拉齊

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Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī
Portrait of Rhazes (al-Razi) (AD 865 - 925) Wellcome L0005053 (cropped).jpg
出生 854 CE [1]
波斯雷伊[2]
逝世 932或925 CE[2]
波斯雷伊
時代 伊斯蘭黃金時代
地區 伊斯蘭哲學
學派 Persian science英語Persian science, Islamic medicine英語Islamic medicine
主要領域
化學, 醫學, 哲學
著名思想
Discovered alcohol (ethanol) in its pure form, the first to produce such as 硫酸, writing up limited or extensive notes on diseases such as 天花 and 水痘, a pioneer in 眼科學, author of first book on pediatrics, making leading contributions in 無機化合物 and 有機化學, also the author of several philosophical works

拉齊波斯語ابوبكر محمّد زکرياى رازى‎ ,Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī ;865年8月26日-925年),波斯醫師、鍊金術師、化學家、哲學家。他博學多才,為早期醫學、化學、音樂和哲學領域做出很大貢獻。醫學方面,他發現天花麻疹是兩種不同的疾病,並最早闡明了過敏和免疫的原理。化學上,他發現乙醇,並認為元素嬗變為金銀是可能的。他創立了完善的蒸餾和提取方法,並通過蒸餾綠礬(油)和石油,分別發現硫酸煤油。一生著有200部書籍和文章,記載了他在各領域的探索。

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science (ISBN 978-1-84614-161-4)
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Iskandar, Albert. Al-Rāzī. Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures 2nd. Springer: 155–156. 2006. 

擴展閱讀[編輯]

第一手文獻[編輯]

拉齊所作[編輯]

  • Arberry, A.J. The Spiritual Physick of Rhazes (PDF). The Wisdom of the East Series. The Liberty Fund. 1950. 
  • See C. Brockelmann英語C. Brockelmann for the manuscript of Razi's extant books in general, see Brockelmann, GAL, I, pp. 268–71 (second edition), Suppl., Vol. I, pp. 418–21.
  • Paul Kraus, Abi Bakr Mohammadi Filii Zachariae Raghensis: Opera Philosophica, fragmentaque quae superssunt. Pars Prior. Cairo 1939. Note: this is the only edition of Al-Razi's philosophical books and fragments still extant. Only the first volume was published since Kraus's suicide prevented the publication of the second volume for which he already had gathered a great amount of material. This material was transferred, after his death, to the Institut Francais d'Archeologie Orientale, in Cairo; it still remains to be published. [來源請求]
  • Abdul Latif Muhammad al-Abd. Al-ṭibb al-rūḥānī li Abū Bakr al-Rāzī. Cairo: Maktabat al-Nahḍa al-Miṣriyya. 1978. 

他人所作[編輯]

  • Ibn Al-Nadim, Fihrist, (ed. Flugel), pp. 299 et sqq.
  • Sa'id al-Andalusi英語Said Al-Andalusi, Tabaqat al-Umam, p. 33
  • Ibn Juljul, Tabaqat al-Atibba w-al-Hukama, (ed. Fu'ad Sayyid), Cairo, 1355/1936, pp. 77–78
  • J. Ruska, Al-Biruni als Quelle fur das Leben und die Schriften al-Razi's, Isis, Vol. V, 1924, pp. 26–50.
  • Al-Biruni, Epitre de Beruni, contenant le repertoire des ouvres de Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi, publiee par P. Kraus, Paris, 1936
  • Al-Baihaqi, Tatimmah Siwan al-Hikma, (ed. M. Ghafi), Lahore, 1351/1932
  • Al-Qifti,Tarikh al-Hukama, (ed. Lippert), pp. 27–177
  • Ibn Abi Usaibi'ah,Uyun al-Anba fi Tabaqat al-Atibba, Vol. I, pp. 309–21
  • Abu Al-Faraj ibn al-'Ibri (Bar-Hebraeus),Mukhtasar Tarikh al-Duwal, (ed. A. Salhani), p. 291
  • Ibn Khallikan英語Ibn Khallikan, Wafayat al-A'yan, (ed. Muhyi al-Din 'Abd al-Hamid), Cairo, 1948, No. 678, pp. 244–47
  • Al-Safadi, Nakt al-Himyan, pp. 249–50
  • Ibn Al-'Imad, Shadharat al-Dhahab, Vol. II, p. 263
  • Al-'Umari, Masalik al-Absar, Vol. V, Part 2, ff. 301-03 (photostat copy in Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyyah).

第二手文獻[編輯]

  • G. S. A. Ranking, The Life and Works of Rhazes, in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Congress of Medicine, London, 1913, pp. 237–68.
  • Al-Razi als Bahnbrecher einer neuer Chemie, Deutsche Literaturzeitung, 1923, pp. 118–24.
  • Die Alchemie al-Razi's der Islam, Vol. XXII,pp. 283–319.
  • Uber den gegenwartigen Stand der Razi-Forschung, Archivio di stori della scienza, 1924, Vol. V, pp. 335–47
  • H. H. Shader, ZDMG, 79, pp. 228–35 (see translation into Arabic by Abdurrahman Badawi英語Abdurrahman Badawi in al-Insan al-Kamil,Islamica, Vol. XI, Cairo, 1950, pp. 37–44).
  • E. O. von Lippmann, Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemie, Vol. II, p. 181.
  • S. Pines, Die Atomenlehre ar-Razi's in Beitrage zur islamischen Atomenlehre, Berlin, 1936, pp. 34–93.
  • Dr. Mahmud al-Najmabadi, Shah Hal Muhammad ibn Zakariya, (1318/1900)
  • Gamil Bek, Uqud al-Jauliar, Vol. I, pp. 118–27.
  • Izmirli Haqqi, Ilahiyat, Fak. Macm., Vol. I, p. 151; Vol. II, p. 36, Vol. III, pp. 177 et seq.
  • Abdurrahman Badawi英語Abdurrahman Badawi, Min Tarlkh al-Ilhad fi al-Islam Islamica, Vol. II, Cairo, 1945, pp. 198–228.
  • Hirschberg,Geschichte der Augenheilkunde, p. 101.
  • E. G.Browne, Arabian Medicine, Cambridge, 1921, pp. 44–53.
  • M. Meyerhof, Legacy of Islam, pp. 323 et seq.
  • F. Wüstenfeld英語F. Wüstenfeld, Geschichte der Arabischen Arzte und Naturforscher, ftn. 98.
  • L. Leelerc, Histoire de la medicine arabe, Paris, 1876, Vol. I, pp. 337–54.
  • H. P. J. Renaud, A propos du millenaire de Razes, in bulletin de la Societe Irancaise d'Histoire de la medicine, Mars-avril, 1931, pp. 203 et seq.
  • A. Eisen, Kimiya al-Razi, RAAD, DIB, 62/4.
  • Aldo Mieli, La science arabe, Leiden, 1938, pp. 8, 16.
  • Nasr, Science and Civilization in Islam, see. Razes: The Secret of Secrets, p. 273, also pp. 197–200, and Anawati: L'Alchemie arabe in Rased.
  • Browne, Edward Granville. Islamic Medicine. Goodword Books Pvt. Ltd. 2001. ISBN 81-87570-19-9. 
  • M. M. Sharif英語M. M. Sharif, A History of Muslim Philosophy
  • Walker, P. "The Political Implications of al-Razi's Philosophy", in C. Butterworth (ed.) The Political Aspects of Islamic Philosophy, Cambridge, MA: 哈佛大學出版社, 61-94.(1992)
  • Motazed, K. Mohammad Zakaria Razi

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外部連結[編輯]