本页使用了标题或全文手工转换

跨性别

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

跨性别(英语:Transgender)人士的性别认同性别表达与他们的指定性别不同[1][2][3]。如果跨性别人士以医学手段从一种性别转换到另一种性别,则会被称为变性人。「跨性别」是一个伞式术语:除了包括性别认同与出生时的性别指定相反的人(跨性别男性跨性别女性),它还可能包括不完全归属于传统上的男性或女性的人(比如是性别酷儿者/非常规性别者,双性别者泛性别者流体性别者、无性别者)[2][4][5]。有些定义则把X性别也归类于跨性别之下,或概念性地视跨性别为第三性别[6][7]。跨性别的定义广泛至包含变装者,而不论其性别认同。[8]

跨性别者的性倾向独立于其性别认同[9]:跨性别者可能自我认同为异性恋者、同性恋者、双性恋者、无性恋者,或者拒绝为其性倾向下一个标签。「跨性别」亦应与双性人一词作区别,双性人是指出生时所具有的身体性别特征「不符合男性或女性身体的典型二元概念」[10]。跨性别的相反词则为顺性别——顺性别者的性别认同或性别表达与其出生时的性别指定一致[11]

个人对于外表的感觉良好且认为符合其性别认同的情况则称为“跨性别一致”(transgender congruence)[12]。许多跨性别者经历性别不安,当中有些则寻求激素替代疗法性别重置手术以及心理治疗(但需注意的是,心理治疗无法改变跨性别人士的性别认同)[13][14] 。不是所有跨性别者皆渴望接受这些治疗,也有些则因为经济或医学方面的原因而无法接受之。[14][15]

大多数跨性别人士在工作及公共场所[16][17],和在医疗机构求诊时[18]遭他人歧视。许多地方的法律没有阻止此一情况发生的条文[19]

术语及定义的演变[编辑]

美国人Holly Boswell设计的跨性别象征符号(⚧),结合了雄性与雌性的星相符号。

哥伦比亚大学医学院精神科医师约翰·F·奥利文(John F. Oliven)在其所著并于1965年出版的参考书《性卫生与病理学》(Sexual Hygiene and Pathology)中首次提出了「transgender」此一用语,并指出以前所使用的用语「transsexualism」「是具有误导性的,因为性本身不是跨性别的一个重大影响因子」[20][21][22]。跨性别一词因能跟「变性」(transsexual)和「易装癖」(transvestite)区分开来,而得到广泛推广。相关推广者包括易装爱好者杂志《Transvestia》的主编弗吉尼亚·普林斯英语Virginia Prince,其于该杂志的1969年12月号中推广此一用语[23][24]。在1970年,人们普遍视「trans-gender」和「trans people」为两个伞式术语并使用之[注 1] ,并使用「transgenderist」一词去代指没有接受性别重置手术的跨性别者[25]。到了1976年,跨性别者在教材中会遭缩写为TG[26]

到了1984年,「跨性别群体」(transgender community)此一概念经已发展起来,此用词当中的跨性别也是一个伞式术语[27]阿尔斯特大学的理查德·艾尔金斯(Richard Elkins)于1985年建立了「跨性别档案」(Trans-Gender Archive)[24]。1992年的跨性别法律和就业政策国际会议(International Conference on Transgender Law and Employment Policy)将跨性别定义为一个伞式术语,当中包括「变性者、跨性别者和易装者等」[28]费雷思所著并于1992年发表的小册子《跨性别解放:时机经已成熟的运动》(Transgender Liberation: A Movement Whose Time has Come)把跨性别定义为任何性别表现与社会规范冲突的统合术语;并认为其已成为酷儿的同义词[29]

跨性别男性这个术语指的是从女性性别转换到男性的男性,跨性别女性是指从男性性别转换到女性的女性。跨性别者们往往希望他们的认同性别受到尊重。卫生专业人员手册、专业新闻风格指南和LGBT拥护组织建议其他人采用跨性别者自我认同的姓名和人称代词,提及跨性别人士的过去时亦同样如是[30][31],当中许多亦建议在英语中「Transgender」不应当作名词,而应当作形容词使用;同时也指出「Transgender」不应在结尾加上「-ed」,变成「transgendered」[32][33][34]

性别认同与其出生时的性别指定相符,而又不是性别酷儿或性别非二元者的人则称作顺性别者[35]

在相当一部分国家,跨性别者通常仍然被以出生时被指定的性别对待,或者是在进行性别重置手术后才会被以他们认同的性别对待,这一点一般在法律的性别身份认定上表现得很显著。部分对跨性别者缺乏了解或者有跨性别恐惧症的人可能会无视跨性别者的性别认同而将跨性别者视作其出生时被指定的性别、或是“不男不女”、第三性、性别酷儿对待。通常来说,这是一种对跨性别者不尊重的表现,因为这否定了他们的自我认同。

变性及其跟跨性别的关系[编辑]

「 transsexual」(变性)一词于1949年被戴维·奥利弗·考尔德韦尔英语David Oliver Cauldwell引入至英语[注 2],并于1966年得到哈里·本杰明英语Harry Benjamin推广,相近于「transgender」一词的提出和推广时间[23]。自1990年以来,「变性」一词一般用于形容跨性别群体下面的一个子分类[23][36][37],变性者是指想把性别永久过渡至跟他们的性别认同一致,并为此寻求医疗援助的人们。但是这两个群体的关注点有时是不同的,比如可以支付医疗费用的变性男性和女性可能会相对较关注医疗隐私及法律承认问题。

跨性别和变性之间一般依据社会性别(心理及社会性的性别)和生理性别的差异来作区别[38][39]。因此,变性可以说是较注重于生理层面的性别;而跨性别则较着重于心理性别倾向和性别角色.[40]。许多跨性别人士更喜欢以跨性别者来自称,并抗拒以变性者自称[41][42][43]。比如美国跨性别女性克里斯汀·约根森英语Christine Jorgensen于1979年公开拒绝承认自己为「变性者」,而用跨性别者自称,并说道:「性别不是与床伴有关,而是与身份有关」[44][45]。这意味着跨性别实际上是关于性别认同的[46][注 3]。但是一些变性人反对将自己列入跨性别此一伞式术语中[47][48][49][50]

人类学家戴维·瓦伦丁(David Valentine)在其2007年的著作《跨性别:一个分类的民族志》(Transgender, an Ethnography of a Category)中指出,跨性别一词是由活动家们创造出来的,但其定义范围包括许多不认同自身为跨性别者的人。随后他亦指出不应把不认同自己为跨性别者的人纳入跨性别光谱中[47]。费雷思亦同样宣称跨性别对于一些人而言并不是一个合适的自我认同,而是他者为了理解某些人而设立的一个分类[48]。然而,波士顿fenway health公司的跨性别者健康计划对以上此一说法提出了质疑;其指出,跨性别一词并没有普遍得到接受的定义,且人们很容易就对此词产生混淆,因为在21世纪之交流行的用词现在看来可能具有冒犯性。该计划建议临床医师询问求诊者对哪个用词较为满意,并避免使用变性者此一用词,除非他们确定求诊者对此感到满意[46]

哈里·本杰明开发了一套适用于跨性别者和异装者的分类系统,该分类系统称为本杰明量表英语Benjamin scale,当中他根据易装的原因和是否急需进行性别重置手术来把跨性别者和异装者分为六类[51]。本杰明认为中等程度的「真正跨性别者」需要补充雌激素睾酮来进行「初步性的手术或代替手术」[51];包括米里亚姆·里维拉英语Miriam (TV personality)在内,一些人尽管符合本雅明对「真正的跨性别者」的定义,但又不希望进行性别重置手术。此外也有尽管接受了性别重置手术,但又不符合「跨性别者」的定义的例子,比如格雷戈里·海明威英语Gregory Hemingway[52][53]

