶稣基督后期圣徒教会也认为神曾经说过反对酒精的使用。[174][175] 他们的依据主要是摩尔门教正典教义和圣约》中的智慧之言,尽管其中有提到在类似于圣餐的圣礼中可以使用葡萄酒,[176] 但摩尔门教现在已在该仪式中换用了水。[177]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ R. V. Pierard. Alcohol, Drinking of. (编) Walter A. Elwell. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House: 28f. 1984. ISBN 0-8010-3413-2. 
  2. ^ F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone (编). Wine. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, USA: 1767. 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3. [W]ine has traditionally been held to be one of the essential materials for a valid Eucharist, though some have argued that unfermented grape-juice fulfils the Dominical [that is, Jesus'] command. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Raymond, p. 90.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Wine. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897 [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2017-07-28). 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Kenneth Gentry. God Gave Wine. Oakdown. 2001: 3ff. ISBN 0-9700326-6-8. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Bruce Waltke. Commentary on 20:1. The Book of Proverbs: Chapters 15-31. Wm. B. Eerdmans. 2005: 127. ISBN 978-0-8028-2776-0. 
     ? F. S. Fitzsimmonds. Wine and Strong Drink. (编) J. D. Douglas. New Bible Dictionary 2nd ed. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press: 1255. 1982. ISBN 0-8308-1441-8. These two aspects of wine, its use and its abuse, its benefits and its curse, its acceptance in God's sight and its abhorrence, are interwoven into the fabric of the [Old Testament] so that it may gladden the heart of man (Ps. 104:15) or cause his mind to err (Is. 28:7), it can be associated with merriment (Ec. 10:19) or with anger (Is. 5:11), it can be used to uncover the shame of Noah (Gn. 9:21) or in the hands of Melchizedek to honor Abraham (Gn. 14:18) ... The references [to alcohol] in the [New Testament] are very much fewer in number, but once more the good and the bad aspects are equally apparent ... 
     ? D. Miall Edwards. Drunkenness. (编) James Orr. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915b [2007-03-09]. (原始内容存档于2007-09-27). [Wine's] value is recognized as a cheering beverage (Jdg 9:13; Ps 104:15; Prov 31:7), which enables the sick to forget their pains (Prov 31:6). Moderation, however, is strongly inculcated and there are frequent warnings against the temptation and perils of the cup. 
     ? John McClintock and James Strong (eds.). Wine. Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature X. New York: Harper and Brothers: 1016. 1891 [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2013-05-30). But while liberty to use wine, as well as every other earthly blessing, is conceded and maintained in the Bible, yet all abuse of it is solemnly condemned. 
  7. ^ I. W. Raymond. The Teaching of the Early Church on the Use of Wine and Strong Drink. AMS Press. 1970: 25 [1927]. ISBN 978-0-404-51286-6. This favorable view [of wine in the Bible], however, is balanced by an unfavorable estimate ... The reason for the presence of these two conflicting opinions on the nature of wine [is that the] consequences of wine drinking follow its use and not its nature. Happy results ensue when it is drunk in its proper measure and evil results when it is drunk to excess. The nature of wine is indifferent. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Ethical Investment Advisory Group. Alcohol: An inappropriate investment for the Church of England (PDF). Church of England. January 2005 [2007-02-08]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2007-02-26). Christians who are committed to total abstinence have sometimes interpreted biblical references to wine as meaning unfermented grape juice, but this is surely inconsistent with the recognition of both good and evil in the biblical attitude to wine. It is self-evident that human choice plays a crucial role in the use or abuse of alcohol. 
  9. ^ Fitzsimmonds, pp. 1254f.
  10. ^ Stephen M. Reynolds. The Biblical Approach to Alcohol. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1989. [W]herever oinos [Greek for 'wine'] appears in the New Testament, we may understand it as unfermented grape juice unless the passage clearly indicates that the inspired writer was speaking of an intoxicating drink. 
     ? Stuart, Moses. Encyclopedia of Temperance and Prohibition. New York: Funk and Wagnalls: 621. 1891. Wherever the Scriptures speak of wine as a comfort, a blessing or a libation to God, and rank it with such articles as corn and oil, they mean—they can mean only—such wine as contained no alcohol that could have a mischievous tendency; that wherever they denounce it, prohibit it and connect it with drunkenness and reveling, they can mean only alcoholic or intoxicating wines.  Quoted in Reynolds, The Biblical Approach to Alcohol.
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Ralph Earle. 1 Timothy 5:13. Word Meanings in the New Testament. Kansas City, Missouri: Beacon Hill Press. 1986. ISBN 0-8341-1176-4. Oinos is used in the Septuagint for both fermented and unfermented grape juice. Since it can mean either one, it is valid to insist that in some cases it may simply mean grape juice and not fermented wine. 
     ? Dave Miller. Elders, Deacons, Timothy, and Wine. Apologetics Press. 2003 [2008-03-25]. (原始内容存档于2008-04-08). The term oinos was used by the Greeks to refer to unfermented grape juice every bit as much as fermented juice. Consequently, the interpreter must examine the biblical context in order to determine whether fermented or unfermented liquid is intended. 
     ? Frederic Richard Lees; Dawson Burns. Appendix C-D. The Temperance Bible-Commentary. New York: National Temperance Society and Publication House. 1870: 431–446. 
