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ping

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ping是一种电脑网络工具,用来测试数据包能否透过IP协议到达特定主机。ping的运作原理是向目标主机传出一个ICMP echo@要求数据包,并等待接收echo回应数据包。程序会按时间和成功响应的次数估算丢失数据包率(丢包率)和数据包往返时间(网络时延,Round-trip delay time)。

在1983年12月,Mike Muuss编写了首个这样的程序,用于在IP网络出现问题时方便探查其根源。因为这个程序的运作原理与潜水艇的主动声纳相似,他便用声纳的声音来为程序取名。David L. Mills曾提出另一个取名:Packet Internet Grouper/Gopher(后者指地鼠)。

网络管理员之间也常将ping用作动词,如“ping一下计算机X,看它是否开着。”

例子[编辑]

Linux系统下的示例[编辑]

具有iputils的Linux系统内的ping:

root@localhost# ping en.wikipedia.org
PING rr.pmtpa.wikimedia.org (66.230.200.100) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from rr.pmtpa.wikimedia.org (66.230.200.100): icmp_seq=1 ttl=52 time=87.7 ms
64 bytes from rr.pmtpa.wikimedia.org (66.230.200.100): icmp_seq=2 ttl=52 time=95.6 ms
64 bytes from rr.pmtpa.wikimedia.org (66.230.200.100): icmp_seq=3 ttl=52 time=85.4 ms
64 bytes from rr.pmtpa.wikimedia.org (66.230.200.100): icmp_seq=4 ttl=52 time=95.8 ms
64 bytes from rr.pmtpa.wikimedia.org (66.230.200.100): icmp_seq=5 ttl=52 time=87.0 ms
64 bytes from rr.pmtpa.wikimedia.org (66.230.200.100): icmp_seq=6 ttl=52 time=97.6 ms

--- rr.pmtpa.wikimedia.org ping statistics ---
10 packets transmitted, 10 received, 0% packet loss, time 8998ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 78.162/89.213/97.695/6.836 ms

有时在ping的返回条目里面显示的有“DUP!”,表明存在环路,例如:

64 bytes from 10.*.*.*: icmp_seq=10 ttl=62 time=10 ms
64 bytes from 10.*.*.*: icmp_seq=10 ttl=62 time=11 ms (DUP!)
64 bytes from 10.*.*.*: icmp_seq=10 ttl=62 time=12 ms (DUP!)
64 bytes from 10.*.*.*: icmp_seq=10 ttl=62 time=13 ms (DUP!)
64 bytes from 10.*.*.*: icmp_seq=11 ttl=62 time=10 ms
64 bytes from 10.*.*.*: icmp_seq=11 ttl=62 time=13 ms (DUP!)
64 bytes from 10.*.*.*: icmp_seq=11 ttl=62 time=14 ms (DUP!)
64 bytes from 10.*.*.*: icmp_seq=11 ttl=62 time=19 ms (DUP!)

Windows系统下的示例[编辑]

Windows XP内置的ping:

C:\>ping www.google.com
Pinging www.l.google.com [64.233.183.103] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 64.233.183.103: bytes=32 time=25ms TTL=245
Reply from 64.233.183.103: bytes=32 time=22ms TTL=245
Reply from 64.233.183.103: bytes=32 time=25ms TTL=246
Reply from 64.233.183.103: bytes=32 time=22ms TTL=246
Ping statistics for 64.233.183.103:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 22ms, Maximum = 25ms, Average = 23ms

其中

Pinging www.l.google.com [64.233.183.103] with 32 bytes of data:

www.google.comwww.l.google.com DNS别名,IP地址是64.233.183.103。以32 bytes大小测试,可以以-l(Windows)参数更改,大小是1-65500

Reply from 64.233.183.103: bytes=32 time=25ms TTL=245
Reply from 64.233.183.103: bytes=32 time=22ms TTL=245
Reply from 64.233.183.103: bytes=32 time=25ms TTL=246
Reply from 64.233.183.103: bytes=32 time=22ms TTL=246

反应时间25毫秒,TTL(Time To Live)值为245 由上来看,到google通过255-245 = 10个路由

Ping statistics for 64.233.183.103:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 22ms, Maximum = 25ms, Average = 23ms

总计,最小22ms,最大25ms,平均23ms

相关条目[编辑]

外部链接[编辑]