應急反應

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應急反應(英語:Fight-or-flight response,也直譯為打或逃反應)最初由沃爾特·布拉德福·坎農提出[1][2][3][4][5],他的理論認為動物面對威脅通常會激發交感神經系統,從而引發打鬥或逃跑。後來,這一反應被認為是脊椎動物以及其他生物應激反應的最初階段。

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ Some references say he first described the response in 1914 in The American Journal of Physiology. Others in the 1915 edition of Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage. Other sources say that he first used the term in 1929 or in 1932 edition of the same book. The issue needs further research.
  2. ^ Walter Bradford Cannon. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1929. 
  3. ^ H.S.Bracha; Ralston, TC; Matsukawa, JM; Williams, AE; Bracha, AS. Does "Fight or Flight" Need Updating?. Psychosomatics. 2004, 45 (5): 448–9 [2010-10-04]. PMID 15345792. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.45.5.448. Walter Cannon's original formulation of the term for the human response to threat, 'fight or flight,' was coined exactly 75 years ago, in 1929. [永久失效連結]
  4. ^ Shelley Elizabeth Taylor, LC Klein, BP Lewis. Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight (PDF). Psychological Review. [2010-10-04]. First described by Walter Cannon in 1932, the fight-or-flight response is characterized physiologically by sympathetic nervous system activation that innervates the adrenal medulla, producing a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially ... 
  5. ^ Walter Bradford Cannon. Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage: An Account of Recent Researches into the Function of Emotional Excitement. Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1915.