     ? William Patton. Christ Eating and Drinking. Laws of Fermentation and the Wines of the Ancients. New York: National Temperance Society and Publication House. 1871: 79 [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2008-06-21). Oinos is a generic word, and, as such, includes all kinds of wine and all stages of the juice of the grape, and sometimes the clusters and even the vine ... 
     ? G. A. McLauchlin. Commentary on Saint John. Salem, Ohio: Convention Book Store H. E. Schmul. 1973: 32 [1913]. There were ... two kinds of wine. We have no reason to believe that Jesus used the fermented wine unless we can prove it ... God is making unfermented wine and putting in skin cases and hanging it upon the vines in clusters every year. 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 12.2 Samuele Bacchiocchi. A Preview of Wine in the Bible. [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2007-02-02).  引用错误:带有name属性“Bacchiocchi”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 John MacArthur. Living in the Spirit: Be Not Drunk with Wine--Part 2. [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-23). 
  14. ^ W. Ewing. Wine. (编) James Hastings. Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels 2. Edinburgh: T & T Clark: 824. 1913 [2007-03-14]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-16). There is nothing known in the East of anything called 'wine' which is unfermented ... [The Palestinian Jews'] attitude towards the drinker of unfermented grape juice may be gathered from the saying in Pirke Aboth (iv. 28), 'He who learns from the young, to what is he like? to one who eats unripe grapes and drinks wine from his vat [that is, unfermented juice].'  (Emphasis in original.)
     ? Charles Hodge. The Lord’s Supper. Systematic Theology. Wm. B. Eerdmans. 1940: 3:616 [1872] [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2006-01-10). That [oinos] in the Bible, when unqualified by such terms as new, or sweet, means the fermented juice of the grape, is hardly an open question. It has never been questioned in the Church, if we except a few Christians of the present day. And it may safely be said that there is not a scholar on the continent of Europe, who has the least doubt on the subject. 
     ? A. A. Hodge. Evangelical Theology. : 347f. 'Wine,' according to the absolutely unanimous, unexceptional testimony of every scholar and missionary, is in its essence 'fermented grape juice.' Nothing else is wine ... There has been absolutely universal consent on this subject in the Christian Church until modern times, when the practice has been opposed, not upon change of evidence, but solely on prudential considerations.  Quoted in Keith Mathison. Protestant Transubstantiation - Part 3: Historic Reformed & Baptist Testimony. IIIM Magazine Online. January 8 to January 14, 2001, 3 (2) [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2007-09-27). 
  15. ^ W. J. Beecher. Total abstinence. The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge: 472. [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-16). The Scriptures, rightly understood, are thus the strongest bulwark of a true doctrine of total abstinence, so false exegesis of the Scriptures by temperance advocates, including false theories of unfermented wine, have done more than almost anything else to discredit the good cause. The full abandonment of these bad premises would strengthen the cause immeasurably. 
  16. ^ William Kaiser and Duane Garrett (编). Wine and Alcoholic Beverages in the Ancient World. Archaeological Study Bible. Zondervan. 2006. ISBN 978-0-310-92605-4. [T]here is no basis for suggesting that either the Greek or the Hebrew terms for wine refer to unfermented grape juice. 
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 17.2 John F. MacArthur. GC 70-11: "Bible Questions and Answers". [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-03). 
     ? Pierard, p. 28: "No evidence whatsoever exists to support the notion that the wine mentioned in the Bible was unfermented grape juice. When juice is referred to, it is not called wine (Gen. 40:11 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). Nor can 'new wine' ... mean unfermented juice, because the process of chemical change begins almost immediately after pressing."
  18. ^ W. Dommershausen. Yayin. (编) G. Johannes Botterweck and Helmer Ringgren. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament VI. trans. David E. Green. Wm. B. Eerdmans: 64. 1990. ISBN 0-8028-2330-0. 
  19. ^ Raymond, p. 24: "The numerous allusions to the vine and wine in the Old Testament furnish an admirable basis for the study of its estimation among the people at large."
  20. ^ Ge 27:28; 49:9-12; Dt 7:13; 11:14; 15:14; compare 33:28; Pr 3:9f; Jr 31:10-12; Ho 2:21-22; Jl 2:19,24; 3:18; Am 9:13f; compare 2Ki 18:31-32; 2Ch 32:28; Ne 5:11; 13:12 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆; etc.
  21. ^ Pr 20:1. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-05-27). 
  22. ^ Ps 60:3; 75:8; Is 51:17-23; 63:6; Jr 13:12-14; 25:15-29; 49:12; 51:7; La 4:21f; Ezk 23:28-33; Na 1:9f; Hab 2:15f; Zc 12:2; Mt 20:22; 26:39, 42; Lk 22:42; Jn 18:11; Re 14:10; 16:19 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆; compare Ps Sol 8:14 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  23. ^ Jg 9:13; Ps 4:7; 104:15; Ec 9:7; 10:19; Zc 9:17; 10:7. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-24). 
  24. ^ Jn 2:1-11; 4:46. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-24). 
  25. ^ Six pots of thirty-nine liters each = 234 liters = 61.8 gallons, according to Heinrich Seesemann. οινο?. (编) Gerhard Kittel and Ronald E. Pitkin. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament V. trans. Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Wm. B. Eerdmans: 163. 1967. ISBN 0-8028-2247-9. 
