威權主義

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威權主義英語:Authoritarianism),又譯權威主義,指政府要求人民絕對服從其權威的原則,而不是個人的思想和行動自由。政府上的威權主義指權力集中於單一領袖或一小撮精英。威權領導者在行使權力時常不考慮現有法律而任意,公民也通常無法自由競爭的選舉來替換之。

不少打壓反對派政黨或其他替代政治團體與權力爭奪與統治集團的自由是有限或不存在的獨裁政權都是如此的威權政體權威政體Authoritarian regime)來說,有關於設立反對黨或其他政治組織不是有限不然就是根本不存在,威權主義因而站在民主的對立面[1]

在不同學術領域如新聞學行政學經濟學心理學管理學社會學,威權主義概念的中文專業用詞或有差異如獨裁主義集權主義集權制度專制主義權威性格威權性格英語Authoritarian personality[2]

定義與分類[編輯]

威權主義在本質上不一定和自由有先天的對立,而且包括的範圍非常之廣,但除了史達林主義外,通常卻表示對民主的敵意。

從古代的君主專制極權主義政體,都可以被稱為威權主義,而從一些專於研究納粹的人認為,同期的法西斯義大利日本法西斯主義史達林主義,都缺乏像納粹般完整的極權主義本質,但又有很多地方是相似的,一定都是威權主義政體。而且日本和義大利當時仍然是君主立憲制國家,所以可見其可變成和糊模性。

非極權的威權主義也異於極權主義,因為威權政府通常沒有高度發展的指導意識型態,在社會組織方面多元化,並且缺乏動員全國力量。[1]

當今的威權國家[編輯]

參見[編輯]

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Authoritarianism. Encyclopædia Britannica. 大英線上英文版. 2013. authoritarianism, principle of blind submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action. In government, authoritarianism denotes any political system that concentrates power in the hands of a leader or a small elite that is not constitutionally responsible to the body of the people. Authoritarian leaders often exercise power arbitrarily and without regard to existing bodies of law, and they usually cannot be replaced by citizens choosing freely among various competitors in elections. The freedom to create opposition political parties or other alternative political groupings with which to compete for power with the ruling group is either limited or nonexistent in authoritarian regimes 
  2. ^ 獨裁主義;權威主義 authoritarianism. 雙語詞彙資料庫 學術名詞資訊網 辭書資訊網. 國家教育研究院. 2012. 
  3. ^ Nebil Husayn, Authoritarianism in Bahrain: Motives, Methods and Challenges, AMSS 41st Annual Conference (September 29, 2012); Parliamentary Elections and Authoritarian Rule in Bahrain (January 13, 2011), Stanford University
  4. ^ Ming Xia, China Rises Companion: Political Governance, New York Times. See also Cheng Li, The End of the CCP’s Resilient Authoritarianism? A Tripartite Assessment of Shifting Power in China (September 2012), The China Quarterly, Vol. 211; Perry Link and Joshua Kurlantzick, China's Modern Authoritarianism (May 25, 2009), Wall Street Journal; Ariana Eunjung Cha, China, Cuba, Other Authoritarian Regimes Censor News From Iran (June 27, 2009), Washington Post.
  5. ^ Ariana Eunjung Cha, China, Cuba, Other Authoritarian Regimes Censor News From Iran (June 27, 2009), Washington Post; Shanthi Kalathil and Taylor Boas, Internet and State Control in Authoritarian Regimes: China, Cuba and the Counterrevolution (July 16, 2001), Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  6. ^ Amr Adly, The Economics of Egypt’s Rising Authoritarian Order, Carnegie Middle East Center, June 18, 2014; Nathan J. Brown & Katie Bentivoglio, Egypt's Resurgent Authoritarianism: It's a Way of Life, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, October 9, 2014.
  7. ^ Beckert, Jen. "Communitarianism." International Encyclopedia of Economic Sociology. London: Routledge, 2006. 81.
  8. ^ Nikolay Petrov and Michael McFaul, The Essence of Putin's Managed Democracy (October 18, 2005), Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Tom Parfitt, Billionaire tycoon Mikhail Prokhorov who is running in 4 March election says it is time for evolution not revolution (January 11, 2012), Guardian; Richard Denton, Russia's 'managed democracy' (May 11, 2006), BBC News.
  9. ^ The Myth of the Authoritarian Model - How Putin’s Crackdown Holds Russia Back (PDF). The Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford. 
  10. ^ Thomas Fuller, In Hard Times, Open Dissent and Repression Rise in Vietnam (April 23, 2013), New York Times