跨性别的其他子类别[编辑]

跨性别即使在最狭隘的定义下,也包含性别认同与其出生时的性别指定不同的跨性别男性和跨性别女性,然而广义的跨性别还包括其他群体,包括不完全归属于传统上的男性或女性的人,例子有双性性格者双性别者泛性别者、无性别者——他们一般遭统称为性别酷儿[5]——或第三性者(一些参考文献和一些社会将跨性别人群概念化成第三性别)[6][7]。尽管一些文献将跨性别者的定义扩及至异装者[8],但一般都会将他们排除于外,如同异装恋物癖英语Transvestic fetishism(因为一般将其分类为性欲倒错)、以娱乐为目的的男扮女装(异装皇后)/女扮男装(异装皇帝)。

性别酷儿(包括双性性格者、双性别者)[编辑]

性别酷儿/性别非二元者是指不完全归属于传统意义上的男性或女性的人,当中包括无性别者、双性性格者、双性别者、泛性别者、流性者[54],他们的存在跟顺性别主义(假定所有人皆是顺性别的信条)相违背[55][56]。双性别和双性性格是两个有所重叠的类别;双性别者认为自己一时是男性,一时是女性;或者认为自己既是男性又是女性。双性性格者则可能类似地认为自己是无性别的(无性别者)、处于两性之间、时男时女(流性者),或同时拥有多个性别(泛性别者)。有限度的双性化表现是常见的(比如穿裤子的女性、戴耳环的男性),且不会遭视作跨性别行为。「Androgyne」在医学上有时会被用作双性人的同义词[57]

易装癖者[编辑]

易装癖者会穿着被视为“与他们出生时的性别指定不同”的服装[58][59]。「transvestite」一词跟「cross-dresser」属同义[60][61] ,不过「cross-dresser」一词较为常用[61][62]。「异装」一词在相关文献中并没有完整的定义。加拿大约克大学哲学系教授迈克尔·吉尔伯特(Michael A. Gilbert)则把易装癖者定义为:「有着明显的性别认同且与其出生时的生理性征相同的人,但因为那是异性的服装而选择穿着之[63]。」这个定义不包括「因其他原因而穿异性服装」的人,例如扮演异性角色的演员、出席化妆舞会的男女[64]。易装癖者可能但不一定会模仿异性的行为或习俗,且一般不会想在医学上改变自己的身体。大部分易装癖者认同自己为异性恋者[65]

异装癖跟异装恋物癖(transvestic fetishism)在概念上完全不同。异装恋物癖是指间歇性地为恋物目的使用异性服装的人[66][67]。在医学上,异装恋物癖分别以DSM和ICD中的代码302.3和F65.1跟异装癖作区分[67][66]

以娱乐为目的的男扮女装/女扮男装[编辑]

「Drag」此一用词是用于形容在特殊场合男扮女装/女扮男装的人士,他们的异装原因跟跨性别者或易装癖者不同,只是单纯为了表演或娱乐而异装。除了服装和化妆之外,他们的相关表现还可能包括行为上的转变。以娱乐为目的的男扮女装/女扮男装可能会较为夸张、惹人发笑,以至使人认为当事人是怪诞的。异装皇后被第二波女性主义支持者认为是「对女性的讽刺」。异装艺人在LGBT文化中具有一定的历史。异装皇后是指以娱乐为目的的男扮女装;异装皇帝则是指以娱乐为目的的女扮男装;人造皇后(faux queen)是指女性对「异装皇后」的模仿表现。现实中的异装表演者涵盖所有性别和性别认同,并拥有不同的原因而去选择表演异装。一些表演者、易装癖者和同性恋群体已经接受了一个由色情作品衍生出来的用语——「Tranny」去形容扮演易装皇后或因其他原因而进行异装的人,然而这个词一旦套用于跨性别人士身上,便会惹来普遍的反感[68]

双性人[编辑]

双性人的生殖器等性别特征不符合男性或女性身体的典型二元概念,但双性人不一定会是跨性别者,因为他们未必会认为出生时的性别指定与性别认同不同。然而,跨性别者和双性人所面对的问题拥有一定程度的重叠,因为他们都在挑战社会对性别所下的传统定义。

LGBT群体[编辑]

性别认同和跨性别认同这两个概念跟性倾向不同[69]。性倾向是指一个人对男性、女性或两性产生的持久情感,喜爱、爱情或性吸引的现象。而性别认同则是指一个人认同自己是男性还是女性[32]。跨性别者的性倾向和顺性别者差不多[70]。异性恋和同性恋这两个标签在以前是错误地根据跨性别者出生时的性别指定而下的[71]。许多现今的专业文献会使用像「认为男性拥有吸引力」、「认为女性拥有吸引力」、「认为两性皆有吸引力」或「两性皆无吸引力」般的用语去形容一个人的性倾向,而不考虑其性别认同[72] 。治疗师正逐渐意识到他们在用词上有必要尊重客户的性别认同和性倾向[73]。例如某人出生时的性别指定为男性、自我认同为女性,并认为男性拥有吸引力的话,那么她仍属异性恋者。

尽管性取向和性别认同之间存在区别,但纵观历史,同性恋和双性恋的亚文化往往是唯一接受性别多元者的地方,因此他们对同性恋和双性恋的亚文化存有归属感,此一情况在法律严格限制跨性别者的权利时尤其明显。两者互相接受的历史具有一定的复杂性。西方社会的同性恋群体就像世界其他地方一样,直到1970年才普遍区分生理性别和性别认同,而且在此以前经常将性别多元者视为同性恋者。现今跨性别者群体的成员一般都会跟女同性恋者、男同性恋者和双性恋者一起参与LGBT权利运动。此外跨性别群体在LGBT权利史上所扮演的角色经常遭到忽视[74]

跨性别者的性倾向[编辑]

美国国家跨性别平权中心英语National Center for Transgender Equality的《国家跨性别歧视调查》(National Transgender Discrimination Survey)成功调查了27,715名跨性别者和性别酷儿。当中21%指出「酷儿」是对他们性倾向的最佳描述,18%自认为「泛性恋」,16%自认为「男同性恋」、「女同性恋」或「同性爱」,15%自认为「直的」,14%自认为「双性恋」,最后10%自认为「无性恋」[75]

医疗保健[编辑]

需要注意的是,现在通常认为跨性别并不是一种疾病(但在除伊朗以外的大多数伊斯兰国家不承认跨性别者的身份,并且跨性别在中华人民共和国等国家并没有除病理化,仍然以过时的“性别认同障碍”来诊断跨性别者),也不是一种个人选择(无论顺性别者还是跨性别者通常都无法选择自己的性别认同),更不是可以凭借当事人意志坚持或放弃的癖好兴趣

精神医疗[编辑]

大多数精神卫生专业人员建议治疗性别认同与其出生时指定的性别角色不同时所引起的痛苦,特别是当事人想从一种性别过渡到另一种性别的情况。因性别认同与他人期望不同,或是因性别认同与生理性征冲突而产生痛苦的人,皆可以通过深入地说出他们的感受而获益;然而对性别认同的心理学研究以及对这一现象的科学认识仍是刚刚起步[76]

有关对像性别不安般的诊断准确性及其会否在即将出版的ICD-11中出现仍存有争议。法国于2010年通过法令,取消了性别认同障碍的诊断[77]。丹麦议会亦类似地于2017年取消了F.64:性别认同障碍的诊断。DSM-5将性别认同障碍更名为性别不安,强化跨性别不被视为精神疾病的观念[78]