  26. ^ Mt 26:17-19; Mk 14:12-16; Lk 22:7-13 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. The Gospel of John offers some difficulties when compared with the Synoptists' accounts on whether the meal was part of the Passover proper. In any case, it seems that the Last Supper was most likely somehow associated with Passover, even if it wasn't the paschal feast itself. See the discussion in Leon Morris. Additional Note H: The Last Supper and the Passover. The Gospel According to John. New International Commentary on the New Testament revised. Wm. B. Eerdmans. 1995: 684–695. ISBN 978-0-8028-2504-9. 
  27. ^ Seesemann, p. 162: "Wine is specifically mentioned as an integral part of the passover meal no earlier than Jub. 49:6 ['... all Israel was eating the flesh of the paschal lamb, and drinking the wine ...'], but there can be no doubt that it was in use long before." P. 164: "In the accounts of the Last Supper the term [wine] occurs neither in the Synoptists nor Paul. It is obvious, however, that according to custom Jesus was proffering wine in the cup over which He pronounced the blessing; this may be seen especially from the solemn [fruit of the vine] (Mark 14:25 and par.) which was borrowed from Judaism." Compare "fruit of the vine" as a formula in the Mishnah, Tractate Berakoth 6.1. [2007-03-15]. (原始内容存档于2007-01-26). 
  28. ^ Raymond, p. 80: "All the wines used in basic religious services in Palestine were fermented."
  29. ^ Mt 26:26-29; Mk 14:22-25; Lk 22:17-20; 1 Co 10:16; 11:23-25. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2017-12-08). 
  30. ^ Bruce Lincoln. Beverages. (编) Lindsay Jones. Encyclopedia of Religion 2 2nd ed. MacMillan Reference Books: 848. 2005. ISBN 978-0-02-865733-2. 
  31. ^ Pr 31:4-7; Mt 27:34,48; Mk 15:23,36; Lk 23:36; Jn 19:28–30. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-24). 
  32. ^ Lk 10:34. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-24). 
  33. ^ 1 Ti 5:23. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-24). 
  34. ^ Pr 31:4f; Lv 10:9; compare Ez 44:21. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2018-01-16). 
  35. ^ Nu 6:2-4 (compare Jg 13:4-5; Am 2:11f); Jr 35. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2018-01-16). 
  36. ^ Mt 11:18f; Lk 7:33f; compare Mk 14:25; Lk 22:17f. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2018-01-16). 
  37. ^ I. W. Raymond p. 81: "Not only did Jesus Christ Himself use and sanction the use of wine but also ... He saw nothing intrinsically evil in wine.[footnote citing Mt 15:11 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 ]"
  38. ^ Ro 14:21 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆. Raymond understands this to mean that "if an individual by drinking wine either causes others to err through his example or abets a social evil which causes others to succumb to its temptations, then in the interests of Christian love he ought to forego the temporary pleasures of drinking in the interests of heavenly treasures" (p. 87).
  39. ^ For instance, Pr 20:1; Is 5:11f; Ho 5:2,5; Ro 13:13; Ep 5:18; 1 Ti 3:2-3 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆.
  40. ^ Ge 9:20-27. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-24). 
  41. ^ Ge 19:31-38. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-24). 
  42. ^ Magen Broshi. Wine in Ancient Palestine — Introductory Notes. Israel Museum Journal. 1984, III: 33. 
  43. ^ 1Co 11:20-22. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-24). 
  44. ^ 44.0 44.1 Ewing, p. 824.
  45. ^ See Broshi, passim (for instance, p. 29: Palestine was "a country known for its good wines").
  46. ^ Compare 2Ch 2:3,10 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  47. ^ Ps 80:8-15; Is 5:1f; Mk 12:1; compare SS 2:15. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-24). 
  48. ^ Compare Is 16:10; Jr 48:33. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2019-05-23). 
  49. ^ 49.0 49.1 49.2 Wine Making. Illustrated Dictionary of Bible Life & Times: 374f. 
  50. ^ Broshi, p. 24.
  51. ^ Broshi, p. 26.
  52. ^ Broshi, p. 27.
  53. ^ Dt 16:13-15. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2019-05-23). 
  54. ^ Raymond, p. 48.
  55. ^ Raymond, p. 49.
  56. ^ David J. Hanson. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger. 1995: 4. ISBN 978-0-275-94926-6. 
     ? Magen Broshi. The Diet of Palestine in the Roman Period — Introductory Notes. Israel Museum Journal. 1986, V: 46. In the biblical description of the agricultural products of the Land, the triad 'cereal, wine, and oil' recurs repeatedly (Deut. 28:51 and elsewhere). These were the main products of ancient Palestine, in order of importance. The fruit of the vine was consumed both fresh and dried (raisins), but it was primarily consumed as wine. Wine was, in antiquity, an important food and not just an embellishment to a feast ... Wine was essentially a man's drink in antiquity, when it became a significant dietary component. Even slaves were given a generous wine ration. Scholars estimate that in ancient Rome an adult consumed a liter of wine daily. Even a minimal estimate of 700g. per day means that wine constituted about one quarter of the caloric intake (600 out of 2,500 cal.) and about one third of the minimum required intake of iron. 
     ? Raymond, p. 23: "[Wine] was a common beverage for all classes and ages, even for the very young. Wine might be part of the simpelest meal as well as a necessary article in the households of the rich.
