# 帕累托法則

## 經濟學

1992年的「聯合國開發計劃署報告」將這個不平等現象用非常明顯和易於理解的形式記錄了下來，即所謂的「香檳杯」效應[7]其中顯示全球收入分配非常不平衡，全球最富有的20％的人口控制着世界收入的82.7％。[8]

## 數學筆記

64/4相關性也意味着4％至64％之間的32％「公平」面積，其中前20％（16％）的80％下降80％（上升20％）（下降了16％）涉及相應的上下底部效應（32％）。這也大致符合上述世界人口表，其中第二個20％控制了12％的財富，而最高的20％（可能）控制了16％的財富

## 平等措施

### 堅尼系數和胡佛指數

${\displaystyle H=G=|2A-1|=|1-2B|\,}$
${\displaystyle A:B=\left({\frac {1+H}{2}}\right):\left({\frac {1-H}{2}}\right)}$

### Theil 指數

${\displaystyle T_{T}=T_{L}=T_{s}=2H\,\operatorname {artanh} (H).\,}$

## 參考文獻

1. ^ THE APPLICATION OF THE PARETO PRINCIPLE IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING. Ankunda R. Kiremire 19th October, 2011
2. ^ Bunkley, Nick, Joseph Juran, 103, Pioneer in Quality Control, Dies, 紐約時報, March 3, 2008
3. ^ What is 80/20 rule?. 80/20 Rule of Presenting Ideas. [October 4, 2015]. （原始內容存檔於January 28, 2013）.
4. ^ Newman, MEJ. Power laws, Pareto Distributions, and Zipf's law (PDF): 11. [10 April 2011].
5. ^ Pareto, Vilfredo; Page, Alfred N., Translation of Manuale di economia politica ("Manual of political economy"), A.M. Kelley, 1971, ISBN 978-0-678-00881-2
6. ^
7. ^ Gorostiaga, Xabier, World has become a 'champagne glass' globalization will fill it fuller for a wealthy few, National Catholic Reporter, January 27, 1995
8. ^ United Nations Development Program, 1992 Human Development Report, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992
9. ^ Human Development Report 1992, Chapter 3, [2007-07-08]
10. ^ "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" 1877–1878, Charles Sanders Peirce
11. Gen, M.; Cheng, R., Genetic Algorithms and Engineering Optimization, New York: Wiley, 2002
12. ^ Rooney, Paula, Microsoft's CEO: 80–20 Rule Applies To Bugs, Not Just Features, ChannelWeb, October 3, 2002
13. ^ Pressman, Roger S. (2010). Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach (7th ed.). Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill, 2010. ISBN 978-0-07-337597-7.
14. ^
15. ^ Woodcock, Kathryn. Safety Evaluation Techniques. Toronto, ON: Ryerson University. 2010: 86.
16. ^ Introduction to Risk-based Decision-Making (PDF). USCG Safety Program. United States Coast Guard. [14 January 2012].
17. ^
18. ^ Epstein, Joshua; Axtell, Robert, Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom-Up, MIT Press: 208, 1996, ISBN 0-262-55025-3
19. ^ Rushton, Oxley & Croucher（2000）, pp. 107–108.
20. ^
21. ^ Galvani, Alison P.; May, Robert M. Epidemiology: Dimensions of superspreading. Nature: 293–295. PMID 16292292. doi:10.1038/438293a.
22. ^ Lloyd-Smith, JO; Schreiber, SJ; Kopp, PE; Getz, WM. Superspreading and the effect of individual variation on disease emergence. Nature. 2005, 438: 355–359. PMID 16292310. doi:10.1038/nature04153.
23. ^ Nicola, Davis, 'High social cost' adults can be predicted from as young as three, says study, 衛報, 2016
24. ^ Bak, Per, How Nature Works: the science of self-organized criticality, Springer: 89, 1999, ISBN 0-387-94791-4
25. ^ Taleb, Nassim, The Black Swan: 229–252, 274–285, 2007
26. ^ On Line Calculator: Inequality