罗伯特·格雷夫斯

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罗伯特·格雷夫斯
Robert Graves
出生 Robert von Ranke Graves
(1895-07-24)1895年7月24日
 英国萨里郡温布尔登
逝世 1985年12月7日(1985-12-07)(90岁)
 西班牙马略卡岛德阿
职业 小说家,学者,诗人,军人
国籍  西班牙

罗伯特·冯兰克·格雷夫斯英语:Robert von Ranke Graves,1895年7月24日-1985年12月7日[1]),英国诗人,学者,小说家暨翻译家。专门从事古希腊和罗马作品的研究。在他漫长的一生中,他创作了140余部作品。他的回忆录《向一切告别》(1929年)讲述了他在第一次世界大战中的经历。他被誉为最优秀的英语爱情诗诗人。

他以写作为生,他的《耶稣王》(King Jesus)、关于古罗马皇帝克劳狄的两部曲《我,克劳迪亚斯》(I, Claudius)与《被神化的克劳狄和他的妻子梅萨利纳》(Claudius the God and His Wife Messalina)、以及拜占庭帝国伯爵的生平故事《贝利萨里乌斯伯爵》(Count Belisarius)是特别受欢迎的历史小说。他也是一个杰出的古典拉丁语和古希腊文的翻译家,1934年格雷夫斯因小说《我,克劳迪斯》被授予詹姆斯·泰特·布莱克纪念奖[2]

作品[编辑]

诗集[编辑]

  • Country Sentiment, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1920
  • Over the Brazier. London: William Heinemann, 1923; New York: Alfred. A. Knopf, 1923.
  • The Feather Bed. Richmond, Surrey: Hogarth Press, 1923.
  • Mock Beggar Hall. London: Hogarth Press, 1924.
  • Welchmans Hose. London: The Fleuron, 1925.
  • Poems. London: Ernest Benn, 1925.
  • The Marmosites Miscellany (as John Doyle). London: Hogarth Press, 1925.
  • Poems (1914–1926). London: William Heinemann, 1927; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1929.
  • Poems (1914–1927). London: William Heinemann
  • To Whom Else? Deyá, Majorca: Seizin Press, 1931.
  • Poems 1930–1933. London: Arthur Barker, 1933.
  • Collected Poems. London: Cassell, 1938; New York: Random House, 1938.
  • No More Ghosts: Selected Poems. London: Faber & Faber, 1940.
  • Work in Hand, with Norman Cameron and Alan Hodge. London: Hogarth Press, 1942.
  • Poems. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1943.
  • Poems 1938–1945. London: Cassell, 1945; New York: Creative Age Press, 1946.
  • Collected Poems (1914–1947). London: Cassell, 1948.
  • Poems and Satires. London: Cassell, 1951.
  • Poems 1953. London: Cassell, 1953.
  • Collected Poems 1955. New York: Doubleday, 1955.
  • Poems Selected by Himself. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1957; rev. 1961, 1966, 1972, 1978.
  • The Poems of Robert Graves. New York: Doubleday, 1958.
  • Collected Poems 1959. London: Cassell, 1959.
  • The Penny Fiddle: Poems for Children. London: Cassell, 1960; New York: Doubleday, 1961.
  • More Poems 1961. London: Cassell, 1961.
  • Collected Poems. New York: Doubleday, 1961.
  • New Poems 1962. London: Cassell, 1962; as New Poems. New York: Doubleday, 1963.
  • The More Deserving Cases: Eighteen Old Poems for Reconsideration. Marlborough College Press, 1962.
  • Man Does, Woman Is. London: Cassell, 1964/New York:Doubleday, 1964.
  • Ann at Highwood Hall: Poems for Children. London: Cassell, 1964.
  • Love Respelt. London: Cassell, 1965/New York: Doubleday, 1966.
  • One Hard Look, 1965
  • Collected Poems, 1965. London: Cassell, 1965.
  • Seventeen Poems Missing from "Love Respelt". privately printed, 1966.
  • Colophon to "Love Respelt". Privately printed, 1967.
  • Poems 1965–1968. London: Cassell, 1968; New York: Doubleday, 1969.
  • Poems About Love. London: Cassell, 1969; New York: Doubleday, 1969.
  • Love Respelt Again. New York: Doubleday, 1969.
  • Beyond Giving. privately printed, 1969.
  • Poems 1968–1970. London: Cassell, 1970; New York: Doubleday, 1971.
  • The Green-Sailed Vessel. privately printed, 1971.
  • Poems: Abridged for Dolls and Princes. London: Cassell, 1971.
  • Poems 1970–1972. London: Cassell, 1972; New York: Doubleday, 1973.
  • Deyá, A Portfolio. London: Motif Editions, 1972.
  • Timeless Meeting: Poems. privately printed, 1973.
  • At the Gate. privately printed, London, 1974.
  • Collected Poems 1975. London: Cassell, 1975.
  • New Collected Poems. New York: Doubleday, 1977.
  • Selected Poems, ed. Paul O'Prey. London: Penguin, 1986
  • The Centenary Selected Poems, ed. Patrick Quinn. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1995.
  • Complete Poems Volume 1, ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1995.
  • Complete Poems Volume 2, ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1996.
  • Complete Poems Volume 3, ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1999.
  • The Complete Poems in One Volume, ed. Beryl Graves and Dunstan Ward. Manchester: Carcanet Press, 2000.