     ? Geoffrey Wigoder; 等 (编). Wine. The New Encyclopedia of Judaism. New York University Press: 798f. 2002. ISBN 978-0-8147-9388-6. As a beverage, it regularly accompanied the main meal of the day. Wherever the Bible mentions 'cup' — for example, 'my cup brims over' (Ps. 23:5)—the reference is to a cup of wine ... In the talmudic epoch ... [i]t was customary to dilute wine before drinking by adding one-third water. The main meal of the day, taken in the evening (only breakfast and supper were eaten in talmudic times), consisted of two courses, with each of which a cup of wine was drunk. 
  57. ^ Wigoder, p. 799.
  58. ^ 58.0 58.1 Gentry, God Gave Wine, pp. 143-146: "[R]ecognized biblical scholars of every stripe are in virtual agreement on the nondiluted nature of wine in the Old Testament."
  59. ^ 59.0 59.1 59.2 Burton Scott Easton. Wine; Wine Press. (编) James Orr. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915 [2007-03-09]. (原始内容存档于2007-09-27). In Old Testament times wine was drunk undiluted, and wine mixed with water was thought to be ruined (Isa 1:22) ... At a later period, however, the Greek use of diluted wines had attained such sway that the writer of 2 Maccabees speaks (15:39) of undiluted wine as 'distasteful' (polemion). This dilution is so normal in the following centuries that the Mishna can take it for granted and, indeed, R. Eliezer even forbade saying the table-blessing over undiluted wine (Berakhoth 7 5). The proportion of water was large, only one-third or one-fourth of the total mixture being wine (Niddah 2 7; Pesachim 108b). 
  60. ^ Clarke, commentary on Is 1:22: "It is remarkable that whereas the Greeks and Latins by mixed wine always understood wine diluted and lowered with water, the Hebrews on the contrary generally mean by it wine made stronger and more inebriating by the addition of higher and more powerful ingredients, such as honey, spices, defrutum, (or wine inspissated by boiling it down to two-thirds or one- half of the quantity,) myrrh, mandragora, opiates, and other strong drugs."
  61. ^ Is 1:22. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-24). 
  62. ^ Robert S. Rayburn. Revising the Practice of the Lord's Supper at Faith Presbyterian Church No. 2, Wine, No. 1. 2001-01-28 [2012-04-03]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-15). 
  63. ^ Dommershausen, p. 61: "The custom of drinking wine mixed with water—probably in the ratio of two or three to one—seems to have made its first appearance in the Hellenistic era."
     ? Archaeological Study Bible. Wine diluted with water was obviously considered to be of inferior quality (Isa.1:22), although the Greeks, considering the drinking of pure wine to be an excess, routinely diluted their wine. 
     ? Raymond, p.47: "The regulations of the Jewish banquets in Hellenistic times follow the rules of Greek etiquette and custom."
     ? Compare 2 Mac 15:39 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2011-07-23. (Vulgate numbering: 2 Mac 15:40 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)
  64. ^ Compare the later Jewish views described in Wine. Jewish Encyclopedia. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2011-06-29). 
  65. ^ Merrill F. Unger. Wine. Unger's Bible Dictionary 3rd ed. Chicago: Moody Press: 1169. 1981 [1966]. The use of wine at the paschal feast [that is, Passover] was not enjoined by the law, but had become an established custom, at all events in the post-Babylonian period. The wine was mixed with warm water on these occasions.... Hence the in the early Christian Church it was usual to mix the sacramental wine with water. 
  66. ^ Broshi, p. 33.
  67. ^ Broshi, p. 22.
  68. ^ Raymond, p. 88.
  69. ^ Justin Martyr, First Apology, "Chapter LXV. Administration of the sacraments" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 and "Chapter LXVII. Weekly worship of the Christians" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆.
  70. ^ Hippolytus of Rome (died 235) says, "By thanksgiving the bishop shall make the bread into an image of the body of Christ, and the cup of wine mingled with water according to the likeness of the blood." Quoted in Keith Mathison. Protestant Transubstantiation - Part 2: Historical Testimony. IIIM Magazine Online. January 1 to January 7, 2001, 3 (1) [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2007-09-27). 
  71. ^ Didache, chapter 13. [2007-03-16]. (原始内容存档于2007年5月28日). 
  72. ^ Clement of Alexandria. On Drinking. The Instructor, book 2, chapter 2. [2007-03-15]. (原始内容存档于2017-09-11). 
  73. ^ Compare the summary in Raymond, pp. 97-104.
  74. ^ Cyprian. "Epistle LXII: To Caecilius, on the Sacrament of the Cup of the Lord", §11. [2007-03-15]. (原始内容存档于2007-02-25). 
  75. ^ 1 Timothy 5:23. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-24). 
  76. ^ John Chrysostom. First Homily on the Statues: paras 11f. [2008-06-08]. (原始内容存档于2017-06-21). 
  77. ^ Ambrose. Book I, chapter XLIII. On the Duties of the Clergy. [2007-03-15]. (原始内容存档于2018-12-25). 
  78. ^ Augustine of Hippo. Chapter 19. On the Morals of the Catholic Church. [2007-03-15]. (原始内容存档于2017-12-07). 
  79. ^ Raymond, p. 78.
  80. ^ Gregory the Great. Moralia in Job, book 31, chapter 45.
  81. ^ Wine History. Macedonian Heritage. 2003 [2007-02-22]. (原始内容存档于2017-07-13). 
