4.2千年事件

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4.2千年事件全新世一次非常嚴重的乾旱事件,影響了許多文明的突變[1]。該事件開始於4200年前,即公元前2200年。持續了整個公元前22世紀。 這一事件很可能導致了古埃及的古王國以及美索不達米亞的阿卡德帝國的結束[2]。乾旱也引發了印度河流域文明向東南方向的下游遷移[3]

證據[編輯]

4.2千年前的強烈乾旱在北非[4],中東[5]紅海[6]阿拉伯半島[7]印度次大陸[3]以及北美的midcontinent[8]。加拿大西部的山嶽冰川在此時也向外擴展了[9]。證據也存在於意大利山洞的流石[10]以及安第斯山脈的冰川[11]

美索不達米亞的乾旱與北大西洋的變冷事件「Bond event 3」對應[1][12][13]

後果[編輯]

古埃及[編輯]

古王國的下尼羅河洪水周期的異常,可能導致了中央政府的突然崩潰[14]。饑荒、社會混亂、分裂持續了40年,隨後是在各省的重新定居、恢復秩序。古埃及重新統一在中王國政權下,在各地恢復了司法、灌溉與社會秩序。

美索不達米亞[編輯]

美索不達米亞的嚴重乾旱導致了水系水量減少了一半[15]。底格里斯河與幼發拉底河的水來自於高海拔地區的地中海方向來的降水。

阿卡德帝國,在公元前2300年是第二個實現大一統的文明(古埃及早在公元前3100年實現了統一),被廣泛的、持續了數個世紀的乾旱帶入了低潮[16]。考古證據記錄了北美索不達米亞廣泛的農業平原被拋荒以及公元前2170年湧入南美索不達米亞的難民潮[17]. 一道180公里長的牆,"亞摩利人的擋板",在中美索不達米亞建起以阻止遊牧部族入侵南部。公元前2150年,定居在札格羅斯山脈的Guti人擊敗了士氣沮喪的阿卡德軍隊,佔據了阿卡德並在公元前2115年摧毀了它。在公元前第3個千年結束之際近東出現了廣泛的農業衰退[18].

公元前1900年,北部平原出現了小型的定居點,在文明崩潰3個世紀以後[17].

阿拉伯半島[編輯]

波斯灣地區出現了定居風格的突然改變,陶器與墳墓的風格都變了。公元前22世紀,乾旱導致了Umm al-Nar時期的結束,轉變為Wadi Suq時期[7]

中國[編輯]

乾旱可能導致了中國中部的新石器文化公元前第3個千年末期的解體[19]。同一時期,黃河中游發生了一系列特大洪水[20]。在沂沭河盆地,繁盛的龍山文化遭到寒冷事件的打擊,稻穀短缺甚至種子都不夠用。自然資源的匱乏導致了當時人口下降以及現代的考古發掘點的減少[21]。大約4000年前,龍山文化被更為簡單、原始、粗糙的岳石文化取代。

參考文獻[編輯]

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外部連結[編輯]