小说[编辑]

  • My Head! My Head!. London: Secker, 1925; Alfred. A. Knopf, New York, 1925.
  • The Shout. London: Mathews & Marrot, 1929.
  • No Decency Left. (with Laura Riding) (as Barbara Rich). London: Jonathan Cape, 1932.
  • The Real David Copperfield. London: Arthur Barker, 1933; as David Copperfield, by Charles Dickens, Condensed by Robert Graves, ed. M. P. Paine. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1934.
  • I, Claudius. London: Arthur Barker, 1934; New York: Smith & Haas, 1934.
  • Antigua, Penny, Puce. Deyá, Majorca/London: Seizin Press/Constable, 1936; New York: Random House, 1937.
  • Count Belisarius. London: Cassell, 1938: Random House, New York, 1938.
  • Sergeant Lamb of the Ninth. London: Methuen, 1940; as Sergeant Lamb's America. New York: Random House, 1940.
    • Sequel: Proceed, Sergeant Lamb. London: Methuen, 1941; New York: Random House, 1941.
  • The Story of Marie Powell: Wife to Mr. Milton. London: Cassell, 1943; as Wife to Mr Milton: The Story of Marie Powell. New York: Creative Age Press, 1944.
  • The Golden Fleece. London: Cassell, 1944; as Hercules, My Shipmate, New York: Creative Age Press, 1945.
  • King Jesus. New York: Creative Age Press, 1946; London: Cassell, 1946.
  • Watch the North Wind Rise. New York: Creative Age Press, 1949; as Seven Days in New Crete. London: Cassell, 1949.
  • The Islands of Unwisdom. New York: Doubleday, 1949; as The Isles of Unwisdom. London: Cassell, 1950.
  • Homer's Daughter. London: Cassell, 1955; New York: Doubleday, 1955.
  • Catacrok! Mostly Stories, Mostly Funny. London: Cassell, 1956.
  • They Hanged My Saintly Billy. London: Cassell, 1957; New York: Doubleday, 1957.
  • Collected Short Stories. Doubleday: New York, 1964; Cassell, London, 1965.
  • An Ancient Castle. London: Peter Owen, 1980.

其他作品[编辑]