  82. ^ 82.0 82.1 82.2 Jim West. Drinking with Calvin and Luther!. Oakdown Books. 2003: 22ff. ISBN 0-9700326-0-9. 
  83. ^ Kevin Lynch. Sin & Tonic: Making beer, wine, and spirits is not the Devil’s work. The Wave Magazine. September 20 — October 3, 2006, 6 (19) [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2006年11月12日). 
  84. ^ Will Durant describes the customs of England in the late Middle Ages: "a gallon of beer per day was the usual allowance per person, even for nuns" (Will Durant. The Reformation. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1957: 113. )
  85. ^ Holy Rule of St. Benedict, Chapter XL.
  86. ^ That is, either about half a pint or a full pint. See Ancient Roman units of measurement - Liquid_measures and Theodore Maynard. Saint Benedict. Pillars of the Church. Ayer Publishing. 1945: 14. ISBN 0-8369-1940-8. 
  87. ^ Benedict of Nursia. Chapter XL - Of the Quantity of Drink. Holy Rule of St. Benedict. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2013-04-24). 'Every one hath his proper gift from God, one after this manner and another after that' (1 Cor 7:7). It is with some hesitation, therefore, that we determine the measure of nourishment for others. However, making allowance for the weakness of the infirm, we think one hemina of wine a day is sufficient for each one. But to whom God granteth the endurance of abstinence, let them know that they will have their special reward. If the circumstances of the place, or the work, or the summer's heat should require more, let that depend on the judgment of the Superior, who must above all things see to it, that excess or drunkenness do not creep in. 
  88. ^ Benedict of Nursia. Chapter XLIII - Of Those Who Are Tardy in Coming to the Work of God or to Table. Holy Rule of St. Benedict. [2008-04-18]. (原始内容存档于2006-07-14). If [a monk] doth not amend after [being twice tardy], let him not be permitted to eat at the common table; but separated from the company of all, let him eat alone, his portion of wine being taken from him, until he hath made satisfaction and hath amended. 
  89. ^ Thomas Aquinas. Second Part of the Second Part, Question 149, Article 3 - Whether the use of wine is altogether unlawful?. Summa Theologica. [2008-04-17]. (原始内容存档于2005-01-30). A man may have wisdom in two ways. First, in a general way, according as it is sufficient for salvation: and in this way it is required, in order to have wisdom, not that a man abstain altogether from wine, but that he abstain from its immoderate use. Secondly, a man may have wisdom in some degree of perfection: and in this way, in order to receive wisdom perfectly, it is requisite for certain persons that they abstain altogether from wine, and this depends on circumstances of certain persons and places. 
  90. ^ Thomas Aquinas. Third Part, Question 74, Article 5 - Whether wine of the grape is the proper matter of this sacrament?. Summa Theologica. [2008-04-17]. (原始内容存档于2005-02-26). This sacrament can only be performed with wine from the grape.... Now that is properly called wine, which is drawn from the grape, whereas other liquors are called wine from resemblance to the wine of the grape.... Must, however, has already the species of wine, for its sweetness indicates fermentation which is 'the result of its natural heat' (Meteor. iv); consequently this sacrament can be made from must.... It is furthermore forbidden to offer must in the chalice, as soon as it has been squeezed from the grape, since this is unbecoming owing to the impurity of the must. But in case of necessity it may be done. 
  91. ^ J. C. Almond. Olivetans. Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913 [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2017-09-25). St. Bernard Ptolomei's idea of monastic reform was that which had inspired every founder of an order or congregation since the days of St. Benedict—a return to the primitive life of solitude and austerity. Severe corporal mortifications were ordained by rule and inflicted in public. The usual ecclesiastical and conventual fasts were largely increased and the daily food was bread and water ... They were also fanatical total abstainers; not only was St. Benedict's kindly concession of a hemina of wine rejected, but the vineyards were rooted up and the wine-presses and vessels destroyed ... Truly, relaxation was inevitable. It was never reasonable that the heroic austerities of St. Bernard and his companions should be made the rule, then and always, for every monk of the order ... It was always the custom for each one to dilute the wine given him. 
  92. ^ 92.0 92.1 Wikisource-logo.svg "Altar Wine" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia
  93. ^ 93.0 93.1 Ask the Wise Man: Eucharistic Wine and an Alcoholic Priest; Hosts for the Gluten-allergic. St. Anthony Messenger. May 1996 [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2016-07-18). 
  94. ^ Wine, Religion and Culture. Macedonian Heritage. 2003 [2007-02-22]. (原始内容存档于2017-07-13). 
  95. ^ See West, Drinking and Mathison, "Protestant Transubstantiation" parts 2 and 3 for many examples.
  96. ^ Jim West. A Sober Assessment of Reformational Drinking. Modern Reformation. March /April 2000, 9 (2). 
  97. ^ Article 7. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2017-07-09). 
  98. ^ Article 18. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-08). 
  99. ^ Belgic Confession (1561), article 35 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  100. ^ Heidelberg Catechism (1563), questions 78-80 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  101. ^ Thirty-Nine Articles (1571), article 28 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  102. ^ Westminster Confession of Faith (1647), chapter 29, paragraph 3 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  103. ^ West, Drinking, pp. 68ff.
  104. ^ West, Drinking, pp. 79ff.
  105. ^ West, Drinking, p. 86.
  106. ^ Increase Mather (1673)."Wo to Drunkards."
