英屬印度諸省

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印度次大陸,歷史上官方根據統治的需要以「」(Province)名作為一級行政區存在的時間,從1858年英國東印度公司開始,到1950年印度憲法頒布生效不到一百年。1947年印度獨立,印巴分治分治後,在印度共和國,作為一級行政區存在的時間僅三年,其區劃調整幅度不大,之後撤省建立中央直轄區,故實際上在印度共和國,省僅為英屬印度時期的行政區劃。在巴基斯坦,其直屬中央政府的一級行政區一直沿用原有省名,區劃調整不大。

自1612年英國在蘇拉特建立第一個貿易據點開始,整個17世紀英國人控制了擴展到占據印度次大陸三個沿海海岸,包括孟買金奈加爾各答,這三個城市都是當時的東印度公司(即之後的英屬印度)管轄區(或稱省)的行政中心,三大管區均設有行政長官即省長,其中孟加拉省(孟加拉管區)省長成為後來的印度總督。這些省份都是通過戰爭手段擴大的領土,19世紀中葉推行所謂的「無嗣失權」(Doctrine of lapse)政策,印度總督在土邦王公去世沒有直系繼承的情況下,獲得部分土地,至此英屬印度諸省覆蓋約印度次大陸一半的面積,區內人口達到次大陸人口60%。這些地區具體由總督指定的省長、副省長、高級專員、專員和行政官員領導,接受英國為宗主國的當地王公繼續實行自治的土邦制度。

英屬印度諸省[編輯]

獨立後的印度諸省[編輯]

參考文獻[編輯]

  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II, The Indian Empire, Historical, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxv, 1 map, 573., 1908 
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. III, The Indian Empire, Economic (Chapter X: Famine, pp. 475–502, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxvi, 1 map, 520., 1907 
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV, The Indian Empire, Administrative, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxx, 1 map, 552., 1907 
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II, The Indian Empire, Historical, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxv, 1 map, 573., 1908 

延伸閱讀[編輯]

  • Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar, From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India, New Delhi and London: Orient Longmans. Pp. xx, 548., 2004, ISBN 8125025960 .
  • Brown, Judith M., Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 474, 1994, ISBN 0198731132 .
  • Copland, Ian, India 1885-1947: The Unmaking of an Empire (Seminar Studies in History Series), Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans. Pp. 160, 2001, ISBN 0582381738 
  • Judd, Dennis, The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj, 1600-1947, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 280, 2004, ISBN 0192803581 
  • Majumdar, R. C.; Raychaudhuri, H. C.; Datta, Kalikinkar, An Advanced History of India, London: Macmillan and Company Limited. 2nd edition. Pp. xiii, 1122, 7 maps, 5 coloured maps., 1950 .
  • Markovits, Claude (ed), A History of Modern India 1480-1950 (Anthem South Asian Studies), Anthem Press. Pp. 607, 2005, ISBN 1843311526 .
  • Metcalf, Barbara; Metcalf, Thomas R., A Concise History of Modern India(Cambridge Concise Histories), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. xxxiii, 372, 2006, ISBN 0521682258 .
  • Peers, Douglas M., India under Colonial Rule 1700-1885, Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans. Pp. xvi, 163, 2006, ISBN 0-582-31738-X .
  • Sarkar, Sumit, Modern India: 1885-1947, Delhi: Macmillan India Ltd. Pp. xiv, 486, 1983, ISBN 0333904257 
  • Smith, Vincent A., India in the British Period: Being Part III of the Oxford History of India, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press. 2nd edition. Pp. xxiv, 316 (469-784), 1921 .
  • Spear, Percival, A History of India, Volume 2: From the sixteenth century to the twentieth century, New Delhi and London: Penguin Books. Pp. 298, 1990, ISBN 0140138366 .

外部連結[編輯]