跨性别者只有在「因其而产生困扰或影响身心功能」时才符合性别不安的诊断标准[79]。这种痛苦遭称为性别不安,其可能的表现为情绪低落、无法工作、不能跟他人打好关系。此一诊断经常遭误解作所有跨性别者皆患有性别不安;不论跨性别者、批评者还是肯定者,皆可能因此一曲解而感到困惑。只要跨性别者对性别感到满意并且不会因性别认同而产生困扰或影响身心功能,那么其就不符合性别不安的定义。而且性别不安不一定是永久性的,并可通过治疗或性别转换来得以解决。因他者的消极态度和行为而产生的压迫感亦不会直接使跨性别者符合性别不安的诊断标准。性别不安的出现并不意味着跨性别本身是不道德的;心理学权威认为,存有任一精神或情绪问题的人皆不应受到社会污名。性别不安的治疗目标是减轻当事人的困扰及使身心功能回复正常;一般的治疗方法为改变当事人的生理性征至另一性别[76]

精神健康相关的从业者在临床培训时,通常不会接触处理上述情况时所需要的相关信息,以致大量的从业者在处理相关个案时欠缺准备功夫[80]。许多精神卫生保健提供者对跨性别问题知之甚少,以至寻求专业人士帮助的跨性别者在得不到任何帮助之余,还反过来教育那些专业人士[76]。并使「改变生理性征至另一性别」成为他们能提供的最佳意见——这对于真正想变性的人而言一般是有益处的,但对于其他类型的跨性别者来说则不是解决方案,比如不特别认同自己是男性还是女性的性别酷儿。不论性别酷儿最后的选择进行性别转换还是不进行,治疗师皆应对他们的选择进行支援,此外治疗师还应就着性别认同和外观不一致此一问题寻求解决方法[12]

尽管从业者日渐意识到缺乏相关的临床培训并愿意改善,但是关于跨性别人士在精神健康方面所面对的具体问题的研究仍主要聚焦于诊断和临床医生的经验,而较忽略跨性别客户的体验[81],且治疗方案并不总是根据跨性别者的精神健康需要而制定。在《变性者、跨性别者和非性别常规者的健康照护准则》第七版(SOC)出版之前,当事人必须被诊断出患有性别认同障碍后才可进行荷尔蒙补充疗法或性别重置手术。新版本的内容相对较不关注诊断本身,并强调了灵活变通的重要性,以满足变性者、跨性别者和非性别常规者的各种保健需求[82]

寻求精神卫生服务协助的原因因人而异。跨性别者寻求相关治疗也不一定意味着他们在性别认同上出现了问题。因应付社会污名和跨性别恐惧者的批评指责而生的情绪压力会促使跨性别者寻求精神健康方面的治疗,为的是改善生活质量,正如一位跨性别女性所反映的那样:「跨性别人士会去找一位治疗师协助,但是他们的大部分问题治疗师都束手无策,尤其在变性后。出现这种情况的原因在于他们不得不隐瞒和撒谎,且需承受罪恶感和羞耻感。这种感觉通常会不幸地持续数年[81]!」许多跨性别者因需承受社会污名而变得抑郁和焦虑,并为此寻求治疗;一些跨性别人士向治疗师强调了其性别认同的重要性,以便探讨其他生活质量问题[81]。也有些人后悔进行了性别重置手术并渴望「去变性英语Detransition[83]

导致跨性别人士的心理健康体验受损的问题至今仍然存在。一名被心理学研究生课程录取的跨性别男性指出了现代临床培训的主要关注点:「大多数人可能对跨性别这个词很熟悉,但认识也仅限于此……我不认为我接受过任何临床课程的正式相关培训……亦不认为大多数治疗师了解如何作出应对……大多数拥有硕士或以上水平的治疗师都上过关于GLBT问题的多元化课程——一个多样性很大的培训班。内容基本围绕着同性恋者的生活方式[81]。」许多健康保险政策不把与变性相关的治疗纳入保险范围内。许多人只能得到很少或根本没有的经济支援。以上情况引起了对大多数治疗师欠缺处理跨性别人士个案的培训的担忧,并使客户的财务压力增加,继使他们得不到他们所需的治疗[81]。许多处理跨性别人士个案的临床医师只接受过关于性别认同的一般培训,但近来已有关于处理跨性别人士个案的入门培训提供,以帮助消除障碍并提高服务水平[84]

自从多伦多市成瘾与精神健康中心英语Centre for Addiction and Mental Health肯尼斯·朱克英语Kenneth Zucker雷·布兰查德英语Ray Blanchard宣布担任DSM-V的性与性别认同障碍工作组成员后,易装者和跨性别者在心理学上的分类变得更为复杂[85]。多伦多市成瘾与精神健康中心旨在治好跨性别者的「跨性别」本身;此一宗旨令跨性别者群体感到震惊和愤慨[86]。法国于2010年2月通过法令,成为世界上第一个从精神疾病名单剔除性别认同障碍的国家[87][88]

威廉姆斯研究所(加州大学洛杉矶分校的智囊机构)于2011年进行的一项研究发现,41%的跨性别人士曾企图自杀;曾遭受过住房或医疗保健方面的歧视、骚扰、家人 抛弃以及性侵犯的跨性别人士的企图自杀率更高[89]

身体医疗[编辑]

对于变性和跨性别者,存在着医疗和外科手术,不过大多数人都不知道有这些医疗方法。跨性别男性激素替代疗法英语Hormone replacement therapy (female-to-male)包括诱导胡子生长,并使皮肤、头发、声音和脂肪分布变得男性化。跨性别女性激素替代疗法则将脂肪分布和乳房变得女性化。激光脱毛英语Laser hair removal或电解法可为跨性别女性除去多余的毛发。跨性别女性手术可使声音、皮肤、脸部、喉结、乳房、腰部、臀部和生殖器女性化。跨性别男性手术将胸部和生殖器男性化,并割除子宫、卵巢和输卵管。术语“性别重置手术”(SRS)用来专指生殖器手术。术语“性别转换疗法”(SRT)则用来作为跨性别身体医疗行为的总称。“变性”一词被批评过度强调手术,而“性别转换”则较为中立。[4][90]这些程序的适用性取决于性别不安(旧称性别认同障碍)的程度,[91]和当地司法管辖范围内的护理标准。

跨性别男性若未进行子宫切除术并且服用睾丸酮,则罹患子宫内膜癌的风险增加,因为体内睾丸酮产生的雄烯二酮可以转化为雌激素,而外部雌激素是子宫内膜癌的风险因子。[92]

瑞典一研究显示[93] 指出变性手术能缓解性别不安,但不能完全解决,要求加强手术后护理。

跨性别运动员[编辑]

一项于2017年发表的系统综述指出:“目前没有直接或一致的研究表明跨性别男性或跨性别女性在其性别过渡的任何阶段具有运动优势,包括经已接受了跨性别激素疗法、性别重置手术”[94]

参赛条件[编辑]

依据国际奥林匹克委员会2003年的指引,改变性别的运动员,不论是男性变女性或女性变男性,都必须在完成性别重置手术后接受两年荷尔蒙治疗,才有资格参加比赛。 2016年1月,国际奥会发布的新版指引取消手术要求。从女性变为男性的运动员可在没有限制的情况下参加男性比赛,从男性变为女性的运动员则需满足4项要求,包括声明她们的女性性别;在首次参赛前至少一年时间里将睾丸素维持在12 nmol/L 以下;在获得参赛资格期间内将睾丸素维持在10 nmol/L 以下;在被测试时维持同样的水平,若无法达到要求,该运动员将在12个月内无法参加女性比赛。 [95]

出柜[编辑]