  107. ^ John Wesley. On the Use of Money. (编) Thomas Jackson (ed.). The Sermons of John Wesley. Wesley Center for Applied Theology at Northwest Nazarene University. 1999 [1872] [2008-05-20]. (原始内容存档于2008-05-30). 
  108. ^ Methodist Episcopal Church. Directions given to the Band-Societies. December 25th, 1744.. Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church. with explanatory notes by Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury 10th. 1798: 150 [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2013-06-07). 
  109. ^ 109.0 109.1 Nathan Bangs. A History of the Methodist Episcopal Church 1. New York: T. Mason and G. Lane for the Methodist Episcopal Church. 1838: 134f. 
  110. ^ Henry J. Fox and William B. Hoyt. Rule Respecting Intoxicating Liquors. Quadrennial Register of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Connecticut: Case, Tiffany & Co. 1852: 200f. 
  111. ^ Coke and Asbury, notes on Article XIX 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆, p. 24.
  112. ^ John McClintock and James Strong (eds.). Temperance Reform. Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature X. New York: Harper and Brothers: 245f. 1891 [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2013-05-30). In January, 1826, Rev. Calvin Chapin published in the Connecticut Observer a series of articles in which he took the ground that the only real antidote for the evils deprecated is total abstinence, not only from distilled spirits, but from all intoxicating beverages. His position, however, was generally regarded as extreme, and he had few immediate converts to his opinions. 
  113. ^ 113.0 113.1 113.2 Keith Mathison. Protestant Transubstantiation - Part 4: Origins of and Reasons for the Rejection of Wine. IIIM Magazine Online. January 22–28, 2001, 3 (4) [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-18). 
  114. ^ Ra McLaughlin. Protestant Transubstantiation (History of). Third Millennium Ministries. [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-24). 
  115. ^ Pierard, p. 28.
  116. ^ M. D. Coogan. Wine. (编) Bruce Metzger and M. D. Coogan. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press, USA: 799f. 1993. ISBN 978-0-19-504645-8. 
  117. ^ Tucker, Karen B. Westerfield. The Lord's Supper. American Methodist Worship. New York: Oxford University Press. 2001: 151. ISBN 0-19-512698-X. 
  118. ^ Bacchiocchi, Samuele. The Preservation of Grape Juice. Wine in the Bible. Signal Press & Biblical Perspectives. 1989 [2013-03-05]. ISBN 1-930987-07-2. (原始内容存档于2012-12-28). 
  119. ^ Hallett, Anthony; Diane Hallett. Thomas B. Welch, Charles E. Welch. Entrepreneur Magazine Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurs. John Wiley and Sons: 481–483. 1997 [2013-03-05]. ISBN 0-471-17536-6. (原始内容存档于2012-02-20). 
  120. ^ W. Liese, J. Keating, and W. Shanley. Temperance Movements. The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1912 [2008-05-19]. (原始内容存档于2017-12-07). 
  121. ^ Prelate Assails Dry Law. Archbishop Messmer Forbids Catholic Help to Amendment (PDF). The New York Times. June 25, 1918: 13 [2008-05-20]. (原始内容存档于2012-11-11). 
  122. ^ McClintock and Strong, "Temperance Reform", p. 248: "[T]he [temperance] cause received a new impulse from the presence and labors of father Mathew, the Irish apostle of temperance, who came to America in June and spent sixteen months of hard work chiefly among the Irish Catholics. Crowds greeted him everywhere, and large numbers took the pledge at his hands. It is not surprising that a reaction followed this swift success. Many pledged themselves by a sudden impulse, moved thereto by the enthusiasm of assembled multitudes, with little, clear, intelligent, fixed conviction of the evils inseparable from the habits which they were renouncing. The pope, their infallible teacher both in regard to faith and morals, had never pronounced moderate drinking a sin, either mortal or venial; and even occasional drunkenness had been treated in the confessional as a trivial offence.... [T]he Catholic clergy, as a body, seem to have made no vigorous effort to hold the ground which the venerable father Matthew won; and the laity, of course, have felt no obligation be wiser than their teachers."
  123. ^ Ruth C. Engs. Protestants and Catholics: Drunken Barbarians and Mellow Romans?. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2017-09-05). Wide scale temperance movements and anti-alcohol sentiments have not been, and are not, found in southern European Roman Catholic countries.... In hard-drinking eastern European Catholic countries, such as Russia and Poland, sporadic anti-drunk campaigns have been launched but have only been short lived. This has also been found in Ireland (Levine, 1992).  Adapted from Ruth C. Engs. What Should We Be Researching? - Past Influences, Future Ventures. (编) Elini Houghton and Ann M. Roche (eds.). Learning about Drinking. International Center for Alcohol Policies. 2001. 
  124. ^ Lilian Lewis Shiman. Crusade Against Drink in Victorian England. St. Martin's Press. 1988: 5. ISBN 0-312-17777-1. 
  125. ^ John Kobler. Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. Da Capo Press. 1993: 53. ISBN 0-306-80512-X. 
  126. ^ 126.0 126.1 Engs: "Levine has noted that 'in Western societies, only Nordic and English-speaking cultures developed large, ongoing, extremely popular temperance movements in the nineteenth century and the first third or so of the twentieth century.' He also observed that temperance – anti alcohol – cultures have been, and still are, Protestant societies."
  127. ^ Quoted in Williamson, p. 9.
