智庫

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智庫英語:Think Tank)又稱智囊團,大多以「研究所」或「學會」為名稱,是對政治商業軍事政策進行調查、分析研究與研發策略,並致力於將學術研究與策略影響落實為政府政策的機構,一般由政府政黨或商業公司出資組建,大部分的智庫是非營利組織,這種營運的型態在美國加拿大等國家可以免繳稅金,有些智庫藉由諮詢顧問與研究報告賺取佣金。優良的智庫應該全面、完整且深度介紹主題,並確保內容基於事實與內容正確性。[1][2]

依照費城賓夕法尼亞大學智庫與公民社會計畫統計,目前世界上有超過7,500個智庫,以下智庫的分類是以洲際大陸為最高層分類,再來是相對國家分類,並非完整的分類列表。[3][4]

簡介[編輯]

智庫的歷史可追溯至1831年在英國倫敦成立的「皇家聯合研究所」(Royal United Services Institute英語Royal United Services Institute)與1884年在英國成立的費邊社,皇家聯合研究所最初的研究方向為海戰和軍事理論,費邊社則是希望透過循序漸進的知識教育改革社會。美國最古老的智庫卡內基國際和平基金會在1910年由慈善家安德魯·卡內基成立於華盛頓哥倫比亞特區,基金會宗旨在於消除威脅文明的戰爭。1916年,布魯金斯學會美國華盛頓特區成立,該機構的宗旨為「促進美國的民主,促進美國的經濟發展、社會福利、社會安全和社會機遇,以及保證一個更加開放、安全、繁榮和合作的世界」[5]。 現今世界上大多數智庫位於已開發國家和地區,在冷戰結束之後,智庫的工作以研究全球化為主。

全球化造成智庫更進一步的蓬勃發展,包括非洲東歐中亞東南亞等地區,都有國際社群協助成立獨立的公共政策智庫,冷戰期間成立的智庫多著重在國際事務、安全研究、外交政策,現今三分之二以上的智庫成立於1970年代以後,超過半數的智庫在1980年代以後成立[6]

著名智庫[編輯]

歐美[編輯]

美國[編輯]

英國[編輯]

法國[編輯]

義大利[編輯]

德國[編輯]

俄羅斯[編輯]

澳洲[編輯]

亞洲[編輯]

台灣[編輯]

泰國[編輯]

日本[編輯]

中國[編輯]

延伸閱讀[編輯]

  • Abelson, Donald E. Do Think Tanks Matter? Assessing the Impact of Public Policy Institutes. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002.
  • Boucher, Stephen, et al, Europe and its think tanks; a promise to be fulfilled. An analysis of think tanks specialised in European policy issues in the enlarged European Union, Studies and Research No. 35, October, Paris, Notre Europe, 2004
  • Cockett, Richard, Thinking the unthinkable: think tanks and the economic counter revolution; 1931 - 1983, London: Fontana, 1995
  • Dickson, Paul. "Think Tanks". New York: Ballantine Books, 1972. 397 pages.
  • Goodman, John C. "What is a Think Tank?" National Center for Policy Analysis, 2005.[1]
  • Fan, Maureen. "Capital Brain Trust Puts Stamp on the World", Washington Post(2005-05-16): B01.[2]
  • Dixon, Patrick英語Patrick Dixon. Futurewise英語Futurewise - Six Faces of Global Change - issues covered by Think Tanks and methodology for reviewing trends, impact on policy 2003): Profile Books
  • Hellebust, Lynn and Kristen Hellebust, editors. Think Tank Directory英語Think Tank Directory:A Guide to Independent Nonprofit Public Policy Research Organizations. Topeka, Kansas: Government Research Service, 2006 (2nd edition).
  • {{tsl|en|George Lakoff|Lakoff, George]]. Moral Politics英語Moral Politics:What Conservatives Know That Liberals Don't. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
  • Ladi, Stella. Globalisation, Policy Transfer And Policy Research Institutes, Edward Elgar, 2005.
  • McGann, James. The International Survey of Think Tanks. Philadelphia: FPRI, 1999.
  • McGann, James. Think Tanks and Civil Societies: Catalyst for Ideas and Action. Co-edited with Kent B.Weaver. Transaction Publishers, 2000.
  • McGann, James. Comparative Think Tanks, Politics and Public Policy. Edward Elgar, 2005.
  • McGann, James. Think Tanks and Policy Advice in the U.S: Academics, Advisors and Advocates. London: Routledge, 2007.
  • McGann, James. Think Tanks: Catalysts for Democratization and Market Reform. Forthcoming.
  • McGann, James. Global Trends and Transitions: 2007 Survey of Think Tanks. Philadelphia: FPRI, 2008.
  • McGann, James. The Global Go To Think Tanks. Philadelphia: FPRI 2008.
  • Smith, James. A. The Idea Brokers: Think Tanks and the Rise of the New Policy Elite, New York: The Free Press, 1991.
  • Stone, Diane. Capturing the Political Imagination: Think Tanks and the Policy Process, London: Frank Cass, 1996
  • Stone, Diane. 『Garbage Cans, Recycling Bins or Think Tanks? Three Myths about Policy Institutes』,Public Administration, 85(2) 2007: 259-278
  • Stone, Diane, and Andrew Denham, eds. Think Tank Traditions: Policy Research and the Politics of Ideas. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.
  • Struyk, Raymond J. Managing Think Tanks: Practical Guidance for Maturing Organizations, Budapest, Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative Washington DC., Urban Institute 2002
  • UNDP – 聯合國開發計劃署. Thinking the Unthinkable, Bratislava, UNDP Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, 2003
  • T.W., Daniel Betekhtin What do think-tanks do? The Economist explains, The Economist, 2017-01-05[2]
  • 王琳, 百家全球智庫共論全球化挑戰與智庫創新, 中國網, (簡體中文), 2018年6月20日 (2018-06-20)

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ Diane Stone 'Think Tanks and Policy Analysis', in Frank Fischer, Gerald J. Miller. & Mara S. Sidney (eds.) Handbook of Public Policy Analysis: Theory, Methods, and Politics, New York, Marcel Dekker Inc. 2006: 149–157
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 T.W. What do think-tanks do?. The Economist. 2017-01-05 (英語). 
  3. ^ THINK TANKS AND CIVIL SOCIETIES PROGRAM : Copy of Record will be issued on 1/30/14 (PDF). Gtothinktank.com. [2016-07-29] (英語). 
  4. ^ James G. McGann. 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Speech. University of Pennsylvania. 2018-01 (英語). }
  5. ^ About Brookings 網際網路檔案館存檔,存檔日期2010-04-30. 布魯金斯學會
  6. ^ McGann, James. Think Tanks and the Transnationalization of Foreign Policy. Foreign Policy Research Institute. (原始內容存檔於29 June 2011). 
  7. ^ 2013全球智庫排名出爐 中國六家機構入圍前百位2014年01月22日

外部連結[編輯]