  • On English Poetry. New York: Alfred. A. Knopf, 1922; London: Heinemann, 1922.
  • The Meaning of Dreams. London: Cecil Palmer, 1924; New York: Greenberg, 1925.
  • Poetic Unreason and Other Studies. London: Cecil Palmer, 1925.
  • Contemporary Techniques of Poetry: A Political Analogy. London: Hogarth Press, 1925.
  • Another Future of Poetry. London: Hogarth Press, 1926.
  • Impenetrability or The Proper Habit of English. London: Hogarth Press, 1927.
  • The English Ballad: A Short Critical Survey. London: Ernest Benn, 1927; revised as English and Scottish Ballads. London: William Heinemann, 1957; New York: Macmillan, 1957.
  • Lars Porsena or The Future of Swearing and Improper Language. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1927; E. P. Dutton, New York, 1927; revised as The Future of Swearing and Improper Language. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1936.
  • A Survey of Modernist Poetry (with Laura Riding). London: William Heinemann, 1927; New York: Doubleday, 1928.
  • Lawrence and the Arabs. London: Jonathan Cape, 1927; as Lawrence and the Arabian Adventure. New York: Doubleday, 1928.
  • A Pamphlet Against Anthologies (with Laura Riding). London: Jonathan Cape, 1928; as Against Anthologies. New York: Doubleday, 1928.
  • Mrs. Fisher or The Future of Humour. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1928.
  • Good-bye to All That: An Autobiography. London: Jonathan Cape, 1929; New York: Jonathan Cape and Smith, 1930; rev., New York: Doubleday, 1957; London: Cassell, 1957; Penguin: Harmondsworth, 1960.
  • But It Still Goes On: An Accumulation. London: Jonathan Cape, 1930; New York: Jonathan Cape and Smith, 1931.
  • T. E. Lawrence to His Biographer Robert Graves. New York: Doubleday, 1938; London: Faber & Faber, 1939.
  • The Long Weekend (with Alan Hodge). London: Faber & Faber, 1940; New York: Macmillan, 1941.
  • The Reader Over Your Shoulder (with Alan Hodge). London: Jonathan Cape, 1943; New York: Macmillan, 1943.
  • The White Goddess. London: Faber & Faber, 1948; New York: Creative Age Press, 1948; rev., London: Faber & Faber, 1952, 1961; New York: Alfred. A. Knopf, 1958.
  • The Common Asphodel: Collected Essays on Poetry 1922–1949. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1949.
  • Occupation: Writer. New York: Creative Age Press, 1950; London: Cassell, 1951.
  • The Golden Ass of Apuleius, New York: Farrar, Straus, 1951.
  • The Nazarene Gospel Restored (with Joshua Podro). London: Cassell, 1953; New York: Doubleday, 1954.
  • The Greek Myths. London: Penguin, 1955; Baltimore: Penguin, 1955.
  • The Crowning Privilege: The Clark Lectures, 1954–1955. London: Cassell, 1955; New York: Doubleday, 1956.
  • Adam's Rib. London: Trianon Press, 1955; New York: Yoseloff, 1958.
  • Jesus in Rome (with Joshua Podro). London: Cassell, 1957.
  • Steps. London: Cassell, 1958.
  • 5 Pens in Hand. New York: Doubleday, 1958.
  • The Anger of Achilles. New York: Doubleday, 1959.
  • Food for Centaurs. New York: Doubleday, 1960.
  • Greek Gods and Heroes. New York: Doubleday, 1960; as Myths of Ancient Greece. London: Cassell, 1961.
  • Selected Poetry and Prose (ed. James Reeves). London: Hutchinson, 1961.
  • Oxford Addresses on Poetry. London: Cassell, 1962; New York: Doubleday, 1962.
  • The Siege and Fall of Troy. London: Cassell, 1962; New York: Doubleday, 1963.
  • The Big Green Book. New York: Crowell Collier, 1962; Penguin: Harmondsworth, 1978. Illustrated by Maurice Sendak
  • Hebrew Myths. The Book of Genesis (with Raphael Patai). New York: Doubleday, 1964; London: Cassell, 1964.
  • Majorca Observed. London: Cassell, 1965; New York: Doubleday, 1965.
  • Mammon and the Black Goddess. London: Cassell, 1965; New York: Doubleday, 1965.
  • Two Wise Children. New York: Harlin Quist, 1966; London: Harlin Quist, 1967.
  • The Rubaiyyat of Omar Khayyam (with Omar Ali-Shah). London: Cassell, 1967.
  • Poetic Craft and Principle. London: Cassell, 1967.
  • The Poor Boy Who Followed His Star. London: Cassell, 1968; New York: Doubleday, 1969.
  • Greek Myths and Legends. London: Cassell, 1968.
  • The Crane Bag. London: Cassell, 1969.
  • On Poetry: Collected Talks and Essays. New York: Doubleday, 1969.
  • Difficult Questions, Easy Answers. London: Cassell, 1972; New York: Doubleday, 1973.
  • In Broken Images: Selected Letters 1914–1946, ed. Paul O'Prey. London: Hutchinson, 1982
  • Between Moon and Moon: Selected Letters 1946–1972, ed. Paul O'Prey. London: Hutchinson, 1984
  • Collected Writings on Poetry, ed. Paul O'Prey, Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1995.
  • Complete Short Stories, ed. Lucia Graves, Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1995.
  • Some Speculations on Literature, History, and Religion, ed. Patrick Quinn, Manchester: Carcanet Press, 2000.
  • 5 November address, X magazine, Volume One, Number Three, June 1960; An Anthology from X (Oxford University Press 1988).

代表诗作[编辑]

Cherry-Time [3]

Cherries of the night are riper
Than the cherries pluckt at noon
Gather to your fairy piper
When he pipes his magic tune:
Merry, merry,
Take a cherry;
Mine are sounder,
Mine are rounder,
Mine are sweeter,
For the eater
Under the moon.
And you’ll be fairies soon.

In the cherry pluckt at night,
With the dew of summer swelling,
There’s a juice of pure delight,
Cool, dark, sweet, divinely smelling.
Merry, merry,
Take a cherry;
Mine are sounder,
Mine are rounder,
Mine are sweeter,
For the eater
In the moonlight.
And you’ll be fairies quite.

