便西拉的字母

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便西拉的字母》(The Alphabet of Ben-Sira),又译本司拉的知识,是中世纪时期一份佚名文献,讲述到《旧约圣经次经里的《便西拉智训》的作者、希伯来先知便西拉的生平,由受孕、出生、受教育到长大成人。《便西拉的字母》用希伯来语书写,另外还有以亚兰语书写的古版,但内容略有不同。成书时间估计在公元7世纪至11世纪,很可能在10世纪。

在文献中,便西拉以先知耶利米的儿子的身份被带到巴比伦国王尼布甲尼撒二世的面前。尼布甲尼撒二世在法庭上向便西拉揭示四道神谕,并要求便西拉解释这四道神谕的意思。便西拉于是利用了希伯来语的22个字母作开首,讲述了22个故事来回应国王的问题。

有关莉莉丝的记述[编辑]

本文献宣称犹太人在被虏到巴比伦的这段时期,曾一度有过莉莉丝的信仰。这在本书的结尾部分出现,内容记述如下。

汉语译文(译自英语译文)[编辑]

英语译文[编辑]

Soon afterward the young son of the king took ill. Said Nebuchadnezzar, "Heal my son. If you don't, I will kill you." Ben Sira immediately sat down and wrote an amulet with the Holy Name, and he inscribed on it the angels in charge of medicine by their names, forms, and images, and by their wings, hands, and feet. Nebuchadnezzar looked at the amulet. "Who are these?"
"The angels who are in charge of medicine: Snvi, Snsvi, and Smnglof. After God created Adam, who was alone, He said, 'It is not good for man to be alone' (Genesis 2:18). He then created a woman for Adam, from the earth, as He had created Adam himself, and called her Lilith. Adam and Lilith immediately began to fight. She said, 'I will not lie below,' and he said, 'I will not lie beneath you, but only on top. For you are fit only to be in the bottom position, while I am to be the superior one.' Lilith responded, 'We are equal to each other inasmuch as we were both created from the earth.' But they would not listen to one another. When Lilith saw this, she pronounced the Ineffable Name and flew away into the air. Adam stood in prayer before his Creator: 'Sovereign of the universe!' he said, 'the woman you gave me has run away.' At once, the Holy One, blessed be He, sent these three angels to bring her back.
"Said the Holy One to Adam, 'If she agrees to come back, fine. If not, she must permit one hundred of her children to die every day.' The angels left God and pursued Lilith, whom they overtook in the midst of the sea, in the mighty waters wherein the Egyptians were destined to drown. They told her God's word, but she did not wish to return. The angels said, 'We shall drown you in the sea.'
"'Leave me!' she said. 'I was created only to cause sickness to infants. If the infant is male, I have dominion over him for eight days after his birth, and if female, for twenty days.'
"When the angels heard Lilith's words, they insisted she go back. But she swore to them by the name of the living and eternal God: 'Whenever I see you or your names or your forms in an amulet, I will have no power over that infant.' She also agreed to have one hundred of her children die every day. Accordingly, every day one hundred demons perish, and for the same reason, we write the angels names on the amulets of young children. When Lilith sees their names, she remembers her oath, and the child recovers."

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参考文献[编辑]

引用[编辑]

来源[编辑]

  • Eisenstein, J.D., Alpha Beta Ben Sira, in: Otsar Midrashim vol. 1 (1915).
  • Steinschneider, Moritz Alphabeticum Syracidis, Berlin (1854).
  • Steinschneider, Moritz Alphabeticum Syracidis utrumque, cum expositione antiqua (narrationes et fabulas continente), Berlin (1858).
  • David Stern,, Mark Jay Mirsky (eds.), Rabbinic Fantasies : Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature, Yale Judaica Series (1998). ISBN 0-300-07402-6
  • Taylor, C., The Alphabet of Ben Sira, in: JQR 17 (1904/05) 238-239.
  • Taylor, C., The Alphabet of Ben Sira, in: Journal of Philology 30 (1907) 95-132.
  • Tobias Lachs, Samuel, The Alphabet of Ben Sira, Gratz College Annual of Jewish Studies 11 (1973), 9-28.

外部链接[编辑]