  128. ^ Ken Camp. Drink to That? Have Baptists watered down their objections to alcohol?. The Baptist Standard. 2007-01-05 [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2016-05-08). 
  129. ^ McClintock and Strong, p. 249, lists Sweden, Australia, Madagascar, India, and China.
  130. ^ Patrick Madrid. Wrath of Grapes. This Rock. March 1992, 3 (3) [2007-03-16]. (原始内容存档于2007-03-07). The [Catholic] Church teaches ... that wine, like food, sex, laughter, and dancing, is a good thing when enjoyed in its proper time and context. To abuse any good thing is a sin, but the thing abused does not itself become sinful. 
  131. ^ Paul O'Callaghan. The Spirit of True Christianity. Word Magazine (Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America). March 1992: 8–9 [2007-03-16]. (原始内容存档于2017-09-16). So alcohol, sex, the body, money, television, and music are all good things. It is only the abuse of these things that is bad—drunkenness, pornography, compulsive gambling, etc. Even drugs marijuana, cocaine, heroin—all have good uses for medical and other reasons. It’s only the abuse of them for pleasure that is wrong. 
  132. ^ 132.0 132.1 Responding to Opportunities for 'Interim Eucharistic Sharing' (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. [2007-02-24]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2007-02-14). While many Lutheran congregations also provide grape juice or unfermented wine as an alternative, Lutherans have more emphasized the historical and ecumenical continuities which wine provides, as well as the richness and multivalences of its symbolic associations. 
  133. ^ Theology and Practice of The Lord's Supper - Part I (PDF). Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. May 1983 [2007-02-24]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2011-03-01). 
  134. ^ Maintain a Balanced View Of Alcohol. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 2004 [2012-11-24]. (原始内容存档于2017-09-16). 
  135. ^ Alcohol. Presbyterian 101. Presbyterian Church (USA). [2007-02-24]. (原始内容存档于2003-04-13). 
  136. ^ 136.0 136.1 Introduction to Worship in the United Church of Christ (PDF). Book of Worship. United Church of Christ: Footnote 27. 1986 [2007-02-24]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2012-06-08). 
  137. ^ 137.0 137.1 Alcohol. Christian Reformed Church in North America. 1996–2007 [2007-02-24]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-21). 
  138. ^ Alcohol, Beverage use of. Presbyterian Church in America, 8th General Assembly. 1980 [2007-02-24]. (原始内容存档于2017-09-12). 
  139. ^ Alcoholic Beverages. Orthodox Presbyterian Church. [2007-02-24]. (原始内容存档于2007-08-09). 
  140. ^ Jeffrey J. Meyers. Concerning Wine and Beer, Part 1. Rite Reasons, Studies in Worship. November 1996, (48) [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2017-07-03). 
  141. ^ Jeffrey J. Meyers. Concerning Wine and Beer, Part 2. Rite Reasons, Studies in Worship. January 1997, (49) [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2017-07-07). 
  142. ^ Pierard, p. 29.
  143. ^ 143.0 143.1 Robert R. Gonzales, Jr. The Son of Man Came Drinking. RBS Tabletalk. Reformed Baptist Seminary. [2010-02-15]. (原始内容存档于2012-12-28). [E]ven if the wine Jesus drank had a lower alcohol context than today's wine, the issue is still moderation not abstinence. The believer may not be able to drink as many glasses of modern wine compared to ancient wine and remain within the bounds of moderation. Instead of drinking 20 glasses of ancient wine, we'd have to limit ourselves to 2 glasses of modern wine. But still, the issue is moderation, not abstinence. 
  144. ^ Wine or grape juice. Orthodox Presbyterian Church. [2007-02-24]. (原始内容存档于2007-08-09). 
  145. ^ Cross and Livingstone, p. 1767.
  146. ^ M. R. P. McGuire and T. D. Terry (编). New Catholic Encyclopedia 14 2nd ed. Thomson Gale: 772. 2002. ISBN 978-0-7876-4004-0. 
  147. ^ The Bible Speaks on Alcohol. The Ethics & Religious Liberty Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention. [2011-07-27]. (原始内容存档于2011-07-22). 
  148. ^ Position paper: Abstinence from Alcohol (PDF). Assemblies of God. [2009-08-18]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2010-02-15). 
  149. ^ Alcohol and Other Drugs. The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church. The United Methodist Publishing House. 2004 [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2007-06-02). .
  150. ^ 150.0 150.1 Salvation Army's Position Statements: Alcohol and Drugs. 1982 [2012-04-03]. The Salvation Army ... has historically required total abstinence of its soldiers and officers. While not condemning those outside its ranks who choose to indulge, it nevertheless believes total abstinence to be the only certain guarantee against overindulgence and the evils attendant on addiction. [永久失效链接]
  151. ^ Graham, Billy. My Answer. Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2007-09-26). 
  152. ^ John F. MacArthur. Living in the Spirit: Be Not Drunk with Wine--Part 3. [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-04-12). 
  153. ^ R. Albert Mohler and Russell Moore. Alcohol and Ministry (MP3 audio). Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. 2005-09-14. 
  154. ^ 154.0 154.1 John Piper. Total Abstinence and Church Membership. 1981-10-04 [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2008-11-20). 
  155. ^ For example, Stephen Arterburn and Jim Burns. Myths and Facts about Alcohol Consumption. 2007 [2007-11-19]. (原始内容存档于2012-03-18). For the general population, no specific Scriptures forbid wine consumption in small amounts ... In our society, with so much damage being done by drinking, many who think it is okay to drink need to reexamine the practice ... And for us parents who have to be concerned about the behaviors we are modeling, abstinence is the best choice. 