When I sound the fairy call,
Gather here in silent meeting,
Chin to knee on the orchard wall,
Cooled with dew and cherries eating.
Merry, merry,
Take a cherry;
Mine are sounder,
Mine are rounder,
Mine are sweeter.
For the eater
When the dews fall.
And you’ll be fairies all.

樱桃时节 [4]
夜晚的樱桃比午间采收的那些熟得更透,
到你们的笛仙这儿来相聚吧。
当他吹奏起他那魔幻般的曲调时:
乐陶陶,乐陶陶,
摘一枚樱桃;
我的更赞,
我的更圆,
我的更甜,
明月之下,静待佳客。
若此,你们即将成仙。

伴随夏日露水的逐渐饱满,
那晚间采收的樱桃里,
饱含着至纯喜悦的玉露琼浆,
凉爽,幽深,甘美,气息圣洁。
乐陶陶,乐陶陶,
摘一枚樱桃;
我的更赞,
我的更圆,
我的更甜,
月华之中,静待佳客。
若此,你们几近成仙。

每当我听到仙子的召唤,
就悄没声儿地来此聚会,
坐在果园的墙上,支颐于膝,
露水和樱桃美餐令我清凉。
乐陶陶,乐陶陶,
摘一枚樱桃;
我的更赞,
我的更圆,
我的更甜,
露降之时,静待佳客。
若此,你们已然成仙。
(译者:原灵)
(Translated by Yuan-Ling)

Full Moon [5]
As I walked out one harvest night
About the stroke of One,
The Moon attained to her full height
Stood beaming like the Sun.
She exorcised the ghostly wheat
To mute assent in Love's defeat
Whose tryst had now begun.

The fields lay sick beneath my tread,
A tedious owlet cried;
The nightingale above my head
With this or that replied,
Like man and wife who nightly keep
Inconsequent debate in sleep
As they dream side by side.

Your phantom wore the moon's cold mask,
My phantom wore the same,
Forgetful of the feverish task
In hope of which they came,
Each image held the other's eyes
And watched a grey distraction rise
To cloud the eager flame.

To cloud the eager flame of love,
To fog the shining gate:
They held the tyrannous queen above
Sole mover of their fate,
They glared as marble statues glare
Across the tessellated stair
Or down the Halls of State.

And now cold earth was Arctic sea,
Each breath came dagger keen,
Two bergs of glinting ice were we,
The broad moon sailed between;
There swam the mermaids, tailed and finned,
And Love went by upon the wind
As though it had not been.

满月 [6]
一个收获之夜,
钟敲一点时,我步出门外,
月伫立中天,辉照如日。
她祛除了麦子们的鬼魂,
以默许那幽会伊始的爱的挫败。

在我的踩踏下,田野萎靡不振,
讨厌的猫头鹰叫个不停,
而夜莺在我头顶之上,
有一搭没一搭地回应着,
好像并卧睡梦里仍在拌嘴的夫妻

你的幽灵戴着月的冷面具
我的也同样如此,
忘掉那狂热的使命吧,
在盼望它们哪个来临之时。
我们的映像令彼此目不交睫,
眼看那扰人心神的灰色之物冉冉升起,
让渴望的火焰蒙上阴影。

为云翳那爱的欲望之火,
为雾障那耀眼的门,
他们尊崇那暴君似的女王,
他们命运的唯一主导者,
他们像大理石雕像那样怒目而视,
目光透过格饰的楼梯,或穿越国议厅。

而此时,地球酷寒如北冰洋,
每次的呼吸都锋利如匕首,
我们是两座闪闪发光的冰山呵,
满月航行其间;那里,
麟尾俱全的美人鱼优游自在,
一阵风之后,爱消失不见了,
好像它不曾来过。
(译者:原灵)
(Translated by Yuan-Ling)

参考[编辑]

  1. ^ National Portrait Gallery - Person - Robert Ranke Graves. Npg.org.uk. [2010-12-19]. 
  2. ^ James Tait Black Prize winners: Previous winners – fiction 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2011-09-27.
  3. ^ Poemhunter. Cherry-Time. 
  4. ^ 原灵. 美国文心社. 
  5. ^ Poemhunter. Full moon. 
  6. ^ 原灵. 美国文心社. 

来源[编辑]

  • 罗伯特·格雷夫斯 (1960) 《向一切告别》, London: Penguin.
  • 西摩,米兰达(1995)“罗伯特·格雷夫斯,生命的边缘”, London: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-40860-9

外部链接[编辑]

作品和档案[编辑]

文章和访谈[编辑]