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信息经济学

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信息经济学(英语:Information economics),微观经济学中的分支。由美国经济学家乔治·斯蒂格勒在1961年率先提出,他个人认为:产品信息的内容会对经济活动及消费者购买决策产生某部分的影响。

我们以最基本的产品价格信息来看,市场上各家零售商对产品的价格不一,所以消费者为了追求最便宜的价格,会逐一比较各家的价格,以得出一个最低价格,而这个比价的动作我们称为“搜索”。消费者搜索时,势必会额外付出较多的时间及精力,因此消费者不会无限制的搜索,而是到消费成本超过所预期获得的利益(指最低价格的价差)时就会停止下来。当然消费者在进行搜索的动作时,会付出额外的时间、精力及金钱,当消费者搜索到一个程度时,我们称为“边际成本期望边际效益”,这时消费者就不再继续搜索。搜索过程的成本支出,对应所得到的信息,检测是否符合降低采购风险,提升采购的正确性,这就叫做“效益”,而边际成本=期望边际效益则就是成本效益的损益平衡点。

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参考文献[编辑]

Bubbles" by Markus K. Brunnermeier Abstract.
"Epistemic game theory: incomplete information" by Aviad Heifetz. Abstract.
"Information aggregation and prices" by James Jordan. Abstract.
"Information cascades," by , Sushil Bikhchandani, David Hirshleifer and Ivo Welch. Abstract.
"Information sharing among firms" by Xavier Vives.Abstract.
"Information technology and the world economy" by Dale W. Jorgenson and Khuong Vu. Abstract.
"Insider trading." by Andrew Metrick. Abstract.
"Learning and information aggregation in networks" by Douglas Gale and Shachar Kariv. Abstract.
"Monetary business cycles (imperfect information)" by Christian Hellwig. Abstract.
"Social networks in labour markets" by Antoni Calvó-Armengol and Yannis M. Ioannides. Abstract.
"Prediction markets" by Justin Wolfers and Eric Zitzewitz.Abstract.
  • Pissarides, C. A. (2001). "Search, Economics of," International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 13760-13768. Abstract.
  • Shapiro, Carl, and Hal R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Harvard University Press. (publisher's excerpts)
  • Spence, Michael A. (1973). "Job Market Signaling," Quarterly Journal of Economics 83(3) , pp. 355-377.
  • Stigler, George J. (1961). “The Economics of Information,” Journal of Political Economy, 69(3), pp. 213-225.
  • Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2000). "The Contributions of the Economics of Information to Twentieth Century Economics," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(4) , pp. 1441-1478.[1]
  • Theil, Henri (1967). Econonomics and Information Theory. Amsterdam, North Holland.