跨性别人士在选择何时,是否以及如何向家人,亲密朋友和其他人透露他们的跨性别身份方面各有各自的方法与时机。[96]社会上的歧视和暴力(跨性别人群更可能成为暴力受害者的可能性高出28%)[97]导致跨性别人群的出柜可能令跨性别感到敌意。害怕报复行为,例如未成年时被带离父母家庭,这是造成跨性别人直到成年后才会在家中出柜的一个原因。[98]父母困惑和缺乏对跨性别儿童的理解可能导致将跨性别想法视为成长的一个阶段或者通过利用精神卫生服务试图改变孩子的性别身份,努力将他们的孩子变回“正常”。[99][100]

互联网可以在跨性别人士即将出柜的过程中发挥重要作用。一些人首先以网络身份出柜,这为在现实世界中冒着社会公审的风险之前提供了虚拟和安全地出柜经验的机会。[101]

女性主义[编辑]

一些女性主义者和女性主义组织支持跨性别。某些则不是。

虽然第二波女性主义主张生物性别和性别认同区分,但一些女性主义者认为跨性别身份和女性主义之间存在冲突; 例如她们认为男女之间的转换放弃或贬低了女性的身份,而跨性别人群则接受传统的性别角色和陈规定型观念。然而,许多跨性别女性主义者认为自己进行质疑和颠覆性别规范而对女性主义做出贡献。第三波女性主义和当代女性主义通常更支持跨性别人群。[102]

排跨基女

排跨基女(TERF,排除跨性别的基进女性主义者),为基进女性主义者的一分支,主张废除跨性别主义。[103] 排跨基女主张自己并非仇恨跨性别群体,而是想要废除整个性别系统(gender system),他们假设在一个没有性别的乌托邦,是不会有跨性别、多元性别的存在。 [104]

法律[编辑]

一些司法管辖权存在法律程序,允许个人改变其法定性别或姓名以反映其性别认同。对于这些程序的要求各不相同,从明确的正式性别转换症诊断到性别认同障碍的诊断,以及医生的指出个人性别转换疗法或确立非常规性别的证明。[105] 在1994年,DSM IV条目从“性别转换症”改为“性别认同障碍”。在许多地方,跨性别在工作场所或公共场所的歧视不受法律保护。[106]2011年2月发布的一份报告发现,90%的跨性别人群在工作中面临歧视,失业人数是普通人口的两倍[107] ,超过一半的人在试图获得公共服务时遭到骚扰或被拒绝。[108]跨性别者群体的成员在医疗中心方面也遭受高度歧视。[109]

跨性别权利[编辑]

现时社会保守,跨性别者缺乏权利,跨性别是新兴概念,跨性别权利是支持者现时正向社会争取之处,反对者则反对跨性别拥有跨性别权利,保持原状。跨性别权利是支持者和反对者的争议之处,例如反对者反对跨性别生育,支持者认为没问题。

  • 性别认同和身份登记:身份登记包括护照、身份证和出世纸。

支持者认为最理想为无须任何生理治疗及心理评估可改变身份登记,包括出世纸。 反对者认为身份登记一定要根据二元生理性别不能改变。或需要完成完全性别重置手术后只可改身份证。有些国家有性别认同条例,如英国,可供跨性别者改变登记性别身份。另设第三性别构成其他争议[110]

  • 跨性别婚姻:和同性或和异性结婚。

支持者认为如果跨性别可与其认同性别之异性结婚。若有同性婚姻,则不会有问题。 反对者认为必须只能和原身性别异性结婚。 香港变性人婚权案,裁决完成变性手术的人与异性别的人结婚。为免同性婚姻,中国法律禁止婚后变性。

  • 跨性别领养:是否能申请领养,跨性别领养是否对被领养者有利,跨性别是否作为领养考虑因素。

支持者认为跨性别适合养育孩子。 反对者认为跨性别不适合养育孩子。

  • 跨性别生育:生理性别为女性,身份性别为男性,可以自然怀孕。

支持者认为跨性别可自我决定生育。 反对者认为男性不可怀孕。女跨男不能怀孕。

  • 跨性别行为:行为包括激素替代疗法、使用他们认同性别更衣室及洗手间、使用他们认同性别称呼、使用他们认同性别服务及组织和会藉、使用双性服务及组织和会藉以他们认同性别看待、法津上以他们认同性别对待。

支持者认为能以新性别身份生活。 反对者认为只能以原生性别身份生活、上洗手间。

支持者认为支持所有跨性别治疗及政府资助 反对者认为反对所有跨性别治疗及政府资助。

  • 跨性别权利:与异性权利相等。

支持者认为以新性别对侍。 反对者认为必须以原生性别对侍。

  • 反歧视法:

支持者认为能被正确名称。 反对者认为可自由称呼。

各地民间反应[编辑]

亚洲[编辑]

日本[编辑]

2017年,拥有逾百年历史的日本私立女校日本女子大学,收男跨女学生。[111]

香港[编辑]

2015年,国际特赦组织香港分会禁止酷刑委员会于2015年的审议结论中亦提及现时跨性别人士事必须于完成整套性别重塑手术后,港府才会承认他/她们的跨性别身份;上述情况都会令跨性别人士受到长期的心理及生理伤害,委员会对此表示关注。委员会亦促请港府,采取立法及行政措施,尊重跨性别人士及双性人的性别选择,以及他/她们生理和心理的需要,包括无须他/她们完成整套性别重塑手术后才确认相应性别。[112]

2016年10月,沙田区威尔士亲王医院跨专科诊所启用[113]

印度[编辑]

2017年5月,印度南部喀拉拉邦柯枝市(Kochi)的地铁公司Kochi Metro雇用了23名跨性别者为员工打破传统[114]

美国[编辑]

2016年底媒体传出,《国家地理杂志》破天荒以一名9岁大跨性别儿童作为2017年1月份的封面,引起广泛回响。[115] 2017年1月底,美国男童军总会宣布从即日起,不再以出生纸作为性别证明,将以申请表上列明的性别,作为判别男童军申请资格的依据,亦即变相容许认为自己是男性的跨性别儿童加入。[116]

巴西[编辑]

2017年2月,巴西跨性别女子丹达拉遭多人从公寓拖出,在众目睽睽下,被殴打致死。这是巴西当月第五名被杀害的跨性别人士。[117]

媒体形象[编辑]

电影[编辑]

组织[编辑]

反对跨性别[编辑]

有部分组织或个人反对跨性别,因LGBT中的跨性别有别于同性恋及双性恋,同性恋及双性恋不会改变社会的性别认同。反对者会把跨性别运动和同志运动连结。[118]

理由[编辑]

组织[编辑]

参见[编辑]

以“跨性別”开头的条目

外部链接[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

注脚[编辑]

  1. ^ *In April 1970, TV Guide published an article which referenced a post-operative transsexual movie character as being "transgendered."(Sunday Highlights. TV Guide. 1970-04-26 [2012-05-28]. (原始内容存档于2012-06-04). [R]aquel Welch (left), moviedom's sex queen soon to be seen as the heroine/hero of Gore Vidal's transgendered "Myra Breckinridge"... )
    • In the 1974 edition of Clinical Sexuality: A Manual for the Physician and the Professions, transgender was used as an umbrella term and the Conference Report from the 1974 "National TV.TS Conference" held in Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK used "trans-gender" and "trans.people" as umbrella terms.(Oliven, John F. Clinical sexuality: A Manual for the Physician and the Professions 3rd. University of Michigan (digitized Aug 2008): Lippincott. 1974: 110, 484–487. ISBN 978-0-397-50329-2. (原始内容存档于2015-12-05). "Transgender deviance" p 110, "Transgender research" p 484, "transgender deviates" p 485, Transvestites not welcome at "Transgender Center" p 487 ), (2006). The Transgender Phenomenon (Elkins, Richard; King, Dave. The Transgender Phenomenon. Sage. 2006: 13. ISBN 978-0-7619-7163-4. (原始内容存档于2015-09-26). )
    • However A Practical Handbook of Psychiatry (1974) references "transgender surgery" noting, "The transvestite rarely seeks transgender surgery, since the core of his perversion is an attempt to realize the fantasy of a phallic woman."(Novello, Joseph R. A Practical Handbook of Psychiatry. University of Michigan, digitized August 2008: C. C. Thomas. 1974: 176. ISBN 978-0-398-02868-8. (原始内容存档于2015-09-19). )
  2. ^ Magnus Hirschfeld coined the German term "Transsexualismus" in 1923, which Cauldwell translated into English.
  3. ^ The recurring concern that transsexual implies sexuality stems from the tendency of many informal speakers to ignore the sex and gender distinction and use gender for any male/female difference and sex for sexual activity]. (Liberman, Mark. Single-X Education. Language Log. [2012-06-28]. (原始内容存档于2012-04-15). )