  156. ^ 156.0 156.1 Daniel L. Akin. FIRST-PERSON: The case for alcohol abstinence. Baptist Press. 2006-06-30 [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2007-03-23). 
  157. ^ 157.0 157.1 Richard Land. FIRST-PERSON: The great alcohol debate. Baptist Press. 2006-07-24 [2007-07-25]. (原始内容存档于2007-10-07). 
  158. ^ John MacArthur. Unity in Action: Building Up One Another Without Offending--Part 2. [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2007-02-02). 
  159. ^ David Guzik. Commentary on 1 Ti 5:23. [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2006-12-08). 
  160. ^ Kenneth L. Barker and John R. Kohlenberger III. Commentary on 1 Ti 5:23. Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House. 1999. ISBN 978-0-310-57840-6. 
  161. ^ 161.0 161.1 D. Miall Edwards. Drunkenness. (编) James Orr. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915 [2007-03-09]. (原始内容存档于2007-09-27). 
  162. ^ Norman Geisler. A Christian Perspective on Wine-Drinking. Bibliotheca Sacra. January–March 1982, 139 (553): 41–55. 
  163. ^ W. J. Beecher. Total abstinence. The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge: 468. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-16). 
  164. ^ Resolution On The Liquor Situation. Southern Baptist Convention. 1938 [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2012-03-19). We declare afresh our unalterable opposition to the whole liquor traffic, whisky, beer, and wine, and to the license system by which this most blighting and corrupting traffic fastened upon our body social and body politic.... We stand unalterable for total abstinence on the part of the individual and for prohibition by the government, local, State, and National, and that we declare relentless war upon the liquor traffic, both legal and illegal, until it shall be banished.... [T]his Convention earnestly recommends to our Baptist people, both pastors and churches, that the churches take a firm and consistent stand against all indulgence in the use of intoxicating liquors, including wine and beer, and against all participation in their sale by members of the churches, and that we seek as rapidly as possible to educate our people against the folly and sin of such use and sale, and that as rapidly as possible our churches shall be relieved of the open shame and burden of church members in any way connected with the unholy traffic 
  165. ^ On alcohol use in America. Southern Baptist Convention. 2006 [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2013-11-05). RESOLVED ... total opposition to the manufacturing, advertising, distributing, and consuming of alcoholic beverages. 
  166. ^ Historic Stand for Temperance Principles and Acceptance of Donations Statement Impacts Social Change. General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 1992 [2007-02-28]. (原始内容存档于2006年12月6日). 
  167. ^ Chemical Use, Abuse, and Dependency. General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 1990 [2007-02-28]. (原始内容存档于2006年12月6日). 
  168. ^ William Booth. 27. Strong Drink. The Training of Children: How to Make the Children into Saints and Soldiers of Jesus Christ 2nd. 1888. Make the children understand that the thing is an evil in itself. Show them that it is manufactured by man - that God never made a drop of alcohol. To say that alcohol is a good creature of God is one of the devil's own lies fathered on foolish and ignorant people. It is a man-manufactured article. The earth nowhere produces a drop of it. The good creatures of God have to be tortured and perverted before any of it can be obtained. There is not a drop in all creation made by God or that owes its existence to purely natural causes.... Make your children understand that it is not safe for them or anybody else to take strong drink in what is called moderation, and that even if it were, their example would be sure to induce others to take it, some of whom would be almost certain to go to excess.... Therefore, the only way of safety for your children as regards themselves and the answer of a good conscience with respect to others, is total abstinence from the evil. 
  169. ^ Reynolds, The Biblical Approach to Alcohol.
  170. ^ Stephen M. Reynolds. Alcohol and the Bible. Challenge Press. 1983. ISBN 978-0-86645-094-2. 
  171. ^ 171.0 171.1 171.2 Stephen M. Reynolds. Issue and Interchange - Scripture Prohibits the Drinking of Alhocolic Beverages. Antithesis. May /June 1991, 2 (2) [2007-01-22]. (原始内容存档于2018-04-14).  See also the other installments in the debate between Reynolds and Kenneth Gentry in the same issue of the magazine 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆.
  172. ^ Jack Van Impe. Alcohol: The Beloved Enemy. Jack Van Impe Ministries. 1980. ISBN 978-0-934803-07-6. 
  173. ^ 1 Timothy 5:23. [2013-03-05]. (原始内容存档于2012-11-02). 
  174. ^ The Commandments: Obey the Word of Wisdom. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. [2007-06-29]. (原始内容存档于2011-07-16). 
  175. ^ Ezra Taft Benson. A Principle with a Promise. Ensign. May 1983: 53–55 [2007-06-29]. 
  176. ^ The Doctrine and Covenants, section 89: "That inasmuch as any man drinketh wine or strong drink among you, behold it is not good, neither meet in the sight of your Father, only in assembling yourselves together to offer up your sacraments before him. And, behold, this should be wine, yea, pure wine of the grape of the vine, of your own make [compare D&C 27:2-4]. And, again, strong drinks are not for the belly, but for the washing of your bodies."
  177. ^ Guide to the Scriptures: Sacrament. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 2006 [2007-06-29]. (原始内容存档于2010-10-14). 

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