豬戰

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豬戰(Pig War)是1859年發生於美國英屬北美之間的一場衝突。衝突的焦點為美加邊境聖胡安群島的歸屬問題,而引發衝突的直接原因是美國農民射殺了一隻加拿大農民的豬,因此此次衝突被稱為豬戰,又被稱為豬劇集、豬和馬鈴薯戰爭、聖胡安島邊境爭議和西北邊境爭議。由於沒有交火和人員傷亡,這場衝突被視為無血衝突。

背景[編輯]

1846年6月15日,英美簽署俄勒岡條約解決俄勒岡邊界爭議。條約規定美屬俄勒岡地區與英屬哥倫比亞地區之間的邊界以北緯四十九度劃分,一直延伸至溫哥華島與北美大陸之間的海上通道中線,然後南轉穿過該通道和胡安·德·富卡海峽,直至太平洋為止。然而,問題在於該海上通道有兩條海峽可被視為通道中線,一條是哈羅海峽,位於聖胡安群島西端,另一條是羅薩里奧海峽,位於聖胡安群島東端。但在1846年,時人對該地區的地理仍存在一些不確定的地方。當時最常用的地圖為1798年出版的喬治·溫哥華版本和1845年出版的查爾斯·威克斯版本,兩個版本都沒有清楚描繪溫哥華島和海灣群島的東南沿岸海域,因此哈羅海峽在當時尚未為人所知。

1856年,英美設立邊界委員會解決雙方邊界的問題,其中包括喬治亞海峽與胡安·德·富卡海峽之間的水路邊界問題。雙方在1857年曾就該問題多次會面並交換書信。英方認為根據俄勒岡條約的字眼和條約草擬者的原意,應以羅薩里奧海峽是為界,但美方堅持以哈羅海峽為界。水路邊界的爭議令雙方都宣稱擁有聖胡安群島的主權。

事件起因[編輯]

1859年6月15日,即俄勒岡條約生效13年後,條約中的模糊條款引起衝突。美國農民萊曼·卡特萊登陸聖胡安群島,根據捐贈土地法案宣稱擁有這片土地,並射殺了一隻闖進他的莊園並啃食馬鈴薯大黑豬。這隻大黑豬是一個受僱傭於哈德遜灣公司的愛爾蘭人查爾斯·格里芬的財產。卡特萊願意支付10美元賠償,但格里芬要求100美元。最終英國當局逮捕了卡特萊,隨後衝突升級。

戰事升級[編輯]

解決[編輯]

When news about the crisis reached Washington and London, officials from both nations were shocked and took action to calm the potentially explosive international incident.[16]

In September, U.S. President James Buchanan sent General Winfield Scott to negotiate with Governor Douglas and resolve the growing crisis.[6][10] This was in the best interest of the United States, as sectional tensions within the country were increasing, soon to culminate in the Civil War.[10] Scott had calmed two other border crises between the two nations in the late 1830s. He arrived in the San Juans in October and began negotiations with Douglas.[16]

As a result of the negotiations, both sides agreed to retain joint military occupation of the island until a final settlement could be reached, reducing their presence to a token force of no more than 100 men.[6] The "English Camp" was established on the north end of San Juan Island along the shoreline, for ease of supply and access; and the "American Camp" was created on the south end on a high, windswept meadow, suitable for artillery barrages against shipping.[10] Today the Union Jack still flies above the "English Camp", being raised and lowered daily by park rangers, making it one of the few places without diplomatic status where U.S. government employees regularly hoist the flag of another country, though this is for commemoration purposes.


Union Jack at the "English Camp" in San Juan Island National Historical Park During the years of joint military occupation, the small British and American units on San Juan Island had an amicable mutual social life, visiting one another's camps to celebrate their respective national holidays and holding various athletic competitions. Park rangers tell visitors the biggest threat to peace on the island during these years was "the large amounts of alcohol available".

This state of affairs continued for the next 12 years. The dispute was peacefully resolved after more than a decade of confrontation and military bluster, during which time the local British authorities consistently lobbied London to seize back the Puget Sound region entirely,[citation needed] as the Americans were busy elsewhere with the Civil War. In 1866, the Colony of Vancouver Island was merged with the Colony of British Columbia to form an enlarged Colony of British Columbia. In 1871, the enlarged colony joined the newly formed Dominion of Canada. That year, the United Kingdom and the United States signed the Treaty of Washington, which dealt with various differences between the two nations, including border issues involving the newly formed Dominion. Among the results of the treaty was the decision to resolve the San Juan dispute by international arbitration, with German Emperor Wilhelm I chosen to act as arbitrator. Wilhelm referred the issue to a three-man arbitration commission which met in Geneva for nearly a year.[16] On October 21, 1872, the commission decided in favor of the United States.[2][6][10] The arbitrator chose the American-preferred marine boundary via Haro Strait, to the west of the islands, over the British preference for Rosario Strait which lay to their east.


British troops evacuate San Juan Island On November 25, 1872, the British withdrew their Royal Marines from the British Camp.[2] The Americans followed by July 1874.[2][6]

Canadian politicians and public, already angry with the Oregon Treaty, were once again upset that Britain had not looked after their interests, and Canada sought greater autonomy in international affairs.

The Pig War is commemorated in San Juan Island National Historical Park.[10]

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