文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Terry Altilio, Shirley Otis-Green. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Social Work. Oxford University Press. 2011: 380 [2016-04-12]. ISBN 0199838275. (原始内容存档于2016-12-01). Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex they were assigned at birth (Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation [GLAAD], 2007). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Craig J. Forsyth, Heith Copes. Encyclopedia of Social Deviance. Sage Publications. 2014: 740 [2016-04-12]. ISBN 1483364690. (原始内容存档于2016-12-01). Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identities, gender expressions, and/or behaviors are different from those culturally associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth. 
  3. ^ Marla Berg-Weger. Social Work and Social Welfare: An Invitation. Routledge. 2016: 229 [2016-04-12]. ISBN 1317592026. (原始内容存档于2016-12-01). Transgender: An umbrella term that describes people whose gender identity or gender expression differs from expectations associated with the sex assigned to them at birth. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation.GLAAD Media Reference Guide - Transgender. GLAAD. 2011-09-09 [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2018-05-12) (英语).  "An umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from what is typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth."
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Bilodeau, Brent. Beyond the Gender Binary: A Case Study of Two Transgender Students at a Midwestern Research University. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education. 2005, 3 (1): 29–44. doi:10.1300/J367v03n01_05.  "Yet Jordan and Nick represent a segment of transgender communities that have largely been overlooked in transgender and student development research – individuals who express a non-binary construction of gender[.]"
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Susan., Stryker,. The Transgender Studies Reader.. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/870591878. 2013: 666. ISBN 9781135398842. OCLC 870591878. The authors note that, increasingly, in social science literature, the term "third gender" is being replaced by or conflated with the newer term "transgender.  缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 C., Chrisler, Joan; R., McCreary, Donald. Handbook of gender research in psychology. Volume 1, Gender research in general and experimental psychology. New York: Springer https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/630057607. 2010: 486. ISBN 9781441914651. OCLC 630057607. Transgender is a broad term characterized by a challenge of traditional gender roles and gender identity[. ...] For example, some cultures classify transgender individuals as a third gender, thereby treating this phenomenon as normative.  缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Reisner, Sari L; Conron, Kerith; Scout, Nfn; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Haneuse, Sebastien; Austin, S. Bryn. Comparing In-Person and Online Survey Respondents in the U.S. National Transgender Discrimination Survey: Implications for Transgender Health Research. LGBT Health. 2014, 1 (2): 98–106. PMID 26789619. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2013.0018. Transgender was defined broadly to cover those who transition from one gender to another as well as those who may not choose to socially, medically, or legally fully transition, including cross-dressers, people who consider themselves to be genderqueer, androgynous, and… 
  9. ^ Sexual orientation, homosexuality and bisexuality. American Psychological Association. [2013-08-10]. (原始内容存档于2013-08-08). 
  10. ^ Free & Equal Campaign Fact Sheet: Intersex (PDF). United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2015 [2016-03-28]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2016-03-04). 
  11. ^ Definition of CISGENDER. www.merriam-webster.com. [2019-03-26]. (原始内容存档于2019-03-26) (英语). 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Kozee, H. B.; Tylka, T. L.; Bauerband, L. A. Measuring transgender individuals' comfort with gender identity and appearance: Development and validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 2012, 36 (2): 179–196. doi:10.1177/0361684312442161. 
  13. ^ George R. Brown, MD. Chapter 165 Sexuality and Sexual Disorders. (编) Robert S. Porter, MD; 等. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy 19th. Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. 2011-07-20: 1567–1573. ISBN 978-0-911910-19-3. 
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 Victoria,, Maizes,; Tieraona,, Low Dog,. Integrative women's health. Second edition. Oxford https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/921176115. : 745. ISBN 9780190214807. OCLC 921176115. Many transgender people experience gender dysphoria—distress that results from the discordance of biological sex and experienced gender (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Treatment for gender dysphoria, considered to be highly effective, includes physical, medical, and/or surgical treatments [...] some [transgender people] may not choose to transition at all.  缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
  15. ^ Understanding Transgender People FAQ. National Center for Transgender Equality. 2009-05-01 [2016-04-20]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-22). 
  16. ^ Lombardi, Emilia L.; Anne Wilchins, Riki; Priesing, Dana; Malouf, Diana. Gender Violence: Transgender Experiences with Violence and Discrimination. Journal of Homosexuality. October 2008, 42 (1): 89–101. PMID 11991568. doi:10.1300/J082v42n01_05. 
  17. ^ Groundbreaking Report Reflects Persistent Discrimination Against Transgender Community. GLAAD. 2011-09-14 [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2018-06-12) (英语). 
  18. ^ Bradford, Judith; Reisner, Sari L.; Honnold, Julie A.; Xavier, Jessica. Experiences of Transgender-Related Discrimination and Implications for Health: Results From the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Study. American Journal of Public Health. 2013, 103 (10): 1820–1829. PMID 23153142. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300796. 
  19. ^ Whittle, Stephen. "Respect and Equality: Transsexual and Transgender Rights." Routledge-Cavendish, 2002.
  20. ^ Oliven, John F. Sexual Hygiene and Pathology. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1965, 250 (2): 235. doi:10.1097/00000441-196508000-00054. 
  21. ^ Oliven, John F. Sexual Hygiene and Pathology. 1965: 514. Where the compulsive urge reaches beyond female vestments, and becomes an urge for gender ("sex") change, transvestism becomes "transsexualism." The term is misleading; actually, "transgenderism" is what is meant, because sexuality is not a major factor in primary transvestism. Psychologically, the transsexual often differs from the simple cross-dresser; he is conscious at all times of a strong desire to be a woman, and the urge can be truly consuming. 
  22. ^ Rawson, K. J.; Williams, Cristan. Transgender: The Rhetorical Landscape of a term. Present Tense: A Journal of Rhetoric in Society. 2014, 3 (2) [2017-05-18]. (原始内容存档于2017-05-15). 
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 23.2 Thomas E. Bevan, The Psychobiology of Transsexualism and Transgenderism (2014, ISBN 1-4408-3127-0), page 42: "The term transsexual was introduced by Cauldwell (1949) and popularized by Harry Benjamin (1966) [...]. The term transgender was coined by John Oliven (1965) and popularized by various transgender people who pioneered the concept and practice of transgenderism. It is sometimes said that Virginia Prince (1976) popularized the term, but history shows that many transgender people adovcated the use of this term much more than Prince."
  24. ^ 24.0 24.1 Elkins, Richard; King, Dave. The Transgender Phenomenon. Sage. 2006: 13–14. ISBN 978-0-7619-7163-4. (原始内容存档于2015-09-26). 
