孟塞尔颜色系统

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图示孟塞尔颜色系统之中中等明度(5)而中等略偏高色度(6)的色相环、明度由全暗(0)到全亮(10)的黑白渐变色柱、中等明度(5)的紫蓝色(5PB)色度渐进带。

孟塞尔颜色系统(Munsell Color System)是色度学(或比色法)里透过明度(value)、色相(hue)及色度(chroma)三个维度来描述颜色的方法。这个颜色描述系统是由美国艺术家阿尔伯特·孟塞尔(Albert H. Munsell,1858-1918)在1898年创制的,在1930年代为USDA采纳为泥土研究的官方颜色描述系统。至今仍是比较色法的标准。

早期的几个色彩体系将颜色放在各种不同的三维颜色固体,但孟塞尔是第一个把色调、明度和色度分离成为感知均匀和独立的尺度,并且是第一个系统地在三维空间中表达颜色的关系[1]。孟塞尔的系统,尤其是其后的再标记法,是基于严格的人类受试者测量的视觉反应,使之具有坚实的实验科学依据。基于人类的视觉感知,孟塞尔的系统熬过了其他现代色彩模式的挑战,尽管在某些领域其地位已被某些特殊用途的模型取代了,如CIELABL*a*b*)和CIECAM02。孟塞尔的系统目前仍然是最广泛使用的系统[2]

解说[编辑]

1900年的孟塞尔色球。后来孟塞尔发现,如果要保持色相、明度和色度的感知均匀,可达到颜色的表面不可能被强制成规则形状。

孟塞尔颜色系统的空间大致成一个圆柱形:

色相[编辑]

  • 经度=色相(hue)。把一周均分成五5种主色互相调和成五种中间色,相邻的两个位置之间再均分10份,共100份。

红(R)红黄(YR)黄(Y)黄绿(GY)绿(G)绿蓝(BG)蓝(B)蓝紫(PB)紫(P)紫红(RP)

孟塞尔颜色系统中等略偏高明度(6)而中等略偏高色度(6)之色相带
正红色(5R)
|
橘色(5YR)
|
正黄色(5Y)
|
青绿色(5GY)
|
正绿色(5G)
|
蓝绿色(5BG)
|
201 130 134
201 130 127
201 131 118
200 133 109
197 135 100
193 137 94
187 140 86
181 143 79
173 146 75
167 149 72
160 151 73
151 154 78
141 156 85
127 159 98
115 160 110
101 162 124
92 163 134
87 163 141
82 163 148
78 163 154
73 163 162
蓝绿色(5BG)
|
正蓝色(5B)
|
紫蓝色(5PB)
|
正紫色(5P)
|
紫红色(5RP)
|
正红色(5R)
|
73 163 162
70 162 170
70 161 177
73 160 184
82 158 189
93 156 193
104 154 195
117 151 197
128 149 198
141 145 198
152 142 196
160 140 193
168 138 189
177 135 182
183 134 176
188 132 169
193 131 160
196 130 153
198 130 146
200 130 140
201 130 134


明度[编辑]

  • 南北上下轴=明度(value)的深浅,从全黑(N0)至全灰(N5)到全白(N10)。

色度[编辑]

距轴的距离=色度(chroma),表示色调的纯度。其数值从中间(0)向外随着色调的纯度增加,没有理论上的上限(普通的颜色实际上限为10左右,反光、荧光等材料可高达30)。由于人眼对各种颜色的的敏感度不同,色度不一定与每个色调和明度组合相匹配。

具体颜色的标识形式为:色相+明度+色度。例如5B 5/10是中等明度(5),高色度(10)的正蓝色(5B)。


孟塞尔颜色系统色度(横轴)与明度(纵轴)在紫蓝色(5PB)与正黄色(5Y)的关系
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
10
255 255 255
9
228 228 250
232 232 232
243 227 207
250 227 178
8
190 201 239
200 200 222
203 203 203
215 200 181
221 200 154
227 200 126
233 199 97
237 199 63
7
142 176 241
154 175 225
164 175 210
173 174 195
179 179 179
188 173 155
194 173 128
200 173 101
205 172 72
210 172 29
6
79 150 244
101 150 227
116 149 213
128 149 198
138 148 182
146 148 168
150 150 150
161 147 129
167 147 103
173 146 75
178 146 42
5
46 124 214
72 123 199
89 123 185
101 123 171
111 122 156
120 122 142
124 124 124
134 121 103
141 121 77
146 120 48
150 119 9
4
38 97 172
59 97 158
74 97 144
85 96 130
93 96 116
97 97 97
108 96 77
114 95 52
119 94 25
3
26 72 133
45 72 120
58 72 106
67 72 92
70 70 70
81 71 55
87 70 33
2
20 49 93
35 49 79
44 49 66
48 48 48
57 48 34
63 47 6
1 5PB
13 28 56
23 28 45
28 28 28
37 27 9
5Y
0
0 0 0

Note that the Munsell Book of Color contains more color samples than this chart for both 5PB and 5Y (particularly bright yellows, up to 5Y 8.5/14), however they are not reproducible in the sRGB color space, which has a limited color gamut designed to match that of televisions and computer displays. Note also that there are no samples for values 0 (pure black) and 10 (pure white), which are theoretical limits not reachable in pigment, and no printed samples of value 1.

指定颜色[编辑]

5P 5/10(#9966B6)

5P 5/10

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ Kuehni (2002), p 21
  2. ^ Landa (2005), pp 437–438

参考书目[编辑]

在最高色度的情况之下的孟塞尔颜色系统色相环
File:Munsell 1929 color solid transparent.png
Three-dimensional representation of the 1943 Munsell renotations.
  • Cleland, Thomas M. A practical description of the Munsell color system, with suggestions for its use. Boston: Munsell Color Company. 1921.  One of the first books about the Munsell color system, explaining the intuition behind its three dimensions, and suggesting possible uses of the system in picking color combinations. An edited version can be found at http://www.applepainter.com/.
  • Kuehni, Rolf G. The early development of the Munsell system. Color Research and Application. February 2002, 27 (1): 20–27. doi:10.1002/col.10002.  A description of color systems leading up to Munsell’s, and a biographical explanation of Munsell’s changing ideas about color and development of his color solid, leading up to the publication of A Color Notation in 1905.
  • Landa, Edward R.; Mark D. Fairchild. Charting Color from the Eye of the Beholder (PDF). American Scientist. September–October 2005, 93 (5): 436–443. doi:10.1511/2005.5.436.  An introductory explanation of the development and influence of the Munsell system.
  • MacEvoy, Bruce. Modern Color Models – Munsell Color System. Color Vision. 2005-08-01 [2007-04-16].  A concise introduction to the Munsell color system, on a web page which also discusses several other color systems, putting the Munsell system in its historical context.
  • Munsell, Albert H. A Color Notation. Boston: G. H. Ellis Co. 1905.  Munsell’s original description of his system. A Color Notation was published before he had established the irregular shape of a perceptual color solid, so it describes colors positioned in a sphere.
  • Munsell, Albert H. A Pigment Color System and Notation. The American Journal of Psychology (University of Illinois Press). January 1912, 23 (2): 236–244. JSTOR 1412843. doi:10.2307/1412843.  Munsell’s description of his color system, from a lecture to the American Psychological Association.
  • Nickerson, Dorothy. History of the Munsell color system, company, and foundation. Color Research and Application. 1976, 1 (1): 7–10. 

外部链接[编辑]