  25. ^ Stryker, S. (2004), "... lived full-time in a social role not typically associated with their natal sex, but who did not resort to genital surgery as a means of supporting their gender presentation ..." in Transgender 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2006-03-21. from the GLBTQ: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and queer culture. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
  26. ^ The Radio Times (1979: 2 June)
  27. ^ Peo, TV-TS Tapestry Board of Advisors, Roger E. The ‘Origins’ and ‘Cures’ for Transgender Behavior. The TV-TS Tapestry (2). 1984 [2012-05-28]. (原始内容存档于2012-04-07). 
  28. ^ First International Conference on Transgender Law and Employment Policy (1992). organizational pamphlet. ICTLEP/. 1992 [2012-05-28]. (原始内容存档于2012-03-30). Transgendered persons include transsexuals, transgenderists, and other crossdressers of both sexes, transitioning in either direction (male to female or female to male), of any sexual orientation, and of all races, creeds, religions, ages, and degrees of physical impediment. 
  29. ^ Stryker, Susan. "Transgender History, Homonormativity, and Disciplinarity". Radical History Review, Vol. 2008, No. 100. (Winter 2008), pp. 145–157
  30. ^ Glicksman, Eve. Transgender terminology: It's complicated. Vol 44, No. 4: American Psychological Association: 39. April 2013 [2013-09-17]. (原始内容存档于2013-09-25). Use whatever name and gender pronoun the person prefers 
  31. ^ Sponsored by the American Medical Association and The Fenway Health with unrestricted support from Fenway Health and Pfizer. Meeting the Health Care Needs of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) People: The End to LGBT Invisibility (PowerPoint Presentation). The Fenway Institute: 24. [2013-09-17]. (原始内容存档于2013-10-20). Use the pronoun that matches the person's gender identity 
  32. ^ 32.0 32.1 Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. "GLAAD's Transgender Resource Page" 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2012-10-06., "GLAAD", USA. Retrieved 2011-02-24. "Problematic: "transgendered". Preferred: transgender. The adjective transgender should never have an extraneous "-ed" tacked onto the end. An "-ed" suffix adds unnecessary length to the word and can cause tense confusion and grammatical errors. It also brings transgender into alignment with lesbian, gay, and bisexual. You would not say that Elton John is "gayed" or Ellen DeGeneres is "lesbianed," therefore you would not say Chaz Bono is "transgendered."
  33. ^ Dan Savage, Savage Love: Gayed, Blacked, Transgendered (Creative Loafing, 11 January 2014) 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2016-01-25.
  34. ^ Guardian and Observer style guide 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2017-07-09.: use transgender [...] only as an adjective: transgender person, trans person; never "transgendered person" or "a transgender"
  35. ^ Martin, Katherine. New words notes June 2015. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. [2015-08-02]. (原始内容存档于2015-08-14). 
  36. ^ Transgender Rights (2006, ISBN 0-8166-4312-1), edited by Paisley Currah, Richard M. Juang, Shannon Minter
  37. ^ A. C. Alegria, Transgender identity and health care: Implications for psychosocial and physical evaluation, in the Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, volume 23, issue 4 (2011), pages 175–182: "Transgender, Umbrella term for persons who do not conform to gender norms in their identity and/or behavior (Meyerowitz, 2002). Transsexual, Subset of transgenderism; persons who feel discordance between natal sex and identity (Meyerowitz, 2002)."
  38. ^ For example, Virginia Prince used transgender to distinguish cross-dressers from transsexual people (glbtq > social sciences >> Prince, Virginia Charles. glbtq.com. (原始内容存档于2015-02-11). ), writing in Men Who Choose to Be Women (in Sexology, February 1969) that "I, at least, know the difference between sex and gender and have simply elected to change the latter and not the former."
  39. ^ Sex -- Medical Definition. medilexicon.com. (原始内容存档于2014-02-22). : defines sex as a biological or physiological quality, while gender is a (psychological) "category to which an individual is assigned by self or others...".
  40. ^ UNCW: Developing and Implementing a Scale to Assess Attitudes Regarding Transsexuality 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2014-02-21.
  41. ^ R Polly, J Nicole, Understanding the transsexual patient: culturally sensitive care in emergency nursing practice, in the Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal (2011): "The use of terminology by transsexual individuals to self-identify varies. As aforementioned, many transsexual individuals prefer the term transgender, or simply trans, as it is more inclusive and carries fewer stigmas. There are some transsexual individuals[,] however, who reject the term transgender; these individuals view transsexualism as a treatable congenital condition. Following medical and/or surgical transition, they live within the binary as either a man or a woman and may not disclose their transition history."
  42. ^ A Swenson, Medical Care of the Transgender Patient, in Family Medicine (2014): "While some transsexual people still prefer to use the term to describe themselves, many transgender people prefer the term transgender to transsexual."
  43. ^ GLAAD Media Reference Guide. [2013-12-27]. (原始内容存档于2012-06-03). 
  44. ^ Parker, Jerry. Christine Recalls Life as Boy from the Bronx. Newsday/Winnipeg Free Press. 1979-10-18 [2012-05-28]. (原始内容存档于2012-04-25). If you understand trans-genders," she says, (the word she prefers to transsexuals), "then you understand that gender doesn’t have to do with bed partners, it has to do with identity. 
  45. ^ News From California: 'Transgender'. Appeal-Democrat/Associate Press. 1982-05-11: A–10 [2012-05-28]. (原始内容存档于2012-04-12). she describes people who have had such operations’ "transgender" rather than transsexual. "Sexuality is who you sleep with, but gender is who you are," she explained 
  46. ^ 46.0 46.1 Fenway Health Glossary of Gender and Transgender Terms (PDF). January 2010 [2013-12-27]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2013-10-19). 
  47. ^ 47.0 47.1 Valentine, David. Imagining Transgender: An Ethnography of a Category, Duke University, 2007
  48. ^ 48.0 48.1 Stryker, Susan. Introduction. In Stryker and S. Whittle (Eds.), The Transgender Studies Reader, New York: Routledge, 2006. 1–17
  49. ^ Kelley Winters, "Gender Madness in American Psychiatry, essays from the struggle for dignity, 2008, p. 198. "Some Transsexual individuals also identify with the broader transgender community; others do not."
  50. ^ Boyd, Hellen. The Umbrella. enGender. [2012-06-28]. (原始内容存档于2012-07-22). the only part of the gender binary we *necessarily* challenge is the notion that people are always assigned to the right side of the binary at birth, and don’t need sympathy or help if the assignment goes wrong. 
  51. ^ 51.0 51.1 Benjamin, H. (1966). The transsexual phenomenon. New York: Julian Press, page 23.
  52. ^ Conway, Lynn. The Strange Saga of Gregory Hemingway. 2003. (原始内容存档于2003-12-04). 
  53. ^ Schoenberg, Nara. The Son Also Falls From elephant hunter to bejeweled exhibitionist, the tortured life of Gregory Hemingway. CHICAGO TRIBUNE. 2001-11-19. (原始内容存档于2001-11-20). 
  54. ^ Amy McCrea, Under the Transgender Umbrella: Improving ENDA's Protections, in the Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law (2013): "This article will begin by providing a background on transgender people, highlighting the experience of a subset of non-binary individuals, bigender people, ..."
  55. ^ Wilchins, Riki Anne (2002) 'It's Your Gender, Stupid’, pp.23–32 in Joan Nestle, Clare Howell and Riki Wilchins (eds.) Genderqueer: Voices from Beyond the Sexual Binary. Los Angeles:Alyson Publications, 2002.
  56. ^ Nestle, J. (2002) "...pluralistic challenges to the male/female, woman/man, gay/straight, butch/femme constructions and identities..." from Genders on My Mind, pp.3–10 in Genderqueer: Voices from Beyond the Sexual Binary, edited by Joan Nestle, Clare Howell and Riki Wilchins, published by Los Angeles:Alyson Publications, 2002:9. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
  57. ^ Androgyne – Define Androgyne at Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com. (原始内容存档于2008-04-13). 
  58. ^ E. D. Hirsch, Jr., E.D., Kett, J.F., Trefil, J. (2002) "Transvestite: Someone who dresses in the clothes usually worn by the opposite sex." in Definition of the word "transvestite" 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 from The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2007-08-18.. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  59. ^ various (2006) "trans·ves·tite... (plural trans·ves·tites), noun. Definition: somebody who dresses like opposite sex:" in Definition of the word "transvestite" 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2007-11-09. from the Encarta World English Dictionary (North American Edition) WebCite存档,存档日期2009-10-31. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  60. ^ Raj, R (2002) "transvestite (TV): n. Synonym: crossdresser (CD):" in Towards a Transpositive Therapeutic Model: Developing Clinical Sensitivity and Cultural Competence in the Effective Support of Transsexual and Transgendered Clients from the International Journal of Transgenderism 6,2. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2007-09-27.
  61. ^ 61.0 61.1 Hall, B. et al. (2007) "...Many say this term (crossdresser) is preferable to transvestite, which means the same thing..." and "...transvestite (TV) – same as cross-dresser. Most feel cross-dresser is the preferred term..." in Discussion Paper: Toward a Commission Policy on Gender Identity 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2007-09-27. from the Ontario Human Rights Commission 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2007-08-13.. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  62. ^ Green, E., Peterson, E.N. (2006) "...The preferred term is 'cross-dresser', but the term 'transvestite' is still used in a positive sense in England..." in LGBTTSQI Terminology 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2013-09-05. from Trans-Academics.org 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2007-04-24.. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  63. ^ Gilbert, Michael A. The Transgendered Philosopher. International Journal of Transgenderism. 2000 [2015-12-16]. (原始内容存档于2016-01-26). 
  64. ^ Gilbert, Michael ‘Miqqi Alicia’ (2000) "The Transgendered Philosopher" in Special Issue on What is Transgender? 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2007-10-11. from The International Journal of Transgenderism, Special Issue July 2000. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2007-10-11.
  65. ^ Docter, Richard F.; Prince, Virginia. Transvestism: A survey of 1032 cross-dressers. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 1997, 26 (6): 589–605. PMID 9415796. doi:10.1023/a:1024572209266. 
  66. ^ 66.0 66.1 World Health Organisation (1992) "...Fetishistic transvestism is distinguished from transsexual transvestism by its clear association with sexual arousal and the strong desire to remove the clothing once orgasm occurs and sexual arousal declines...." in ICD-10, Gender Identity Disorder, category F65.1 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2009-04-22. published by the World Health Organisation 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2016-07-05.. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  67. ^ 67.0 67.1 APA task force (1994) "...The paraphiliac focus of Transvestic Fetishism involves cross-dressing. Usually the male with Transvestic Fetishism keeps a collection of female clothes that he intermittently uses to cross-dress. While cross dressed, he usually masturbates..." in DSM-IV: Sections 302.3 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2007-02-11. published by the American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  68. ^ Is 'Tranny' Offensive?. The Bilerico Project. (原始内容存档于2013-10-04). 
  69. ^ Answers to Your Questions About Transgender Individuals and Gender Identity 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2010-06-15. report from the website of the American Psychological Association - "What is the relationship between transgender and sexual orientation?"
  70. ^ Tobin, H.J. (2003) "...It has become more and more clear that trans people come in more or less the same variety of sexual orientations as non-trans people..." Sexual Orientation from Sexuality in Transsexual and Transgender Individuals.
  71. ^ Blanchard, R. (1989) The classification and labeling of nonhomosexual gender dysphorias from Archives of Sexual Behavior, Volume 18, Number 4, August 1989. Retrieved via SpringerLink 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2012-01-22. on 2007-04-06.
  72. ^ APA task force (1994) "...For sexually mature individuals, the following specifiers may be noted based on the individual's sexual orientation: Sexually Attracted to Males, Sexually Attracted to Females, Sexually Attracted to Both, and Sexually Attracted to Neither..." in DSM-IV: Sections 302.6 and 302.85 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2007-02-11. published by the American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved via Mental Health Matters 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2007-04-07. on 2007-04-06.
  73. ^ Goethals, S.C. and Schwiebert, V.L. (2005) "...counselors to rethink their assumptions regarding gender, sexuality and sexual orientation. In addition, they supported counselors' need to adopt a transpositive disposition to counseling and to actively advocate for transgendered persons..." Counseling as a Critique of Gender: On the Ethics of Counseling Transgendered Clients from the International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, Vol. 27, No. 3, September 2005. Retrieved via SpringerLink 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2012-01-22. on 2007-04-06.
  74. ^ Retro Report. Transforming History. Retro Report. Retro Report. [2015-07-15]. (原始内容存档于2015-07-10). 
  75. ^ The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey (PDF). National Center for Transgender Equality. [2016-03-06]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2016-12-09). 
  76. ^ 76.0 76.1 76.2 Brown, M.L. & Rounsley, C.A. (1996) True Selves: Understanding Transsexualism – For Families, Friends, Coworkers, and Helping Professionals Jossey-Bass: San Francisco ISBN 0-7879-6702-5
  77. ^ France: Gender Identity Disorder Dropped from List of Mental Illnesses | Global Legal Monitor. www.loc.gov. Atwill, Nicole. 2010-02-17 [2017-10-18]. (原始内容存档于2017-05-11) (英语). 
  78. ^ Garloch, Karen. What it means to be transgender: Answers to 5 key questions. Charlotte Observer. 2016-05-09 [2016-12-18]. (原始内容存档于2016-12-20). 
  79. ^ Answers to Your Questions About Transgender Individuals and Gender Identity 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2010-06-15. report from the website of the American Psychological Association - "Is being transgender a mental disorder?"
  80. ^ Carroll, L.; Gilroy, P.J.; Ryan, J. Transgender issues in counselor education. Counselor Education and Supervision. 2002, 41 (3): 233–242. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6978.2002.tb01286.x. 
  81. ^ 81.0 81.1 81.2 81.3 81.4 Benson, Kristen E. Seeking support: Transgender client experiences with mental health services. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy. 2013, 25 (1): 17–40. doi:10.1080/08952833.2013.755081. 
  82. ^ Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people—7th version (PDF). The World Professional Association for Transgender Health. [2014-11-30]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2012-03-03). 
  83. ^ Shute, Joe. The new taboo: More people regret sex change and want to ‘detransition’, surgeon says. National Post. Postmedia. 2017-10-02 [2017-10-02]. Dr. Miroslav Djordjevic says more people, particularly transgender women over 30, are asking for reversal surgery, yet their regrets remain taboo. 
  84. ^ Hanssmann, C.; Morrison, D.; Russian, E. Talking, gawking, or getting it done: Providing trainings to increase cultural and clinical competence for transgender and gender-nonconforming patients and clients. Sexuality Research and Social Policy. 2008, 5: 5–23. doi:10.1525/srsp.2008.5.1.5. 
  85. ^ Newsroom | APA DSM-5 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2008-09-27.
  86. ^ Gender Identity Disorder Reform 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2008-09-06.
  87. ^ eZ systems. France: Transsexualism will no longer be classified as a mental illness in France. ilga.org. (原始内容存档于2013-09-10). 
  88. ^ Le transsexualisme n'est plus une maladie mentale en France [Transsexualism is no longer a mental illness in France]. Le Monde.fr. 2010-12-02 [2017-12-02]. (原始内容存档于2010-02-13) (法语). 
  89. ^ Haas, Ann P.; Rodgers, Philip L.; Herman, Jody L. Suicide Attempts among Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Adults: Findings of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (PDF). American Foundation for Suicide Prevention and the Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Public Policy. January 2014: 2–3, 11 [2017-10-09]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2017-10-08). 
  90. ^ Pfäfflin F., Junge A. (1998) "...This critique for the use of the term sex change in connection to sex reassignment surgery stems from the concern about the patient, to take the patient seriously...." in Sex Reassignment: Thirty Years of International Follow-Up Studies: A Comprehensive Review, 1961–1991 from the Electronic Book Collection of the International Journal of Transgenderism. Retrieved 2007-09-06.
  91. ^ APA task force (1994) "...preoccupation with getting rid of primary and secondary sex characteristics..." in DSM-IV: Sections 302.6 and 302.85 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 published by the American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved via Mental Health Matters 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 on 2007-04-06.
  92. ^ Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women. Health Care for Transgender Individuals: Committee Opinion No. 512. Obstetrics and Gynecology. American Committee for Obstetrics and Gynecology: 1454–1458. December 2011 [2017-06-18]. PMID 22105293. (原始内容存档于2014-12-16). 
  93. ^ Cecilia Dhejne, Paul Lichtenstein, Marcus Boman, Anna L. V. Johansson, Niklas Långström, Mikael Landén. Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden. [2019-07-26]. (原始内容存档于2019-06-26). Our findings suggest that sex reassignment, although alleviating gender dysphoria, may not suffice as treatment for transsexualism, and should inspire improved psychiatric and somatic care after sex reassignment for this patient group. 
  94. ^ Jones, BA; Arcelus, Jon; 等. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies. Sports Med. 2017, 47 (4): 701–16. PMC 5357259. PMID 27699698. doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0621-y. 
  95. ^ 国际奥委会建议降低变性人参赛门槛. [2017-03-27]. (原始内容存档于2017-03-28). 
  96. ^ Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. Archived copy. [2011-02-24]. (原始内容存档于2011-08-03). , "GLAAD", USA, February 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  97. ^ Bolles, Alexandra. Violence Against Transgender People and People of Color is Disproportionately High, LGBTQH Murder Rate Peaks. GLAAD. 2012-06-04 [2015-12-16]. (原始内容存档于2015-12-28). 
  98. ^ Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. "Sassafras Lowrey's Kicked Out Anthology Shares Stories of LGBTQ Youth Homelessness" 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2011-08-04., "GLAAD", USA, February 25, 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-25.
  99. ^ Coming Out to Family as Transgender. Human Rights Campaign. [2010-12-05]. (原始内容存档于2011-01-03). 
  100. ^ Campaign, Human Rights. Transgender Children & Youth: Understanding the Basics | Human Rights Campaign. Human Rights Campaign. [2017-08-23]. (原始内容存档于2017-09-10) (英语). 
  101. ^ Marciano, A. Living the VirtuReal: Negotiating transgender identity in cyberspace. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. 2014, 19 (4): 824–838. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12081. 
  102. ^ Hines, Sally. TransForming Gender: Transgender Practices of Identity, Intimacy and Care. Bristol: Policy Press. 2007: 85–101. ISBN 1861349165. 
  103. ^ Anya Alag. 女性主义101:什么是排跨基女?. (原始内容存档于2018-06-21). 
  104. ^ 吴馨恩(坏情感). 排跨基女:排斥跨性别的基进女性主义流派 - The News Lens 关键评论网. The News Lens 关键评论网. 2018-02-06 [2018-05-10]. (原始内容存档于2018-05-10) (中文(台湾)‎). 
  105. ^ Currah, Paisley; M. Juang, Richard; Minter, Shannon Price (eds.). Transgender Rights. Minnesota University Press. 2006: 51–73. ISBN 0-8166-4312-1 
  106. ^ Whittle, Stephen. "Respect and Equality: Transsexual and Transgender Rights." Routledge-Cavendish, 2002.
  107. ^ Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. "Groundbreaking Report Reflects Persistent Discrimination Against Transgender Community" 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2011-08-03., GLAAD, USA, February 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  108. ^ Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. "Groundbreaking Report Reflects Persistent Discrimination Against Transgender Community" 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2011-08-03., GLAAD, USA, February 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  109. ^ Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. "IN THE LIFE Follows LGBT Seniors as They Face Inequality in Healthcare" 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2011-08-04., "GLAAD", USA, November 3, 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  110. ^ 变性人是男是女?. [2016-03-26]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-06). 
  111. ^ 日百年历史女子大学 拟破例收跨性别学生. on.cc东网. [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-05) (中文(香港)‎). 
  112. ^ 点止酷刑声请咁简单?《禁止酷刑公约》如何保障港人人权 (三) – 跨性别人士. 国际特赦组织香港分会 Amnesty International Hong Kong. 2016-03-21 [2018-05-13] (中文(台湾)‎). 
  113. ^ 朱韵斐. 性别认同障碍患者一站式跟进 威院跨专科诊所10月启用. 香港01. 2016-09-12 [2018-05-13] (中文(香港)‎). 
  114. ^ 甄梓铃. 印度地铁公司打破传统 聘23名跨性别员工 吁商界仿效促消除歧视. 香港01. 2017-05-17 [2018-05-13] (中文(香港)‎). 
  115. ^ 美国跨性别儿童 登《国家地理杂志》封面. on.cc东网. [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2018-06-30) (中文(香港)‎). 
  116. ^ 美国男童军破百年惯例 准跨性别男童加入. on.cc东网. [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2018-10-05) (中文(香港)‎). 
  117. ^ 梁雪怡. 巴西掀反跨性别浪潮 跨性别女子遭杀害 同月第五宗. 香港01. 2017-03-10 [2018-05-13] (中文(香港)‎). 
  118. ^ 同运中的跨性别议程. 明光社. 2013-10-24 [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-05) (中文(繁体)‎). 
  119. ^ 研究调查统计:变性路苦不堪言 心理困顿 易有轻生念头. taiwanfamily.com. [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2018-05-03) (中文(台湾)‎). 
  120. ^ 变性人是男是女?. 明光社. 2010-12-03 [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-06) (中文(繁体)‎). 
  121. ^ 著名社会批评家称变性宣传中存在太多谎言. [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2018-05-13) (中文(简体)‎). 
  122. ^ 变性人是男是女?. 明光社. 2010-12-03 [2018-05-13] (中文(繁体)‎). 
  123. ^ 同运中的跨性别议程. 明光社. 2013-10-24 [2018-05-13] (中文(繁体)‎). 
  124. ^ 性别主观化 毁共善框架. 明光社. 2015-11-11 [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2016-07-12) (中文(繁体)‎). 
  125. ^ “逆向歧视”不是甚么——回应法政汇思. [2017-03-22]. (原始内容存档于2017-03-22). 
  126. ^ “逆向歧视”不是什么——回应法政汇思
  127. ^ 同运中的跨性别议程. 明光社. 2013-10-24 [2018-05-13] (中文(繁体)‎). 
  128. ^ 性别主观化 毁共善框架. 明光社. 2015-11-11 [2018-05-13] (中文(繁体)‎). 
  129. ^ 性别认同法的潘朵拉盒子. 明光社. 2015-11-11 [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-05) (中文(繁体)‎). 
  130. ^ 3岁男孩杰克变身洁姬 医学教授称这是心理障碍. [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2018-05-13) (中文(简体)‎). 
  131. ^ 跨性别和教会:基督徒咨询师反对变性主义. [2018-05-13]. (原始内容存档于2018-05-13) (中文(简体)‎). 
  132. ^ GenderIdeologyHarmsChildren. [2016-04-05]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-06). 

参考文章[编辑]

国际组织[编辑]

医学组织[编辑]

政府[编辑]

LGBT组织[编辑]

其他[编辑]

反对组织[编辑]

参考短片[编辑]

讲座[编辑]

记录片[编辑]

访问[编辑]

TED[编辑]